Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907

Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907

The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands. The First Hague Conference was held in 1899 and the Second Hague Conference in 1907. Along with the Geneva Conventions, the Hague Conventions were among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the body of secular international law. A third conference was planned for 1914 and later rescheduled for 1915, but it did not take place due to the start of World War I.Excerpted from Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Hague Convention of 1899Edit

  • (I): Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
  • (II): Convention with respect to the Laws and Customs of War on Land
  • (III): Convention for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention of 22 August 1864
  • (IV,1): Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons or by Other New Analogous Methods
  • (IV,2): Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Use of Projectiles with the Sole Object to Spread Asphyxiating Poisonous Gases
  • (IV,3): Declaration concerning the Prohibition of the Use of Bullets which can Easily Expand or Change their Form inside the Human Body such as Bullets with a Hard Covering which does not Completely Cover the Core, or containing Indentations

Hague Convention of 1907Edit

  • (I): Convention for the Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
This convention confirms and expands on Convention (I) of 1899. As of 2013, this convention is in force for 105 states,[1] and 115 states have ratified one or both of the 1907 Convention (I) and the 1899 Convention (I), which together are the founding documents of the Permanent Court of Arbitration.[2]
  • (II): Convention respecting the Limitation of the Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts.
  • (III): Convention relative to the Opening of Hostilities
This convention sets out the accepted procedure for a state making a declaration of war.
  • (IV): Convention respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land
This convention confirms, with minor modifications, the provisions of Convention (II) of 1899. All major powers ratified it.[3]
  • (V): Convention relative to the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in case of War on Land
  • (VI): Convention relative to the Legal Position of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Start of Hostilities
  • (VII): Convention relative to the Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-ships
  • (VIII): Convention relative to the Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines.
  • (IX): Convention concerning Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War.
  • (X): Convention for the Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Convention (of 6 July 1906)
This convention updated Convention (III) of 1899 to reflect the amendments that had been made to the 1864 Geneva Convention. Convention (X) was ratified by all major states except the United Kingdom.[4]
  • (XI): Convention relative to Certain Restrictions with regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War
  • (XII): Convention relative to the Establishment of an International Prize Court
This convention would have established the International Prize Court for the resolution of conflicting claims relating to captured ships during wartime. It is the one convention that never came into force. It was ratified only by Nicaragua.[5]
  • (XIII): Convention concerning the Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War
  • (XIV): Declaration Prohibiting the Discharge of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
This declaration extended the provisions of Declaration (IV,1) of 1899 to the close of the planned Third Peace Conference (which never took place). Among the major powers, this was ratified only by China, United Kingdom, and the United States.[6]

ReferencesEdit