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History of the Literature of Ancient Greece (Müller) 2ed

 

LIBRARY OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.

 

 

HISTORY

OF THE

LITERATURE OF ANCIENT GREECE,

TO THE

PERIOD OF ISOCRATES.

 

TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN MS. OF

K. O. MÜLLER,
PROFESSOR IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GOTTINGEN,


By GEORGE CORNWALL LEWIS, Esq.


NEW EDITION, CORRECTED.

 

PUBLISHED UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF
THE SOCIETY FOR THE DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE.


 

LONDON:—ROBERT BALDWIN,
47, PATERNOSTER ROW.


1847.

 

 

LONDON:
GEORGE WOODFALL AND SON,

ANGEL COURT, SKINNER STREET.

 

 

THE TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.




The following History of Greek Literature has been composed by Professor K. O. Müller of Gottingen, at the suggestion of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, and for its exclusive use. The work has been written in German, and has been translated under the superintendence of the Society, but the German text has never been published, so that the present translation appears as an original work.

Before the publication of the present work, no history of Greek Literature had been published in the English language. The Society thought that, since the Greek Literature is the source from which the literature of the civilized world almost exclusively derives its origin; and since it still contains the finest productions of the human mind in poetry, history, oratory, and philosophy; a history of Greek Literature would be properly introduced into the series of works published under their superintendence. The present work is intended to be within the compass of the general reader; but at the same time to be useful to scholars, and particularly to persons commencing or pursuing the study of the Greek authors. Agreeably with this view, the chief original authorities for the statements in the text are mentioned in the notes: but few references have been given to the works of modern critics, either foreign or native.

The translation has been executed in correspondence with the author, who has read and approved of the larger part of it.

 

 

CONTENTS.

 

 
PAGE
Introduction—Subject and Purposes of the Work 1
 
FIRST PERIOD OF GREEK LITERATURE.
 
CHAPTER I.
THE RACES AND LANGUAGE OF THE GREEKS.
 
§ 1. General account of the languages of the Indo-Teutonic family 3
§ 2. Origin and formation of the Indo-Teutonic languages—multiplicity of their grammatical forms 4
§ 3. Characteristics of the Greek language, as compared with the other languages of the Indo-Teutonic family 6
§ 4. Variety of forms, inflexions, and dialects in the Greek language 7
§ 5. The tribes of Greece, and their several dialects—characteristics of each dialect 8
 
CHAPTER II.
THE RELIGION OF THE GREEKS.
 
§ 1. The earliest form of the Greek religion not portrayed in the Homeric poems 11
§ 2. The Olympic deities, as described by Homer 12
§ 3. Earlier form of worship in Greece directed to the outward objects of Nature ib.
§ 4. Character and attributes of the several Greek deities, as personifications of the powers and objects of Nature 13
§ 5. Subsequent modification of these ideas, as displayed in the Homeric description of the same deities 15
 
CHAPTER III.
EARLIEST POPULAR SONGS.
 
§ 1. First efforts of Greek poetry. Plaintive songs of husbandmen 16
§ 2. Description of several of these songs, viz. the Linus 17
§ 3. The Ialemus, the Scephrus, the Lityerses, the Bormus, the Maneros, and the laments for Hylas and Adonis 18
§ 4. The Pæan, its origin and character 19
§ 5. The Threnos, or lament for the dead, and the Hymenæos, or bridal song 20
§ 6. Origin and character of the chorus 22
§ 7. Ancient poets who composed sacred hymns, divided into three classes, viz. those connected, i. With the worship of Apollo; ii. With the worship of Demeter and Dionysus; and iii. With the Phrygian worship of the mother of the Gods, of the Corybantes, &c. 24
§ 8. Explanation of the Thracian origin of several of the early Greek poets 25
§ 9. Influence of the early Thracian or Pierian poets on the epic poetry of Homer 28
 
CHAPTER IV.
ORIGIN OF THE EPIC POETRY.
 
§ 1. Social position of the minstrels or poets in the heroic age 29
§ 2. Epic poems sung at the feasts of princes and nobles, and at public festivals 30
§ 3. Manner of reciting epic poems, explanation of rhapsodists and rhapsodising 32
§ 4. Metrical form, and poetical character of the epic poetry 35
§ 5. Perpetuation of the early epic poems by memory and not by writing 37
§ 6. Subjects and extent of the ante-Homeric epic poetry 39
 
CHAPTER V.
HOMER.
 
§ 1. Opinions on the birth-place and country of Homer 41
§ 2. Homer probably a Smyrnæan: early history of Smyrna 42
§ 3. Union of Æolian and Ionian characteristics in Homer 44
§ 4. Novelty of Homer's choice of subjects for his two poems 47
§ 5. Subject of the Iliad: the anger of Achilles 48
§ 6. Enlargement of the subject by introducing the events of the entire war 50
§ 7. And by dwelling on the exploits of the Grecian heroes 52
§ 8. Change of tone in the Iliad in its progress 53
§ 9. The Catalogue of Ships 54
§ 10. The later books, and the conclusion of the Iliad 56
§ 11. Subject of the Odyssey: the return of Ulysses 57
§ 12. Interpolations in the Odyssey 60
§ 13. The Odyssey posterior to the Iliad; but both poems composed by the same person ib.
§ 14. Preservation of the Homeric poems by rhapsodists, and manner of their recitation 62
 
CHAPTER VI.
THE CYCLIC POETS.
 
§ 1. General character of the Cyclic poems 64
§ 2. The Destruction of Troy and Æthiopis of Arctinus of Miletus 65
§ 3. The little Iliad of Lesches 66
§ 4. The Cypria of Stasinus 68
§ 5. The Nostoi of Agias of Troezen 69
§ 6. The Telegonia of Eugammon of Cyrene 70
§ 7. Poems on the War against Thebes ib.
 
CHAPTER VII.
THE HOMERIC HYMNS.
 
§ 1. General character of the Homeric Hymns, or Proœmia 72
§ 2. Occasions on which they were sung: Poets by whom, and times at which, they were composed 73
§ 3. Hymn to the Delian Apollo 74
§ 4. Hymn to the Pythian Apollo 75
§ 5. Hymn to Hermes ib.
§ 6. Hymn to Aphrodite 76
§ 7. Hymn to Demeter ib.
 
CHAPTER VIII.
HESIOD.
 
§ 1. Circumstances of Hesiod's Life, and general character of his Poetry 77
§ 2. The Works and Days, the Poem on Divination, and the Lessons of Chiron 82
§ 3. The Theogony 87
§ 4. The Great Eoiæ, the Catalogues of Women, the Melampodia, the Ægimius 95
§ 5. The Marriage of Ceyx, the Epithalamium of Peleus and Thetis, the Descent of Theseus and Pirithous into Hell, the Shield of Hercules 98
 
CHAPTER IX.
OTHER EPIC POETS.
 
§ 1. General character of other Epic Poets 100
§ 2. Cinæthon of Lacedæmon, Eumelus of Corinth, Asius of Samos, Chersias of Orchumenus ib.
§ 3. Epic Poems on Hercules; the Taking of Œchalia; the Heraclea of Peisander of Rhodes 102
 
CHAPTER X.
THE ELEGY AND THE EPIGRAM.
 
§ 1. Exclusive prevalence of Epic Poetry, in connexion with the monarchical period; influence of the change in the forms of Government upon Poetry 104
§ 2. Elegeion, its meaning; origin of Elegos; plaintive songs of Asia Minor, accompanied by the flute; mode of Recitation of the Elegy 105
§ 3. Metre of the Elegy 106
§ 4. Political and military tendency of the Elegy as composed by Callinus; the circumstances of his time ib.
§ 5. Tyrtæus, his Life; occasion and subject of his Elegy of Eunomia 110
§ 6. Character and mode of recitation of the Elegies of Tyrtæus 112
§ 7. Elegies of Archilochus, their reference to Banquets; mixture of convivial jollity (Asius) ib.
§ 8. Plaintive Elegies of Archilochus 114
§ 9. Mimnermus; his Elegies; the expression of the impaired strength of the Ionic nation ib.
§ 10. Luxury, a consolation in this state; the Nanno of Mimnermus 116
§ 11. Solon's character; his Elegy of Salamis 117
§ 12. Elegies before and after Solon's Legislation; the expression of his political feeling; mixture of Gnomic Passages (Phocylides) 118
§ 13. Elegies of Theognis; their original character 120
§ 14. Their origin in the political Revolutions of Megara ib.
§ 15. Their personal reference to the Friends of Theognis 122
§ 16. Elegies of Xenophanes; their philosophical tendency 124
§ 17. Elegies of Simonides on the Victories of the Persian War; tender and pathetic spirit of his Poetry; general view of the course of Elegiac Poetry 125
§ 18. Epigrams in elegiac form; their Object and Character; Simonides, as a Composer of Epigrams 126
 
CHAPTER XI.
IAMBIC POETRY.
 
§ 1. Striking contrast of the Iambic and other contemporaneous Poetry 128
§ 2. Poetry in reference to the bad and the vulgar 129
§ 3. Different treatment of it in Homer and Hesiod 130
§ 4. Homeric Comic Poems, Margites, &c. 131
§ 5. Scurrilous songs at meals, at the worship of Demeter; the Festival of Demeter of Paros, the cradle of the Iambic poetry of Archilochus 132
§ 6. Date and Public Life of Archilochus 133
§ 7. His Private Life; subject of his Iambics 134
§ 8. Metrical form of his iambic and trochaic verses, and different application of the two asynartetes; epodes 135
§ 9. Inventions and innovations in the musical recitation 138
§ 10. Innovations in Language 139
§ 11. Simonides of Amorgus; his Satirical Poem against Women 140
§ 12. Solon's iambics and trochaics ib.
§ 13. Iambic Poems of Hipponax; invention of choliambics; Ananias 141
§ 14. The Fable; its application among the Greeks, especially in Iambic poetry 143
§ 15. Kinds of the Fable, named after different races and cities 144
§ 16. Æsop, his Life, and the Character of his Fables 145
§ 17. Parody, burlesques in an epic form, by Hipponax 146
§ 18. Batrachomyomachia 147
 
CHAPTER XII.
PROGRESS OF THE GREEK MUSIC.
 
§ 1. Transition from the Epos, through the Elegy and Iambus, to Lyric Poetry; connexion of Lyric Poetry with Music 148
§ 2. Founders of Greek Music; Terpander, his descent and date 149
§ 3. Terpander's invention of the seven-stringed Cithara 151
§ 4. Musical scales and styles 152
§ 5. Nomes of Terpander for singing to the Cithara; their rhythmical form 154
§ 6. Olympus, descended from an ancient Phrygian family of flute-players 156
§ 7. His influence upon the development of the music of the flute and rhythm among the Greeks ib.
§ 8. His influence confined to music 158
§ 9. Thaletas, his age 159
§ 10. His connexion with ancient Cretan worships. Pæns and hyporchemes of Thaletas 160
§ 11. Musicians of the succeeding period—Clonas, Hierax, Xenodamus, Xenocritus, Polymnestus, Sacadas 161
§ 12. State of Greek Music at this period 163
 
CHAPTER XIII.
THE ÆOLIC SCHOOL OF LYRIC POETRY.
 
§ 1. Difference between the Lyric Poetry of the Æolians, and the Choral Lyric Poetry of the Dorians 164
§ 2. Life and Political Acts of Alcæus 166
§ 3. Their connexion with his Poetry 167
§ 4. The other subjects of his Poems 168
§ 5. Their metrical form 170
§ 6. Life and moral character of Sappho 172
§ 7. Her Erotic Poetry to Phaon 174
§ 8. Poems of Sappho to women 176
§ 9. Hymenæals of Sappho 178
§ 10. Followers of Sappho, Damophila, Erinna 179
§ 11. Life of Anacreon 180
§ 12. His Poems to the youths at the Court of Polycrates 182
§ 13. His Love-songs to Hetæræ 183
§ 14. Character of his versification 185
§ 15. Comparison of the later Anacreontics 186
§ 16. Scolia; occasions on which they were sung, and their subjects 187
§ 17. Scolia of Hybrias and Callistratus 189
 
CHAPTER XIV.
CHORAL LYRIC POETRY.
 
§ 1. Connexion of lyric poetry with choral songs gradual rise of regular forms from this connexion 190
First stage.—§ 2. Alcman; his origin and date; mode of recitation and form of his choral songs 193
§ 3. Their poetical character 196
§ 4. Stesichorus; hereditary transmission of his poetical taste; his reformation of the chorus 197
§ 5. Subjects and character of his poetry 199
§ 6. Erotic and bucolic poetry of Stesichorus 202
§ 7. Arion. The dithyramb raised to a regular choral song 203
Second stage.—§ 8. Life of Ibycus; his imitation of Stesichorus 205
§ 9. Erotic tendency of his poetry 206
§ 10. Life of Simonides 207
§ 11. Variety and ingenuity of his poetical powers. Comparison of his Epinikia with those of Pindar 209
§ 12. Characteristics of his style 212
§ 13. Lyric poetry of Bacchylides, imitated from that of Simonides 213
§ 14. Parties among the lyric poets; rivalry of Lasus, Timocreon, and Pindar with Simonides 214
 
CHAPTER XV.
PINDAR.
 
§ 1. Pindar's descent; his early training in poetry and music 216
§ 2. Exercise of his art; his independent position with respect to the Greek princes and republics 218
§ 3. Kinds of poetry cultivated by him 220
§ 4. His Epinikia; their origin and objects 222
§ 5. Their two main elements; general remarks, and mythical narrations 224
§ 6. Connexion of these two elements; peculiarities of the structure of Pindar's odes 226
§ 7. Variety of tone in his odes, according to the different musical styles 227
 
CHAPTER XVI.
THEOLOGICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL POETRY.
 
§ 1. Moral improvement of Greek poetry after Homer especially evident in the notions as to the state of man after death 229
§ 2. Influence of the mysteries and of the Orphic doctrines on these notions 230
§ 3. First traces of Orphic ideas in Hesiod and other epic poets 232
§ 4. Sacerdotal enthusiasts in the age of the Seven Sages; Epimenides, Abaris, Aristeas, and Pherecydes 233
§ 5. An Orphic literature arises after the destruction of the Pythagorean league 235
§ 6. Subjects of the Orphic poetry; at first cosmogonic 235
§ 7. afterwards prophetic, in reference to Dionysus 237
 
CHAPTER XVII.
THE EARLY GREEK PHILOSOPHERS.
 
§ 1. Opposition of philosophy and poetry among the Greeks; causes of the introduction of prose writings 238
§ 2. The Ionians give the main impulse; tendency of philosophical speculation among the Ionians 240
§ 3. Retrospect of the theological speculations of Pherecydes ib.
§ 4. Thales; he combines practical talents with bold ideas concerning the nature of things 241
§ 5. Anaximander, a writer and inquirer on the nature of things 242
§ 6. Anaximenes pursues the physical inquiries of his predecessors 243
§ 7. Heraclitus; profound character of his natural philosophy 244
§ 8. Changes introduced by Anaxagoras; new direction of the physical speculations of the Ionians 246
§ 9. Diogenes continues the early doctrine. Archelaus, an Anaxagorean, carries the Ionic philosophy to Athens 248
§ 10. Doctrines of the Eleatics, founded by Xenophanes; their enthusiastic character is expressed in a poetic form 249
§ 11. Parmenides gives a logical form to the doctrines of Xenophanes; plan of his poem 251
§ 12. Further development of the Eleatic doctrine by Melissus and Zeno 252
§ 13. Empedocles, akin to Anaxagoras and the Eleatics, but conceives lofty ideas of his own 253
§ 14. Italic school; receives its impulse from an Ionian, which is modified by the Doric character of the inhabitants. Coincidence of its practical tendency with its philosophical principle 255
 
CHAPTER XVIII.
THE EARLY GREEK HISTORIANS.
 
§ 1. High antiquity of history in Asia; causes of its comparative lateness among the Greeks 258
§ 2. Origin of history among the Greeks. The Ionians, particularly the Milesians, took the lead 260
§ 3. Mythological historians; Cadmus, Acusilaus 261
§ 4. Extensive geographical knowledge of Hecatæus; his freer treatment of native traditions ib.
§ 5. Pherecydes; his genealogical arrangement of traditions and history 263
§ 6. Charon; his chronicles of general and special history ib.
§ 7. Hellanicus; a learned inquirer into mythical and true history. Beginning of chronological researches 264
§ 8. Xanthus, an acute observer. Dionysius of Miletus, the historian of the Persian wars ib.
§ 9. General remarks on the composition and style of the logographers 265
 
CHAPTER XIX.
HERODOTUS.
 
§ 1. Events of the life of Herodotus 266
§ 2. His travels 267
§ 3. Gradual formation of his work 268
§ 4. Its plan 269
§ 5. Its leading ideas 271
§ 6. Defects and excellencies of his historical researches 272
§ 7. Style of his narrative; character of his language 273




SECOND PERIOD OF GREEK LITERATURE.


CHAPTER XX.
LITERARY PREDOMINANCE OF ATHENS.
 
§ 1. Early formation of a national literature in Greece 275
§ 2. Athens subsequently takes the lead in literature and art. Her fitness for this purpose ib.
§ 3. Concurrence of the political circumstances of Athens to the same end. Solon. The Pisistratids 277
§ 4. Great increase in the power of Athens after the Persian war 279
§ 5. Administration and policy of Pericles, particularly with respect to art and literature 280
§ 6. Seeds of degeneracy in the Athenian Commonwealth at its most flourishing period 282
§ 7. Causes and modes of the degeneracy 283
§ 8. Literature and art were not affected by the causes of moral degeneracy 285
 
CHAPTER XXI.
ORIGIN OF THE GREEK DRAMA.
 
§ 1. Causes of dramatic poetry in Greece 285
§ 2. The invention of dramatic poetry peculiar to Greece 287
§ 3. Origin of the Greek drama from the worship of Bacchus ib.
§ 4. Earliest, or Doric form of tragedy, a choral or dithyrambic song in the worship of Bacchus 289
§ 5. Connexion of the early tragedy with a chorus of satyrs 290
§ 6. Improvement of tragedy at Athens by Thespis 292
§ 7. By Phrynichus 293
§ 8. And by Chœrilus. Cultivation of the satyric drama by the latter 294
§ 9. The satyric drama completely separated from tragedy by Pratinas 295
 
CHAPTER XXII.
FORM AND CHARACTER OF THE GREEK TRAGEDY.
 
§ 1. Ideal character of the Greek tragedy; splendid costume of the actors 296
§ 2. Cothurnus; masks 297
§ 3. Structure of the theatre 298
§ 4. Arrangement of the orchestra in connexion with the form and position of the chorus 299
§ 5. Form of the stage, and its meaning in tragedy 300
§ 6. Meaning of the entrances of the stage 302
§ 7. The actors; limitation of their number 303
§ 8. Meaning of the protagonist, deuteragonist, tritagonist 305
§ 9. The changes of the scene inconsiderable; ancient tragedy not being a picture of outward acts 307
§ 10. Eccyclema 309
§ 11. Composition of the drama from various parts; songs of the entire chorus 310
§ 12. Division of a tragedy by the choral songs 312
§ 13. Songs of single persons, of the chorus, and of the actors ib.
§ 14. Parts of the drama intermediate between song and speech 315
§ 15. Speech of the actors; arrangement of the dialogue and its metrical form 316
 
CHAPTER XXIII.
ÆSCHYLUS.
 
§ 1. Life of Æschylus 317
§ 2. Number of his tragedies, and their distribution into trilogies 319
§ 3. Outline of his tragedies; the Persians 320
§ 4. The Phineus and the Glaucus Pontius 321
§ 5. The Ætnæan women 322
§ 6. The Seven against Thebes 323
§ 7. The Eleusiniaus 324
§ 8. The Suppliants; the Egyptians 325
§ 9. The Prometheus bound 327
§ 10. The Prometheus unbound 329
§ 11. The Agamemnon 331
§ 12. The Choephorœ 332
§ 13. The Eumenides, and the Proteus 333
§ 14. General characteristics of the poetry of Æschylus 335
§ 15. His latter years and death 336
 
CHAPTER XXIV.
SOPHOCLES.
 
§ 1. Condition in which tragic poetry came into the hands of Sophocles. His first appearance 338
§ 2. Subsequent events of his life; his devotion to the drama 338
§ 3. Epochs in the poetry of Sophocles 340
§ 4. Thorough change in the form of tragedy 341
§ 5. Outline of his plays; the Antigone 342
§ 6. The Electra 344
§ 7. The Trachinian Women 346
§ 8. King Œdipus ib.
§ 9. The Ajax 348
§ 10. The Philoctetes 350
§ 11, 12. The Œdipus at Colonus, in connexion with the character and conduct of Sophocles in his latter years 351
§ 13. The style of Sophocles 355
 
CHAPTER XXV.
EURIPIDES.
 
§ 1. Difference between Sophocles and Euripides. The latter essentially speculative. Tragedy, a subject ill-suited for his genius 357
§ 2. Intrusion of tragedy into the interests of the private 359
§ 3. And public life of the time 360
§ 4. Alterations in the plan of tragedy introduced by Euripides. Prologue 362
§ 5. And Deus ex machina 363
§ 6. Comparative insignificance of the chorus. Prevalence of monodies 364
§ 7. Style of Euripides 366
§ 8. Outline of his plays: the Alcestis ib.
§ 9. The Medea 367
§ 10. The Hippolytus 368
§ 11. The Hecuba 369
§ 12. Epochs in the mode of treating his subject: the Heracleidæ 370
§ 13. The Suppliants 371
§ 14. The Ion ib.
§ 15. The raging Heracles 372
§ 16. The Andromache 373
§ 17. The Trojan Women ib.
§ 18. The Electra 374
§ 19. The Helena 375
§ 20. The Iphigenia at Tauri 376
§ 21. The Orestes 377
§ 22. The Phœnician Women ib.
§ 23. The Bacchanalians 378
§ 24. The Iphigenia at Aulis 379
§ 25. Lost pieces: the Cyclops 380
 
CHAPTER XXVI.
THE OTHER TRAGIC POETS.
 
§ 1. Inferiority of the other tragic poets 381
§ 2. Contemporaries of Sophocles and Euripides: Neophron, Ion, Aristarchus, Achæus, Carcinus, Xenocles 382
§ 3. Tragedians somewhat more recent: Agathon; the anonymous son of Cleomachus. Tragedy grows effeminate 383
§ 4. Men of education employ tragedy as a vehicle of their opinions on the social relations of the age 384
§ 5. The families of the great tragedians: the Æschyleans, Sophocleans, and the younger Euripides 385
§ 6. Influence of other branches of literature; tragedy is treated by Chæremon in the spirit of lax and effeminate lyric poetry 386
§ 7. Tragedy is subordinated to rhetoric in the dramas of Theodectes 387
 
CHAPTER XXVII.
 
§ 1. The comic element in Greek poetry due to the worship of Bacchus 391
§ 2. Also connected with the Comus at the lesser Dionysia: Phallic Songs 393
§ 3. Beginnings of dramatic comedy at Megara, Susarion, Chionides, &c. 395
§ 4. The perfectors of the old Attic comedy 397
§ 5. The structure of comedy. What it has in common with tragedy 398
§ 6. Peculiar arrangement of the chorus; Parabasis 400
§ 7. Dances, metres, and style 402
 
CHAPTER XXVIII.
 
§ 1. Events of the life of Aristophanes; the mode of his first appearance 405
§ 2. His dramas; the Dætaleis; the Babylonians 406
§ 3. The Acharnians analyzed 408
§ 4. The Knights 412
§ 5. The Clouds 415
§ 6. The Wasps 419
§ 7. The Peace 420
§ 8. The Birds 420
§ 9. The Lysistrata, Thesmophoriazusæ 423
§ 10. The Frogs 425
§ 11. The Ecclesiazusæ; the second Plutus. Transition to the middle comedy 426
 
CHAPTER XXIX.
 
§ 1. Characteristics of Cratinus 428
§ 2. Eupolis 430
§ 3. Peculiar tendencies of Crates; his connexion with Sicilian comedy 431
§ 4. Sicilian comedy originates in the Doric farces of Megara 432
§ 5. Events in the life of Epicharmus; general tendency and nature of his comedy 433
§ 6. The middle Attic comedy: poets of this class akin to those of the Sicilian comedy in many of their pieces 436
§ 7. Poets of the new comedy the immediate successors of those of the middle comedy. How the new comedy becomes naturalized at Rome 438
§ 8. Public morality at Athens at the time of the new comedy 440
§ 9. Character of the new comedy in connexion therewith 443
 
CHAPTER XXX.
 
§ 1. The Dithyramb becomes the chief form of Athenian lyric poetry. Lasus of Hermione 446
§ 2. New style of the Dithyramb introduced by Melanippides, Philoxenus, Cinesias, Phrynis, Timotheus, Polyeidus 447
§ 3. Mode of producing the new Dithyramb: its contents and character 450
§ 4. Reflective lyric poetry 452
§ 5. Social and political elegies. The Lyde of Antimachus essentially different from these 452
§ 6. Epic poetry, Panyasis, Chœrilus, Antimachus 454
 
CHAPTER XXXI.
 
§ 1. Importance of prose at this period 456
§ 2. Oratory at Athens rendered necessary by the democratical form of government 456
§ 3. Themistocles; Pericles: power of their oratory 458
§ 4. Characteristics of their oratory in relation to their opinions and modes of thought 459
§ 5. Form and style of their speeches 460
 
CHAPTER XXXII.
 
§ 1. Profession of the Sophists; essential elements of their doctrines. The principle of Protagoras 462
§ 2. Opinions of Gorgias. Pernicious effects of his doctrines, especially as they were carried out by his disciples 463
§ 3. Important services of the Sophists in forming a prose style: different tendencies of the Sicilian and other Sophists in this respect 465
§ 4. The rhetoric of Gorgias 466
§ 5. His forms of expression 467
 
CHAPTER XXXIII.
 
§ 1. Antiphon's career and employments 469
§ 2. His school exercises, the Tetralogies 471
§ 3. His speeches before the courts; character of his oratory 472
§ 4, 5. More particular examination of his style 474
§ 6. Andocides; his life and character 477
 
CHAPTER XXXIV.
 
§ 1. The life of Thucydides: his training that of the age of Pericles 479
§ 2. His new method of teaching history 481
§ 3. The consequent distribution and arrangement of his materials, as well in his whole work as 482
§ 4. In the Introduction 483
§ 5. His mode of treating these materials ; his research and criticism 485
§ 6. Accuracy and, 486
§ 7. Intellectual character of his history 487
§ 8, 9. The speeches considered as the soul of his history 488
§ 10, 11. His mode of expression and the structure of his sentences 491
 
CHAPTER XXXV.
 
§ 1. Events which followed the Peloponnesian War. The adventures of Lysias. Leading epochs of his life 495
§ 2. The earliest sophistical rhetoric of Lysias 497
§ 3. The style of this rhetoric preserved in his later panegyrical speeches 499
§ 4. Change in the oratory of Lysias produced by his own impulses and by his employment as a writer of speeches for private individuals 500
§ 5. Analysis of his speech against Agoratas 501
§ 6. General view of his extant orations 503
 
CHAPTER XXXVI.
 
§ 1. Early training of Isocrates; but slightly influenced by Socrates 504
§ 2. School of Isocrates; its great repute; his attempts to influence the politics of the day without thoroughly understanding them 505
§ 3. The form of a speech the principal matter in his judgment 507
§ 4. New development which he gave to prose composition 508
§ 5. His structure of periods 509
§ 6. Smoothness and evenness of his style 511
§ 7. He prefers the panegyrical oratory to the forensic 512
 

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