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Life and select literary remains of Sam Houston of Texas

Portrait of Sam Houston, by J. C. Buttre, 1858.jpg



LIFE


AND


SELECT LITERARY REMAINS


OF


SAM HOUSTON,

OF TEXAS.


TWO VOLS. IN ONE


BY

WILLIAM CAREY CRANE, D.D., LL.D.,

President qf the Baylor University, Independence, Texas.



PHILADELPHIA:

J. B. LIPPINCOTT COMPANY.

1884



COPYRIGHT SECURED, 1884. BY

Wm. Carey Crane.


PREFACE.

 

 

IN the year 1865, Mrs. Margaret Moffette Lea Houston (widow of Gen. Sam Houston), with whom I had become acquainted at Marion, Ala., in August, 1839, when she was Miss Lea, requested me to undertake to write the life and edit and publish the literary remains of her husband. I did not then feel competent to the task, especially as I had only seen the General twice in my life, once at the President's house in 1846, and again on the floor of the U. S. Senate in 1852; on both occasions while I was with our mutual friend, Hon. Stephen Adams, M. C. from Mississippi. With reluctance I consented, in the belief that the parties to whom she referred me for aid and information would give me their assistance. None of these parties have, to this day, given me any aid, except two; to whom due credit has been given in this work. All counselled delay. An extract from one of the gentlemen named as my counsellor and assistant, will account in some measure for delay. It is dated March 23, 1866: "It does not seem to me that there is any pressing urgency to present the Life and Labors of Gen. Houston to the world. It is true that they will possess a paramount interest so long as the Republic, or State, or Country of Texas, whichever it may be, shall possess an interest for men; yet even in this view there is an advantage in bringing out a book in an opportune time. At the present time every mind that thinks is powerfully, often painfully preoccupied with the strange, anomalous, grave condition of our affairs, with the uncertainty of our future and of that of the gigantic Government of the United States." The writer of the letter from which this extract is taken referred me to my old schoolmate and fellow-townsman in Richmond, Va., Major James W. Scott, of Houston, and Washington D. Miller, Esq., the admirable private secretary of Gen. Houston. Both of these gentlemen have passed away; but each did all he could to put me in possession of needed information.

From Mrs. Houston I had one positive injunction; which was, to have at least one chapter setting forth Gen. Houston's religious character; which I have given. I have consulted the following authorities:

1. "Private Records of Sam Houston's Administration of the Presidency of the Republic, from 1841 to 1844." A most important written volume, the most valuable of Houston's literary remains.

2. C. Edwards Lester's "Houston and his Republic."

3. Hon. Ashbel Smith's "Reminiscences of the Texas Republic."

4. Col. V. O. King's "Battle of San Jacinto viewed from American and Mexican Stand-points."

5. Articles in "Texas Almanac "of 1859, viz.: (i) "Compendium of Early History of Texas." (2) Gen. Sam Houston. (3) Life of Stephen F. Austin. (4) Life of Gen. Edward Burleson. (5) Dr. N. D. Labadie's " San Jacinto Campaign and Texan Revolution."

6. Col. Alexander Horton's "Sketch of War of '36," Eastern Texan, San Augustine, Aug. i, 1857.

7. Letters of W. S. Taylor, Esq., and Gen. Sidney Sherman's Correspondence

8. Correspondence of W. M. Gilleland and R. J. Calder, Esqrs.

9. Correspondence of W. H. Dangerfield, Secretary of the Treasury, and Minister to France.

10. Rev. H. S. Thrall's "History of Texas."

11. Yoakum's "History of Texas."

12. Gen. Waddy Thompson's "Recollections of Mexico."

13. A large mass of letters, pamphlets, and newspapers.

I have been aided by the kind counsels of many gentlemen; especially by the Hon. Ashbel Smith, who prepared the very able chapter on the Finances of Texas during Houston's Presidencies and the Rev. Geo. W. Samson, D.D., now of New York City, who furnished the chapters on Houston's Congressional Career. Dr. Samson has furnished the main points of speeches which are not placed among the State papers; it would require a dozen volumes to publish every document. Major Moses Austin Bryan has aided me in important verbal statements. Prof. C. H. Wedemeyer and my son, Royston Campbell Crane, also have given very valuable aid. C. Edwards Lester, having written "Houston and his Republic," utider the same roof in Washington City with Gen. Houston, and Mrs. Houston having informed me that Gen. H. had told her that Lester's book was the only reliable account of him then written, I have taken his statements without question, and often used his language, although consulting and comparing all varied statements with his points of fact. While I have had the countenance and aid of all Gen. Houston's children, I am especially indebted to his son-in-law, W. L. Williams, Esq., and his lady, Mrs. Maggie Houston Williams, and also to Temple Houston, Esq. I am largely indebted to my lifelong friend. Dr. Samson, already alluded to, for assistance in this work indispensable to its success.

The truth, without fear, favor, or affection, has been the only aim in the preparation of this work. Little reference has been made to the Santa Fé Expedition. Gen. Houston's relation to it was mainly to save it from disaster. Let the people of Texas read this volume with the earnest desire to obtain a satisfactory history of the life, times, and labors of Sam Houston; which it is believed these pages will afford to the candid reader.

WM. CAREY CRANE.

Baylor University, Independence, Texas, Jan. 26, 1884.


PAGE

Early History of Texas before the Battle of San Jacinto — The Name — Spanish and French Efforts at Colonization — Moses Austin and his Colony of Three Hundred Families — Stephen F. Austin— Sam Houston

9

Parentage and Early Life — First Efforts in Education — His Boy-life among the Cherokee Indians

17

His Early Military Career — Common Soldier, Orderly-Sergeant, Ensign, Lieutenant — Battle of Tohopeka — Service under Gen. Coffee and Gen. Andrew Jackson

24

Studies Law — Admitted to the Bar — Letters of S. V. Drake and F. Golladay — District Attorney — Major-General — Member of Congress — Governor — First marriage — Reasons for Leaving his first Wife — Departure to the Indians

31

Life among the Indians — Wrongs done them — His condemnation of such Wrongs — His Difficulty with Hon. Mr. Stansbury, of Ohio— The Caning — Trial by House of Representatives and Courts of D. C.

39

Texas Struggling — Houston's first Visit to Texas — Letter to Gen. Jackson — Letter of John Van Fossen to Houston — The Convention at San Felipe de Austin — Efforts to form Texas into a Constitutional State of Mexico — Houston in the Convention — Austin, as a Messenger to Mexico — His III Success

46

Texas Triumphing — Struggles under Austin and Houston — Consultations and Collisions in Council — Houston appointed Commander-in-Chief — Commission Revoked — Grant's Effort to Capture Matamoras — Troubles connected with Gov. Henry Smith's Administration — Siege and Capture of San Antonio by Gen. Burleson — Declaration of Independence — Houston again appointed Commander-in-Chief

53

The Alamo — Goliad — The Fall of one, the Massacre of the other — Movements of Gen. Houston, before and after these Memorable Event — Movements Preparatory to the Battle of San Jacinto

62

Battle of San Jacinto — The Hero Chieftain and the Hero Soldiers — Gen. Houston's Report — Col. Robison's Report of Capture of Santa Anna — T. Houston's Address and Exercises at Unveiling of Memorial-Monument

77

Capture of Santa Anna— Statement of Joel W. Robison, Esq. — Introduction of Santa Anna to Houston — Conversation — Scene with Young Zavala — Almonte — Arrival of the Government ad interim — Houston Leaves the Army — Goes to New Orleans for Medical Aid — The Cabinet Treats with Santa Anna — Troubles — Extract from Hon. Ashbel Smith's Speech at Austin in 1879

99

Houston's Election to the Presidency — Departure of Santa Anna to Washington City — His Conduct — Sent to Vera Cruz in a U. S. War Vessel — Memorandum of Gen. Houston for Santa Anna

116

Recognition of Texan Independence — Close of Gen. Houston's First Term as President — Gen. Felix Huston — Efforts to Conciliate the Indians — Mirabeau B. Lamar elected President

124

The Succeeding Administration the Reverse of Houston's — Houston a Member of the Texan Congress — Santa Fe Expedition and its Result — War on the Indians — Letter to Anthony Butler — Estimate of the Patriotism and Public Virtues of M. B. Lamar and D. G. Burnet

133

Jen. Houston's Second Presidential Term — The Exchequer System of Finance — Annexation — Rumors of Invasion by Mexico — Veto of Bill to make him Dictator — The Excitement — Appeal to the Great Powers for Recognition of Independence

139

Impressions produced by the Appeal to Great Powers — Annexation — Correspondence with Hon. Mr. Van Zandt — Attitude of the United States, France, and England — Views and Positions of President Tyler

148

Secret Message to the Texan Congress on Annexation . . .

153

Close of Houston's Second Term as President — Resolutions of the Senate — Houston's Management of the Finances of Texas during his two Administrations, and his Admirable Success — A Review and Explanation of the System

156

Houston's Entrance into the U. S. House of Representatives, Dec, 1823 — His Contemporaries and the Questions of the Hour

166

Houston's Four Years in the House of Representatives, from 1823 to 1827

175

Houston's Entrance into the U. S. Senate, March, 1846 — Questions of the Day — Movements of interest

187

Houston in the U. S. Senate under President Polk, from March, 1846, to March 4, 1849

193

Houston in the Senate under the Whig Administration, from 1849 to 1853

203

Houston in the Senate under President Pierce, from 1853 to 1857

215

Houston in the Senate under President Buchanan, from March 4, 1857, till his Retirement, March 4, 1859

226

Career of Houston as Governor of Texas — State Measures — Want of Harmony between the Executive and the Legislature — Secession — His Deposition from the Gubernatorial Office

231

Closing Days — Resolutions of Texas House of Representatives — Speech of Hon. J, H, Banton, of Walker Co

236

Gen. Houston's Religious Life — Letter of Rev. Geo. W. Samson, D.D. — Statement of Rev. George W. Baines, Sr

240

Anecdotes — Interesting Letter of Gen. E. G. W. Butler

246

Domestic Life of Sam Houston — Mrs. Margaret Moffette Lea Houston — Poetry

253

General Estimate of Houston's Character

258



 

Texan Declaration of Independence March 2, 1836 — Names of Signers.

263
 

 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

 

 

Youthful Portrait

Frontispiece, Vol. I.

Letter of Jackson

To face page 42

Santa Anna's Advance to San Jacinto

To face page 70

Battle-Field of San Jacinto

To face page 80

Memorial (memorandum for) to Santa Anna

To face page 122

Portrait in Age,

Frontispiece, Vol. II.



STATE PAPERS.

PAGE

Message of Governor Sam Houston to the Legislature of Tennessee, Oct. 15, 1827

273

Inaugural Address, delivered by Sam Houston as President of the Republic of Texas, at Columbia, Oct. 22, 1836

278

Message to the Congress of the Republic of Texas, Sept. 25, 1837

280

Message to the Second Session of the First Congress of the Republic of Texas, May 5, 1837

282

Message to the Congress of the Republic of Texas, Nov. 21, 1837

287

Message to the Congress of the Republic of Texas, Dec. 20, 1841 (Second term of Presidency)

294

Message to the Congress of the Republic of Texas (Extra Session), June 27, 1842

300

Message to the Congress of the Republic of Texas, Dec. 1, 1842

307

Message to the Congress of the Republic of Texas, Dec. 12, 1843

315

Message to the Congress of the Republic of Texas, Dec. 4, 1844

326

Valedictory Address on Retiring from the Presidency, Dec. 9, 1844

330


INDIAN TALKS.

PAGE

Talk to Border Chiefs, July 6, 1842

334

Letter to Chief of Apaches, Sept. 1, 1842

334

Letter to Castro and Flaca, Sept. 1, 1842

335

Letter to Red Bear and other Chiefs, Oct. 18, 1842

335

Talk to Border Chiefs, February 13, 1843

336

Letter to Indian Chief Linney, March 5, 1843

337

Talk to various Border Tribes, March 20, 1843

338

To the Lipans, in Memory of Flaco, their Chief, March 28, 1843

339

Letter to A-Cah-Ouash, April 19, 1843

340

Talk to Pah-Hah-You-Co, May 4, 1843

341

Talk to various Border Tribes, May 30, 1843

342

Letter to A-Cah-Quash, Sept. 13, 1843

343

Talk to Pah-Hah-You-Co, Dec. 14, 1843

344

Letter to A-Cah-Quash, Dec. 14, 1843

345

Talk to Kechi Chief, Dec. 21, 1843

346

Talk to Sah-Sah-Ro-Ke, Jan. 31, 1844

346

Letter to A-Cah-Quash, May 2, 1844

347

LETTERS AND DOCUMENTS.


PAGE

Letter to Santa Anna, March 21, 1842

349

Dispatch to Texan Ministers, at Washington City, April 16, 1844

359

Letter to Santa Anna, July 29, 1844

362

Letter to Andrew Jackson, Jan. 31, 1843

364

Letter to W. S. Murphy, May 6, 1844

366

Letter to Andrew Jackson, Feb. 16, 1844

370


PUBLISHED SPEECHES.


Speech in the U. S. Senate on Santa Fe Expedition, and the Conduct of Texan Soldiers in the Mexican War, June 29 and July 3, 1850

375

Speech in U. S. Senate on Providing for the Texas Debt, Feb. 11, 1853

393

Speech in the U. S. Senate on the Nebraska and Kansas Bill, Mar. 3, 1854

402

Speech in the U. S. Senate on Treatment of Indians, Dec. 31, 1854

415

Speech in the U. S. Senate on Petition of 3,000 Ministers against Repeal of Missouri Compromise Bill, March, 1854

417

Speech in the U. S. Senate on Increase of Army and Navy Policy of the Government, Jan. 29 and 31, 1855

423

Speech in the U. S. Senate on Need of a Mexican Protectorate, April 20, 1858

456

Speech in the U. S. Senate on Naval Retiring Board, April 23, 1856

468

Speech in the U. S. Senate on Pacific Railroad Bill, and in Reply to Hon. A. Riverson, of Georgia, Jan. 12 and 13, 1859

514

Speech in the U. S. Senate on Bill to divide the State of Texas into two Judicial Districts, Feb. 3, 1859

530

Speech in the U. S. Senate on Unfounded Calumnies, Feb. 28, 1859

578

Speech before Union Mass Meeting, Austin, Texas, Sept. 22, 1860

599


LAST STATE PAPERS AS GOVERNOR OF TEXAS.

Message to Texas Legislature, Jan. 13, 1860

611

Message to Texas Legislature on Secession Resolutions of South Caolina, Jan. 24, 1860

621

Message to Texas Legislature on Indian Hostilities caused by Secession agitation, Jan. 21, 1861

631

Message to Texas Legislature on Finances embarrassed by Secession agitation, Feb. 6, 1861

642

This work was published before January 1, 1924, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.