Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar/55. Less Common Conjugations
a Of the less common conjugations (§39g) some may be classed with Piʿēl, others with Hiphʿîl. To the former belong those which arise from the lengthening of the vowel or the repetition of one or even two radicals, in fact, from an internal modification or development of the stem; to the latter belong those which are formed by prefixing a consonant, like the ה of Hiphʿîl. Amongst the conjugations analogous to Piʿēl are included the passive forms distinguished by their vowels, as well as the reflexives with the prefix הִתְ, on the analogy of Hithpaʿēl.
b The following conjugations are related to Piʿēl, as regards their inflexion and partly in their meaning:
1. Pôʿēl קוֹטֵל, passive Pôʿal קוֹטַל, reflexive Hithpôʿēl הִתְקוֹטֵל, corresponding to the Arabic conj. iii. qâtălă, pass. qûtĭlă, and conj. vi. reflexive tăqâtălă; imperfect יְקוֹטֵל, participle מְקוֹטֵל, imperfect passive יְקוֹטַל &c. Hence it appears that in Hebrew the ô of the first syllable is in all the forms obscured from â, while the passive form is distinguished simply by the a-sound in the second syllable. In the strong verb these conjugations are rather rare. Examples: participle מְשֹֽׁפְטִי mine adversary, who would contend with me, Jb 915; טְלֽוֹשְׁנִי (denominative from לָשׁוֹן the tongue) slandering (as if intent on injuring with the tongue) ψ 1015 Keth. (The Qeré requires מְלָשְׁנִי melŏšnî as Na 13 וּגְדָול־); זֽׄרְמוּ they have poured out, ψ 7718 (if not rather Puʿal); יוֹדַ֫עְתִּי I have appointed, 1 S 213 (unless הוֹדַ֫עְתִּי should be read); יְסֹעֵר Ho 133; שֹׁרֵשׁ to take root, passive שׁוֹרַשׁ, denominative from שֹׁ֫רֶשׁ root (but שֵׁרֵשׁ to root out); in Hithpôʿēl הִתְגּֽׄעֲשׁוּ they shall be moved, Jer 2516; imperf. 468; from a verb ל״ה, שׁוֹשֵׂ֫תִי Is 1013. The participle מִנֹּאָץ Is 525 is probably a forma mixta combining the readings מְנֹאָץ and מִתְנֹאֵץ.
c Poʿel proper (as distinguished from the corresponding conjugations of verbs ע״ע §67l and ע״וּ §72m, which take the place of the ordinary causative Piʿēl) expresses an aim or endeavour to perform the action, especially with hostile intent, and is hence called, by Ewald, the stem expressing aim (Zielstamm), endeavour (Suche-stamm) or attack (Angriffs-stamm); cf. the examples given above from Jb 915, ψ 1015, and עוֹיֵן 1 S 189 Qerê (probably for מְעוֹיֵן, cf. §52s; §55f: seeking to cast an evil eye).
With קוֹטֵל is connected the formation of quadriliterals by the insertion of a consonant between the first and second radicals (§30p, § 56).
d 2. Paʿlēl, generally with the ă attenuated to ĭ=Piʿlēl (Piʿlal), קִטְלֵל and קִטְלַל; the ē in the final syllable also arises from ĭ, and this again from ă; passive Puʿlal קֻטְלַל, reflexive Hithpaʿlēl הִתְקַטְלֵל, like the Arabic conjugations ix. ʾiqtăllă and xi. ʾiqtâllă, the former used of permanent, the latter of accidental or changing conditions, e.g. of colours; cf. שַֽׁאֲנַן to be at rest, רַֽעֲנַן to be green, passive אֻמְלַל to be withered, all of them found only in the perfect and with no corresponding Qal form. (For the barbarous form צִמְּתֻת֫וּנִי ψ 8817 read צִמְתָֽתְנִי; for נִפְלַל Ez 2823, which has manifestly arisen only from confusion with the following חלל, read נָפַל). These forms are more common in verbs ע״וּ, where they take the place of Piʿēl and Hithpaʿēl (§72m). Cf. also §75kk.
e 3. Peʿalʿal: קְטַלְטַל with repetition of the last two radicals, used of movements repeated in quick succession; e.g. סְחַרְחַר to go about quickly, to palpitate (of the heart) ψ 3811, from סָחַר to go about; passive חֳמַרְמַר to be in a ferment, to be heated, to be red, Jb 1616, La 120, 211. Probably this is also the explanation of חֲצוֹצַר (denom. from חֲצֽוֹצְרָה a trumpet, but only in the participle, 1 Ch 1524 &c. Keth.) for חֲצַרְצַר, by absorption of the first ר, lengthening of ă in the open syllable, and subsequent obscuring of ā to ô. On the other hand, for the meaningless אָֽהֲבוּ הֵב֫וּ Ho 418 (which could only be referred to this conjugation if it stood for אֲהַבְהֲבוּ) read אָֽהֲבוּ, and for the equally meaningless יָפְיָפִ֫יתָ ψ 453 read יָפִ֫יתָ. In both these cases a scribal error (dittography) has been perpetuated by the punctuation, which did not venture to alter the Kethîbh. On the employment of Peʿalʿal in the formation of nouns, cf. §84bn. Closely related to this form is—
f 4. Pilpēl (pass. Pŏlpal), with a strengthening of the two essential radicals in stems ע״ע, ע״וּ, and ע״י, e.g. גִּלְגֵּל to roll, from גַּל=גָּלַל; reflexive הִתְגַּלְגֵּל to roll oneself down; כִּלְכֵּל from כּוּל, passive כָּלְכַּל; cf. also טֵאטֵא (so Baer and Ginsb. after Qimḥi; others טִאטֵא) Is 1423, and with ă in both syllables owing to the influence of ר, קַרְקַר from קוּר Nu 2417 (cf. however, in the parallel passage, Jer 4845 קָדְקֹד) and Is 225, in the participle; שִׂגְשֵׂג Is 1711 to hedge in, acc. to others make to grow. Probably to this form also belongs יְלַעְלְעוּ, the emended reading of Jb 3930 instead of the impossible יְעַלְעוּ; also סַאסְּאָה Is 278, if that form is to be referred to an infinitive סַאְסֵא; perhaps also שִׁשֵּׁא Ez 392 for שׁאשׁא. This form also commonly expresses rapidly repeated movement, which all languages incline to indicate by a repetition of the sound, e.g. צִפְצֵף to chirp; cf. in the Lexicon the nouns derived from גָּרַר, עוּף, and צָלַל.
g As Hithpalpel we find יִשְׁתַּקְשְׁקוּן Na 25; וַתִּתְחַלְחַל Est 44; וַיִּתְמַרְמַר Dn 87, 1111. Of the same form is אֶדַּדֶּה Is 3815, if contracted from אֶתְדַּוְדֶּה or אתדידה from the root דו or די), and also הִתְמַהְמְהוּ tarry ye, Is 299 (but read probably הִתַּמְּהוּ), וַיִּתְמַהְמָהּ (in pause) Gn 1916, &c., if it is to be derived from מָהַהּ, and not Hithpaʿel from מַהְמַהּ.
h Only examples more or less doubtful can be adduced of—
5. Tiphʿēl (properly Taphʿēl): תִּקְטֵל, with ת prefixed, cf. תִּרְגַּ֫לְתִּי to teach to walk, to lead (denominative from רֶ֫גֶל) Ho 113; from a stem ל״ה, the imperfect יְרַֽחֲרֶה to contend with, Jer 125; participle, 2215 (from חָרָה to be hot, eager). Similarly in Aramaic, תַּרְגֵּם to interpret, whence also in Hebrew the passive participle מְתֻרְגָּם Ezr 47.
i 6. Šaphʿēl: שַׁקְטֵל, frequent in Syriac, e.g. שַׁלְהֵב from להב to flame; whence in Hebrew שַׁלְהֶ֫בֶת flame. Perhaps of the same form is שַׁבְּלוּל a snail (unless it be from the stem שׁבל), and שְׁקַעֲרוּרֹת, cf. §85, No. 50. This conjugation is perhaps the original of Hiphʿîl, in which case the ה, by a phonetic change which may be exemplified elsewhere, is weakened from a sibilant.
k Forms of which only isolated examples occur are:—
8. קַטְקַל, in זַרְזִיף, from זָרַף.
9. נִתְקַטֵּל (regularly in Mishnic Hebrew) a form compounded of Niphʿal and Hithpaʿēl; as וְנִוַּסְּרוּ for וְנִתְוַסְּרוּ that they may be taught, Ez 2348; נִכַּפֵּר probably an error for הִתְכַּפֵּר, Dt 218. On נִשְׁתָּֽוָה Pr 2715, see §75x.
- Cf. Wolfensohn, ‘The Piʿlel in Hebrew,’ Amer. Journ. of Or. Studies, xxvii (1907), p. 303 ff.
- Cf. Lat. tinnio, tintinno, our tick-tack, ding-dong, and the German wirrwarr, klingklang. The repetition of the radical in verbs ע״ע also produces this effect; as in לָקַק to lick, דָּקַק to pound, טָפֵף. The same thing is expressed also by diminutive forms, as in Latin by the termination -illo, e.g. cantillo, in German by -eln, -ern, e.g. flimmern, trillern, tröpfeln, to trickle.
- The existence of a Taphʿēl is contested on good grounds by Barth, Nominalbildung, p. 279.
- [See Segal, Mišnaic Hebrew, Oxf. 1909, p. 30 ff.]