Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management/Chapter XXV

RECIPES FOR COOKING GAME
 
CHAPTER XXV
 

1278.—BLACKBIRD PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Merle.)

Ingredients.—Blackbirds, rump steak, veal forcemeat (see "Forcemeats"), good stock, salt and pepper, paste.

Method.—Pick and draw the birds, and stuff them with veal forcemeat. Line the bottom and sides of a piedish with rather thin slices of steak, put in the birds cut in halves, season them with salt and pepper and intersperse sections or slices of hard-boiled eggs. Half fill the dish with good stock, cover with paste (see "Veal and Ham Pie"), and bake in a moderately hot oven. Add more stock before serving.

Time.—To bake the pie, from 1¼ to 1¾ hours, according to size. Average Cost, uncertain, blackbirds being seldom sold. Seasonable from November to the end of January.

1279.—BLACK COCK, FILLETS OF, À LA FINANCIÈRE. (Fr.Filets de Coq de Bruyère à la Finançière.)

Ingredients.—2 black cocks, 3 slices of bacon, ½ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces), ¼ of a pint of stock, 1 glass of sherry or Maderia, 12 button mushrooms, 1 medium-sized onion, 1 small carrot, ½ a turnip, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the birds into neat fillets, slice the vegetables, place them in a sauté-pan with the stock, add the slices of bacon, lay the fillet on top of them, cover closely with a well-buttered paper, and cook gently for about 30 minutes. Make the brown sauce as directed, add to it the mushrooms (fresh ones must be previously fired in a little butter), and the wine, season to taste, and keep hot until required. When the fillets are done, arrange them on a hot dish, strain the sauce over, and garnish with the mushrooms, and, if liked, the bacon cut into dice and grouped round the base.

Time.—From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, from 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. per brace. Seasonable from the middle of August to the end of November.

1280.—BLACK COCK, GRILLED. (Fr.Coq de Bruyère Grillé.)

Ingredients.—1 black cock, a little warm butter, ½ a teaspoonful of lemon-juice, a few drops of anchovy essence, ½ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233), salt and pepper.

Method.—Split the bird down the back, cut off the legs at the first joint, and skewer into as flat a shape as possible. Brush over with warm butter, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and grill over or in front of a clear fire from 25 to 30 minutes. The bird should be turned frequently, and occasionally brushed over with butter during the process of cooking. Make the sauce as directed, add to it the lemon-juice and anchovy-essence, season to taste, strain and serve in a sauce-boat. Fried potato chips or straws are frequently served with this dish.

Time.—From 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. per brace. Seasonable from the middle of August to the end of November.

Black-cock (Fr. coq de bruyère)—The name given to the male of the black grouse a species of Rasorial birds included in the Tetraonidae or grouse famly. The Black-cock frequents the moors of Scotland, and is also found on the Alps and Apennines, and in Norway and Russia. The male, about the size of the common hen, weighs some 4 lb., the female about 2 lb.; the eggs of the latter are of yellowish-white colour spotted with brown. The flesh of the Black-cock is highly-esteemed. Large numbers of these birds are imported from Norway, but although larger in size than the Scotch bird, their flavour is not so delicate. The plumage of the male bird is a fine glossy black, whence its name, with white on its lower wing-coverts. The four outer feathers of the tail on each side are curved outwards at their tips, thus giving to the tail a double-hooked or lyre-shaped appearance. The colour of the females is brown, and the tail straight. Both sexes are feathered on the shanks. Until they are about half-grown the males are scarcely distinguishable from the females, when the black feathers begin to appear about the sides and breast. The food of the Black-cock consists of the tops of the birch and heather and ripe mountain berries, and in the summer these birds frequently descend to the lower lands to feed upon the corn. The Black-cock is gregarious, but in winter the sexes keep in separate flocks and pair in the spring. The Black-cock is also known locally as the Black-game, Heath-cock, Moor-fowl, or Heath-poult.

1281.—BLACK COCK, ROASTED. (Fr.Coq de Bruyère Rôti.)

Ingredients.—Black cock, butter, toast, gravy, bread sauce, No. 180 (see Sauces and Gravies), fried breadcrumbs.

Method.—Let the birds hang for a few days, for they will be tough and tasteless, if not well kept. Pluck and draw them, and wipe the insides and outsides with a damp cloth, as washing spoils the flavour. Cut off the heads, and truss as a roast fowl, cutting off the toes, and scalding and peeling the feet. Baste the bird well with hot butter, and roast it in front of a clear fire, or in a moderate oven, from 45 to 60 minutes, according to size, basting frequently with butter during the process. Dish on a slice of buttered toast, and serve the gravy, bread sauce and breadcrumbs separately.

Time.—From 45 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d. per brace. Seasonable from the middle of August to the end of November.

GAME.

 
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1.—Cock Widgeon. 2.—Dumb-bird. 3.—Blackbird. 4.—Pintail. 5.—French Partridge. 6.—Rabbit. 7.—Guinea Fowl. 8.—Partridge. 9.—Lark. 10.—Thrush. 11.—Black Game.

1282.—CAPERCAILZIE, ROASTED. (Fr.Capercailzie Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 capercailzie, ¼ of a lb. of beefsteak, 1 or 2 slices of bacon, butter, good gravy, bread sauce (see Sauces and Gravies), fried breadcrumbs, watercress, salad-oil, salt and pepper.

Method.—Prepare and truss the bird in the same way as a roast chicken. Put the beefsteak inside the bird; it greatly improves the flavour, and may afterwards be used in the preparation of some cold meat dish. Cover the breast with slices of bacan, and roast in front clear fire or in a moderate oven for about 1 hour, basting frequently. When ¾ cooked remove the bacon from the breast, dredge lightly with flour, and baste well to give the bird a nice brown appearance. Serve on a hot dish garnished with watercress, previously well washed, dried and seasoned with salt, pepper, and a little salad-oil, and send the gravy, bread sauce and breadcrumbs to table in sauce-boats.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. Seasonable from August 20 to December 20.

The Capercalzie or Wood Grouse (Fr. capercalzie).—This bird, known also as the Cock of the Wood, was once abundant in the Highlands of Scotland, but became for some time almost or entirely extinct; efforts have, however, been made to re-introduce it. and with success. The Capercalzie is the largest of the European gallinaceous birds, measuring some 3 feet in length, and weighing from 9 to 15 lb. The female is about one-third the size of the male, and differs considerably in the colour of her feathers, which are grey, variegated with brownish-black, and striped or stopped with red or bay-black or white, those of the head and tail being of a ruddy hue. The neck of the male is grey, the breast green, the wings brown spotted with black, and the tail feathers black with white spots. The bill is short, with a band of naked scarlet-coloured skin above the eyes. The male is polygamous and lives apart from the female, except at the pairing season. The nest of the capercalzie is built on the ground, and its eggs are of a pale reddish-brown tint, spotted with brown. The capercalzie is found principally in lofty mountainous regions, and is common in N. Asia and in the pine forests of Russia, Sweden and Norway, from whence it is imported during the winter into England.

1283.—FRENCH GAME PIE. (Pâté de Gibier.)

Ingredients.—¾ of a lb. of lean veal, ¾ of a lb of fresh pork, 1 blackcock, pheasant, partridge, or other game, a slice of bacon, 1 large truffle or truffle trimmings, aromatic spice, salt, paste.

Method.—Chop the meat (veal and pork) finely, or pass it through a mincing machine, season it highly with aromatic spice, salt, etc., and add finely-chopped truffle. Cut the game into neat joins. Line a pie-dish with the prepared forcemeat; on this place a layer of pieces of game, then add a few slices of bacon, and more forcemeat; continue to add these until the pie-dish is well filled. Moistien with a gill of stock or water, cover with a good paste crust, decorate and egg over, bake in a moderate oven for about 1¼ hours. Serve hot or cold.

Time.— To bake, about 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 4s. 6d. to 6s.

1284.—GAME, ANDOUILETTES OF. (Fr.Andouilettes de Gibier.)

Ingredients.—4 ozs. off finely-chopped cooked game, 2 ozs. of chopped cooked ham, 2 ozs. of butter, 1 dessertspoonful of flour, 3 finely-chopped mushrooms, 1 finely-chopped shallot, 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley, fried parsley, a pig's caul, meat glaze, ½ a gill of stock (about), 1 egg, tomato or piquante sauce, lemon-juice, salt and pepper, nutmeg.

Method.—Heat ½ an oz. of butter in a small stewpan, fry the shallot slightly, stir in the flour, and when lightly browned add the stock and boil well. Put in the game, ham, mushrooms, parsley, the yolk of the egg, a few drops of lemon-juice, a pinch of nutmeg, salt and pepper to taste, stir over the fire until well mixed and thoroughly hot, then spread on a plate to cool. Brush the inside of 8 or 9 oval paper cases with butter, and fry sufficient parsley to form little beds for each case. Mould the game preparation into oval or cork-shaped pieces of suitable size, enclose them in pieces of caul, previously washed and well-dried, and seal the ends with a little white of egg. Heat the remaining 1½ ozs. of butter in a sauté-pan, fry the andouilettes until nicely browned, then brush them over with warm meat glaze, and place them on the top of the fried parsley in the paper cases. Arrange neatly in an entrée dish, and serve the sauce in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 1 hour altogether. Average Cost 1s 9d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

1285.—GAME CUTLETS. (See Pheasant Cutlets.)

1286.—GAME, GARNISH FOR.

The usual garnish for roast game consists of watercress and crisply fried potatoes, the latter being usually stamped out into small thin slices, or cut into julienne strips. Mushrooms, truffles and many other ingredients are used to garnish a salmi of game. See "Wild Duck, Salmi of."

1287.—GAME, HASHED. (See Wild Duck, Salmi of.)

1288.—GAME IN ASPIC JELLY. (Fr.Gibier en Aspic.)

Ingredients.—Cold cooked game, hard-boiled eggs, thin strips of lean cooked ham, aspic jelly.

Method.—Rinse a plain mould with cold water, cover the bottom with a thin layer of liquid aspic, and, when set, decorate with stamped-out pieces of ham and white of egg. Fix the decorations with a little aspic, and as soon as it has stiffened, add small pieces of game, previously seasoned and freed from skin and bone. Leave plenty of space to be filled with jelly, and let the jelly covering one layer of game become quite set before adding another. Let the mould remain on ice, or in a cool place until wanted, then turn out and serve.

1289.—GAME PIE. (See French Game Pie and Raised Pie.)

1290.—GAME, PUREE OF. (Fr.Purée de Gibier.)

Ingredients.—Cold game, butter, gravy, cream, salt and pepper.

Method.—Remove the bones, and simmer them in a little water for at least 1 hour, when gravy is not at hand. Chop the flesh of the bird finely, pound it in a mortar until smooth, moistening gradually with a little good gravy and oiled butter, and pass through a wire sieve. Season to taste, stir in a little cream, turn the preparation into well buttered scallop shells, make thoroughly hot, then serve.

1291.—GAME, TO KEEP FROM TAINTING.

In cold, frosty weather game may be hung for 2 or 3 weeks in an ordinary larder without becoming tainted, but when the atmosphere is warm and damp, care should be taken to hang it in a well ventilated place, preferably where there is a current of air. The feathers are a great protection from flies, but it is advisable to apply a good sprinkling of pepper, which usually serves to keep away these pests.

The Red Grouse (Lagopus Sctiocus) called also the Moor-cock and Gor-cock, is plentiful in the wild heathy tracts of the northern counties of England, and also in Wales and the Highlands of Scotland, and appears to be peculiar to the Northern parts of Britain. Its colour is a rich chestnut, marked and speckled with black. The red grouse to a wild and timid bird, and lives in flocks of about fifty in number. Its average weight is about 19 oz.; that of the female to somewhat less. Its flesh is of an exquisite flavour. The red grouse is subject to the epidemic disease, known as "grouse disease."

1292.—GAME, TO REMOVE TAINT FROM.

As soon as there is the least evidence of taint, remove the feathers and draw the birds, and wash them in water with plenty of salt and a little vinegar. If badly tainted, repeat the process 2 or 3 times, and afterwards rinse in fresh water. Dry thoroughly before cooking. The tainted flavour may be still further removed by putting some fresh powdered charcoal, tied in muslin, inside the crop before cooking, which must be removed before the birds are served. When charcoal is not at hand it may easily be made by placing wood in a hot oven until it is burnt through.

1293.—GROUSE PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Coq de Bruyère.)

Ingredients.—2 grouse, ¾ lb. of rump steak, ½ pint of good stock, 2 or 3 slices of streaky bacon, 2 hard-boiled-eggs, salt and pepper, puff-paste.

Method.—Cut the birds into neat joints and remove the lower parts of the back, which if allowed to remain would impart a bitter flavour to the pie. Cut the steak into small thin slices, the bacon into narrow strips, and the eggs into sections or thin slices. Line the bottom of a pie-dish with slices of meat, cover with a layer of grouse, add a few strips of bacon and slices of egg, and season well with salt and pepper. Repeat until the materials are used, add stock to ¾ the depth of the dish and cover with paste (see Veal Pie, No. 798). The pie must be baked about 1½ hours; for the first ½ hour in a hot oven to make the paste rise, and afterwards in a lower temperature in order that the birds and meat may be sufficiently cooked. Meanwhile simmer the necks and any trimmings of the birds there may be in the remainder of the stock, strain, season to taste, and pour it into the pie before serving. When about ¾ baked the pie should be brushed over with yolk of egg. When a more highly-seasoned dish is desired, a flavouring of parsley, shallot and mushrooms, all finely-chopped and mixed together, should be added to the meat.

Time.—To bake, about 1½ hours. Average Cost, from 4s. 6d. to 5s. Seasonable from August 12 to December 10.

Grouse (Fr. coq de bruyère).—Under this general term are included several species of game birds called respectively black, red, wood and white grouse. They all form the type of a large family Tetraonidae, which includes the genus Tetrao, or the grouse. The characteristic mark of the grouse is a naked band, frequently of a red colour, which takes the place of an eyebrow; the nostrils are feathered, the bill is short and broad, the wings rounded, the tarsi feathered and the toes long. Grouse live in families in forests, moors and barren mountainous regions, feeding on the buds and berries of mountain trees and the tips of heather. The male birds are polygamous. Grouse are much esteemed as game birds. They are subject to "grouse disease," to which large numbers fall victims at particular seasons. It is of an epidemic and febrile character, and in some cases takes the form of acute inflammation of the respiratory mucous membrane.

1294.—GROUSE, ROASTED. (Fr.Coq de Bruyère Rôti.)

Ingredients.—A brace of grouse, 2 slices of toast, butter, good brown gravy, bread sauce, No. 180 (see Gravies and Sauces), fried breadcrumbs, bacon.

Method.—Let the birds hang in a cool dry place for 3 or 4 days. When ready for use, pluck, draw, and truss them in the same manner as roast chicken. Tie over each breast a thin slice of bacon, and roast before a clear fire from 30 to 35 minutes, basting frequently with butter. When nearly done remove the bacon, dredge with flour, and baste well to give the birds a nice brown appearance. Toast the bread lightly, and when the birds are about ¾ cooked, put it into the dripping-tin to catch the gravy that drops from them. Dish on the toast, and serve the gravy, bread sauce and bread crumbs separately.

Time.—From 40 to 45 minutes. Average Cost, from 4s. the brace. Seasonable from August 12 to December 10.

The Ruffled Grouse.—This bird is a native of North America, and is so named from the curious velvet-black tufts of feathers on its shoulders. The plumage of the back is a rich chestnut, and its tail is grey, barred with black.

The Pinnated Grouse, also called the Prairie Hen, frequents the open desert plains of North America. The male has two winged-like appendages on the neck, covering two loose orange-coloured sacs which the bird can inflate at pleasure. Its plumage is brown, marked with black and white.

The Sand Grouse, (Pterocles bicinctus), is chiefly an inhabitant of the warm sandy regions of Africa and Central Asia. It is longer in the legs than the ordinary grouse, and the tarsi are covered with feathers, the toes are short and connected at the base by a membrane. The wings and tail are pointed. The colour of the sand grouse is of a sandy hue, whence its name, resembling the sands of the desert where it dwells. A vast flock of these birds in 1863 and again in 1888, crossed the North Sea and visited Europe, settling in Britain and the Faroe Islands.

1295.—LANDRAIL, OR CORN-CRAKE, ROASTED.

Ingredients.—3 or 4 landrail, butter, fried breadcrumbs.

Method.—Pluck and draw the birds, wipe them inside and out with a damp cloth, and truss them in the following manner: Bring the head round under the wing, and the thighs close to the sides; pass a skewer through them and the body, and keep the legs straight. Roast the birds before a clear fire, keep them well basted, and serve with fried breadcrumbs, with a tureen of brown gravy. If preferred, bread sauce may also be sent to table with them.

Time.—12 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, uncertain, being seldom sold. Sufficient for a dish. Seasonable from August 12 to the middle of September.

The Landrail or Corn-crake (Fr. rále de geuét)—This bird, Crex pratensis, belongs to the family Rallidae, or the rails, and is of a reddish-brown colour, marked with black or dark brown. Its bill is thick and shorter than its head, the wings are short, and the bird flies in a heavy embarrassed manner. When it alights on the ground it can hardly be sprung a second time, and it runs very rapidly and depends more on the fleetness of its feet than the strength of its wings. Its singular harsh cry, crek, crek, is first heard when the grass begins to shelter the bird, and it continues to be heard until the grass is cut. The bird however, is seldom seen, for it constantly skulks among the thickest portion of the herbage, and runs so nimbly through it, doubling and winding in every direction, that it is very difficult to get near to it. Marshy meadows and corn-fields are the chief habitat of the landrail, where it feeds principally on worms, slugs and insects, of which it destroys large numbers. The landrail is a migratory bird, and makes its appearance in England during April and May, about the same time as the quail, and frequents similar places. It leaves this island in the autumn, and visits the southern parts of Europe and the African coasts of the Mediterranean during the winter. The corn-crake is common in Ireland, and while migrating to the country is also seen in large numbers in the Isle of Anglesea. Its flesh is much esteemed.

1296.—LEVERET, ROASTED. (Fr.Levraut Rôti.)

Ingredients.—2 leverets, butter, flour.

Method.—Leverets should be trussed in the same manner as a hare, but they do not require stuffing. Roast them before a clear fire, and keep them well basted all the time they are cooking. A few minutes before serving dredge them lightly with flour. Serve with plain gravy in the dish, and send them to table with red currant jelly.

Time.—From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, about 4s. Seasonable from May to August.

1297.—LEVERET, TO DRESS. (See Leveret Roasted.)

1298.—ORTOLANS, ROASTED. (Fr.Ortolans Rôtis.)

Ingredients.—Ortolans, toast, bacon, bay-leaves or vine leaves, butter for basting, brown gravy, No. 164 (see Gravies), fried breadcrumbs, watercress.

Method.—Remove the head, neck and crop, but let the trail remain. Truss for roasting, brush over with warm butter, cover the breast of each bird with a vine-leaf or bay-leaf, and tie over them thin slices of bacon. Attach them to a long steel skewer, running it through the body of each bird, and roast them in front of a quick fire for about 10 minutes. Baste the birds almost continuously with hot butter, and put the toast under them to catch the drippings from the trail. When cooked, remove the skewers and strings, but, if liked, the bacon may remain and be brushed over with warm glaze. Serve the birds on the toast, garnish with watercress, and send the gravy and breadcrumbs to table separately.

Time.—20 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. each. Seasonable from March to May.

1299.—PARTRIDGE, BROILED. (Fr.Perdreaux Grillés.)

Ingredients.—Partridges, salt and cayenne to taste, a small piece of butter, brown gravy or mushroom sauce.

Method.—Pluck, draw and cut the patridges in half, and wipe the insides thoroughly with a damp cloth. Season the birds with salt and cayenne, broil them over a very clear fire, and dish them on a hot dish; rub a small piece of butter over each half, and send them to table with brown gravy or mushroom sauce.

Time.—From 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, from 3s. 6d. a brace. Seasonable from September 1 to February 12.

1300.—PARTRIDGE, ESCALOPES OF. (Fr.Escalopes de Perdreaux.)

Ingredients.—1 partridge, 2 slices of bacon, ¾ of a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces), ½ a pint of stock, 1 small onion, 1 carrot, ½ a turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf). For the farce or stuffing: 4 ozs. of finely-chopped cold roast partridge, 2 ozs. of raw ham or bacon cut into narrow strips, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped suet, 1 tablespoonful of breadcrumbs, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, 1 raw egg, 1 hard-boiled egg, a good pinch each of nutmeg and powdered mixed herbs, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the bird down the back, and remove all the bones. Mix the minced partridge, suet, breadcrumbs, parsley, herbs and nutmeg together, season well with salt and pepper, and bind with the raw egg. Flatten the partridge on the board, season the inside with salt and pepper, spread on half the farce, on the top of which arrange slices of egg and strips of bacon. Season well with salt and pepper, spread on the remainder of the farce, draw the two sides together, forming it as much like a roll as possible, and sew securely with strong cotton. Slice the vegetables, and place them in a stewpan with the 2 slices of bacon on the top. Wrap the bird in buttered paper, lay it on the top of the bacon, cover closely, and cook gently for about 1½ hours. When ready to serve, remove the paper and string and cut the roll into slices about ½ an inch in thickness. Arrange the escalopes in 2 close rows on a potato border, and strain the hot sauce over. Variety may be introduced by dishing the escalopes in a circle, and filling the centre with a purée of spinach or mushrooms. When more convenient, veal may be used for the farce instead of cold partridge.

Time.—To cook, about 1½ hours. Average Cost, 3s. 6d. to 4s. Seasonable from September 1 to February 12.

The Partridge (Fr. perdrix).—This bird is found in nearly all the temperate countries of Europe, in North Africa and in certain parts of Asia, and is abundant as a game-bird in England. It is noted for its instinct in the preservation of its young. An eminent writer and naturalist says: "I have seen it often, and once in particular I saw an extraordinary instance of an old bird's solicitude to save its brood. As I was hunting with a small pointer, the dog ran on a brood of very small partridges; the old bird cried, fluttered, and ran tumbling along just before the dog's nose, till she had drawn him to a considerable distance, when she took wing and flew further off, but not out of the field. On this the dog returned to me, near the place where the young ones lay concealed in the grass, which the old bird no sooner perceived than she flew back to us, settled just before the dog's nose again, and by rolling and tumbling about drew off his attention from her young, and thus preserved her brood a second time. I have also seen where a kite has been hovering over a covey of young partridges the old birds fly up to the bird of prey screaming and fighting with all their might, to preserve their brood." Partridges should be chosen young; if old they are valueless. The young birds are generally known by their yellow legs and dark-coloured bills.

1301.—PARTRIDGE, FILLETS OF, FARCED. (Fr.Filets de Perdreaux Farcis.)

Ingredients.—2 partridges, or the remains of cold roast birds, ½ a lb. of liver farce, No. 398, ½ a pint of Espagnole sauce, No. 244 (see Sauces), 1 oz. of butter, egg, breadcrumbs, salt and pepper, purée of spinach or mushrooms.

Method.—Remove the fillets intact from the breast, bone the legs and wing, form into a good shape, fry lightly in hot butter, and press between 2 dishes until cold. Then mask one side with the liver farce or stuffing, coat both sides carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry until nicely browned in hot butter or fat. Arrange in a circle on a border of potato, strain the hot Espagnole sauce over, and serve the purée of spinach or mushroom in the centre. When cold birds are used, the preliminary frying and pressing are unnecessary, the farce being spread on the cold cooked fillets and completed as directed above.

Time.—About 2½ hours altogether, when fresh birds are used. Average Cost, 4s. Seasonable from September 1 to February 12.

1302.—PARTRIDGES, HASHED. (See Wild Duck, Salmi of.)

1303.—PARTRIDGE PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Perdreaux.)

Ingredients.—2 partridges, ¾ of a lb. of veal cutlet, 2 or 3 slices of streaky bacon, ½ a pint of good stock, 1 oz. of butter, 2 hard-boiled eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of coarsely-chopped mushrooms, preferably fresh ones, 1 teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, ¼ of a teaspoonful of very finely-chopped shallot or onion, salt and pepper, paste.

Method.—Draw, singe, divide the birds into quarters and fry them until lightly browned in hot butter. Cut the veal into small thin slices, place them in the bottom of a pie-dish, season well with salt and pepper, and lay the partridges on the top interspersed with strips of bacon and quarters of egg. Sprinkle on the mushrooms, parsley and onion, season well with salt and pepper, add stock to ¾ the depth of the dish, and cover with paste (see Veal Pie, No. 798). The pie will bake in about 1¼ hours; it should first be put into a hot oven to make the pastry rise, and afterwards baked more slowly. Several folds of well-greased paper laid on the top of the pie will prevent the crust becoming too brown, and a glazed appearance may be given to it by brushing it over with yolk of egg when ¾ baked. The remainder of the stock should be warmed and poured into the pie before serving.

Time.—To bake, from 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 5s. to 6s. Seasonable from September 1 to February 12.

1304.—PARTRIDGE, ROASTED. (Fr.Perdreau Rôti.)

Ingredients.—Partridge, brown gravy, bread sauce (see Gravies and Sauces, No 180), fried breadcrumbs, slice of toast, butter for basting, 1 slice of bacon.

Method.—Pluck, draw, and truss in the same manner as a roast chicken. Cover the breast with a slice of fat bacon, and roast before a clear fire for about 30 minutes, basting frequently with hot butter. A few minutes before serving remove the bacon, dredge lightly with flour, and baste well to give the bird a nice pale brown appearance. Dish on the toast, and serve the gravy, breadcrumbs, and bread sauce separately.

Time.—To roast, about 30 minutes. Average Cost,—3s. 6d. to 4s. 6d the brace. Seasonable from September 1 to February 12.

1305.—PHEASANT, BOILED. (Fr.Faisan Bouilli.)

Ingredients.—1 pheasant, 1 pint of oyster sauce, No. 310 (see Sauces) For the forcemeat: 12 sauce oysters, 2 tablespoonfuls of breadcrumbs, 1 tablespoonful of finely-chopped suet, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, nutmeg, cayenne and salt to taste, sufficient raw egg to bind.

Method.—Beard the oysters, strain the liquor, and add both to the dry ingredients with as much of the egg as is necessary to moisten the whole. Truss the bird in the same manner as a boiled fowl, and stuff the breast with the oyster forcemeat. Wrap it in a well-buttered paper, put it into boiling stock or water, to which must be added, when it re-boils, 1 onion, 1 carrot, ½ a small turnip, and a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf). Simmer gently from 40 to 60 minutes, according to size, then remove the trussing strings, and serve on a hot dish with a little of the oyster sauce poured over, and the remainder sent to table in a sauce-boat. If preferred, a purée of chestnuts may

ENTRÉES.

 
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1. Chicken Cutlets. 2. Casserole Steak. 3. Duck with Olives.

SAVORIES AND SUPPER DISHES.

 
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1. Savory Crôutes. 2. Grilled Oysters. 3. Scotch Haricot.

be substituted for the oyster forcemeat, or the bird may be dressed without forcemeat, and served with oyster or celery sauce.

Time.—From 40 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 4s. each. Seasonable from October 1 to February 12.

The Pheasant (Fr. faisan).—According to the classical legend, this handsome bird was discovered by the Argonauts on the banks of the Phasis, near to Mount Ararat, in their expedition to Colchis. It is however, common to all the southern parts of the European continent, and various species are also found in Southern Asia, the Eastern Archipelago, China, Tibet, Burma, India and Japan. The pheasant has long been naturalized in the warmer and more wooded counties of England. Although it has been domesticated, this is not easily accomplished, nor is it flesh so palatable as when in a wild state. Respecting the flavour of the pheasant M. Ude the celebrated gastronomist says: "It is not often that pheasants are met with, possessing that exquisite taste which is acquired only by long keeping, as the damp of this climate prevents their being kept as long as they are in other climates. The hens in general are the more delicate. The cocks show their age by their spurs. They are only fit to be eaten when the blood begins to run from the bill, which is commonly six days or a week after they have been killed. The flesh is white, tender, and has a good flavour, if you keep it long enough; if not, it is not much different from that of the common fowl or hen."

1306.—PHEASANT, BROILED. (Fr.Faisan Grillé.)

Ingredients.—1 pheasant, butter, cayenne, salt, piquante, mushroom, Madeira (No. 255), or other suitable game sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—The bird, if small may be cut down the back, and flattened and cooked like a spatch-cock of chicken; if large, it is better divided into joints. In either case the whole of it must be brushed over with warm butter, seasoned with salt and a very little cayenne, before grilling. Prepare one of the above-named sauces, strain, return to the stewpan, and keep hot until required. Broil the bird over a clear fire from 15 to 20 minutes, turning occasionally, and brushing over frequently with warm butter. Serve as hot as possible, and send the sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—To grill, from 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. to. 4s. 6d. each. Seasonable from October 1 to February 12.

1307.—PHEASANT, BROILED. (Fr.Faisan Grillé.) (Another Method.)

Ingredients.—1 pheasant, butter, egg, breadcrumbs, salt, cayenne, piquante, mushroom, Madeira (No. 225.), or other suitable sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Divide the bird into neat joints, season with salt and a little cayenne, fry lightly in hot butter, and press between 2 dishes until cold. Then coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs, and broil over a clear fire. As soon as the crumbs are set, brush over with warm butter, and repeat at frequent intervals during the process of grilling. Arrange in a pyramidal form on a hot dish, and serve the sauce in a sauceboat.

Time.—To grill, from 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. to 4s. 6d. each. Seasonable from October 1 to February 12.

1308.—PHEASANT, CROQUETTES OF. (Fr.Croquettes de Faisan.)

Ingredients.—4 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped cooked pheasant, ¼ of a pint of thick brown sauce (see Sauces), 2 eggs, breadcrumbs, salt and papper.

Method.—Make the sauce as directed, add the minced pheasant, the yolk of 1 egg, salt and pepper, and stir briskly over the fire until the mixture thickens, then turn on to a plate. When cold, form into cork-shaped croquettes, coat with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry until nicely browned in hot fat. Drain well, pile on a hot dish covered with a folded serviette or dish-paper, garnish with crisply-fried parsley, and serve.

Time.—Altogether, about 2 hours. Average Cost, 6d., exclusive of the pheasant. Seasonable from October 1 to February 12.

1309.—PHEASANT, CUTLETS OF. (Fr.Côtelettes de Faisan.)

Ingredients.—1 large pheasant, 1 egg, breadcrumbs, butter or frying-fat, ½ a pint of Espagnole sauce, No. 244, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the birds into neat joints, and remove the bones, keeping the flesh as intact as possible. Season, flatten, and trim each piece of pheasant, fold the skin under, and form them into a good shape. Coat first with egg, and afterwards with breadcrumbs seasoned with salt and pepper, fry gently in hot fat or butter until sufficiently cooked and well browned, then drain well. Insert a small bone in each cutlet, put on a frill, and serve with the sauce poured round.

Time.—To fry the cutlets, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, small pheasants from 3s. to 4s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable from October to February.

The Height of Excellence in a Pheasant.—If eaten when fresh the pheasant has no distinct flavour. If, however, the bird be kept a proper length of time, distinguishable by a slight smell and change of colour, it becomes a highly-flavoured dish, occupying a middle distance in delicacy between chicken and venison. The exact time a pheasant should be "hung" is difficult to define, but the right moment a pheasant should be taken down is instinctively detected by a good cook.

1310.—PHEASANT, ROASTED. (Fr.Faisan Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 pheasant, ¼ of a lb. of beefsteak, fried breadcrumbs, bacon, brown gravy, bread sauce (see Gravies and Sauces), watercress, salad-oil, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pluck and draw the bird, truss in the same way as a roast chicken, but leave the head on. Put the beefsteak inside the pheasant; the beefsteak is intended to improve the flavour of the bird and keep it moist, and not to be eaten with it, but it may afterwards be used in the preparation of some cold meat dish. Cover the breast with thin slices of bacon, or lard it with strips of fat bacon, and roast in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven from 40 to 50 minutes, according to size and age. Baste frequently with butter, and when the cooking is about ¾ completed remove the bacon, dredge the breast lightly with flour, and baste well to give the bird a nice light brown appearance. Remove the trussing strings, serve on a hot dish, garnished with watercress previously well washed, dried and seasoned with salt, pepper, and salad-oil, and send the gravy, bread sauce, and 1 breadcrumbs to table separately.

Time.—From 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. to 4s. 6d. each. Seasonable from October 1 to February 12.

1311.—PHEASANT, SALMIS OF. (Fr.Salmis de Faisan à la Modérne.)

Ingredients.—1 pheasant, ½ a pint of brown sauce, No. 233 (see Sauces), 6 or 8 slices of goose liver, 6 or 8 slices of truffle, 2 or 3 ozs. of butter 2 finely-chopped shallots, ¼ of a teaspoonful of finely-chopped lemon-rind, ¼ of a teaspoonful of thyme, 1 bay-leaf, 1 glass of Madeira or Marsala wine, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pluck, draw and truss the bird for roasting. Baste it well with hot butter, roast in a quick oven for 30 minutes, basting frequently, then strain the butter used for basting into a stewpan. Divide the bird into neat joints, put the breast, wings and legs aside, and cut the remainder into small pieces. Re-heat the butter in the stewpan, put in the small pieces of pheasant, add the lemon-rind, shallots, bay-leaf and thyme, fry well then drain off the butter, return the pieces of pheasant to the stewpan. Heat up the brown sauce in a stewpan, add to it the wine, season to taste, and simmer for 10 minutes, then put in the pheasant. Meanwhile, re-heat the butter, fry the slices of liver, and drain them well. Arrange the pheasant in a silver or earthenware casserole, or stewpan, interspersed with slices of liver and truffle, pour the sauce over, garnish with glazed croûtes of fried bread and serve hot.

Time.—Altogether from 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 5s. to 6s. 6d. Seasonable from October 1 to February 12.

1312.—PLOVERS, ROASTED. (Fr.Pluviers Rôtis.)

Ingredients.—Plovers, a slice of toast and a slice of bacon for each bird, butter for basting, brown sauce. No. 253 (see Sauces), 1 glass of port wine or claret, 2 lemons, watercress.

Method.—Pluck and truss the birds, but do not draw them. Brush over with warm butter, tie a slice of thin bacon over each breast, and roast in front of a clear fire from 15 to 20 minutes, according to taste. Hang the birds on the spit feet downwards, and put slices of toast in the dripping-tin to receive the trail as it drops from the birds. Keep them well basted with butter, and shortly before serving remove the bacon, dredge lightly with flour, and baste well to give the breasts a light brown appearance. Make the brown sauce as directed, and add to it the wine and the juice of 1 lemon. Serve the birds on the toast, garnish with watercress and quarters of lemon, and send the sauce to table in a sauce-boat. Oiled butter, made acid with lemon-juice, frequently accompanies these birds instead of the brown sauce.

Time.—From 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 3s. the brace. Seasonable from the beginning of October to the end of January.

The Plover (Fr. pluvier).—The name applied to various birds belonging to the Grallatores, or wading birds, found in all parts of the world. The Plover is gregarious, and usually frequents the marshes and the muddy borders of rivers, where it seeks its food, consisting of aquatic insects and worms. Some species, however, live on dry sandy shores, and others breed on the mountains. The plover has a short straight, slender and compressed bill; its legs are long and slender, with three toes in front, connected by a short web. It makes its nest on the ground. There are various species of Plover; that best known is the Golden Plover, called also the Yellow or Whistling, Green Plover (Charadrius pluvialis). It is about 1 foot in length, of a greyish-black colour, and variegated with yellow spots. The Grey Plover is somewhat larger than the golden species, is smaller than the woodcock, to which it is inferior in delicacy of flavour. The Dotterel (C. morinellus) frequents the coasts, and is dark brown and is marked with white patches; its eggs resemble those of the golden plover. Previous to dressing, plovers are kept until they have the flavour of game. Their flesh is esteemed by many, but it is not universally relished.

1313.—PLOVERS, TO DRESS. (See Plovers Roasted.)

1314.—POTTED GAME.

Ingredients.—Cooked game of any kind; to each lb. allow 2 or 3 ozs. of butter, salt and pepper, cayenne.

Method.—Free the game from skin and bone, chop it finely, or pass it 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine. Pound in the mortar until smooth, moistening gradually with strong game gravy or stock, or, failing this, clarified butter. Season well with salt, pepper and cayenne, then rub through a fine sieve. Press into small pots, and cover with clarified butter.

1315.—POTTED PARTRIDGE. (See Potted Game.)

1316.—PTARMIGANS, ROASTED. (Fr.Pertrix blanche Rôties.)

Ingredients.—Ptarmigans, butter for basting, a slice of bacon for each bird, fried breadcrumbs, good brown gravy, bread sauce (see Gravies and Sauces).

Method.—Let the birds hang in a cool dry place for 3 or 4 days. When ready for use, pluck, draw and truss them in the same manner as roast grouse. Tie over each breast a slice of fat bacon, and roast before a clear fire from 30 to 35 minutes, basting very frequently with butter. When about ¾ cooked remove the bacon, dredge lightly with flour, and baste well to give the birds a nice appearance. Dish on the toast, which should be previously put into the dripping-tin to catch the gravy that drops from the birds, and serve the bread sauce, breadcrumbs and gravy separately.

Time.—From 30 to 35 minutes. Average Cost, from 2s. to 3s. the brace. Seasonable from September to April.

The Ptarmigan, or White Grouse (Fr. ptarmigan).—The ptarmigan (Lagopus vulgaris), the smallest of our English grouse, is characterized by having its legs and tarsi fully feathered. It derives its name from the circumstance that its ash-grey plumage mottled with black, changes to white in winter. Its habitat is the mountainous districts of Scotland and Norway, and it is also found in Greenland. In weight it averages from 8 oz. to 10 oz. When young the ptarmigan is much esteemed, and differs but little in flavour from the common grouse. In winter the ptarmigan flies in flocks and feeds on the wild vegetation of the hills, which imparts to its flesh a bitter but not an altogether unpalatable taste. It is dark-coloured, and somewhat resembles the hare in flavour, and is much relished and sought after by some sportsmen.

1317.—QUAILS, ROASTED. (Fr.Cailles Rôties.)

Ingredients.—Quails, as many vine-leaves, small slices of fat bacon, and square croûtons of buttered toast as there are birds, good brown gravy (see Gravies), fried breadcrumbs, watercress, butter for basting.

Method.—Pluck the birds, remove the head, neck and crop, but leave the trail. Truss the birds for roasting, brush them over with warm butter, cover each breast with a vine-leaf, and tie a piece of bacon over the leaf. Attach them to a long steel skewer, running it through the body of each bird, and either roast or bake from 12 to 15 minutes, basting frequently with hot butter. When cooked, remove the skewers and strings, but the bacon and vine-leaves may be served or not as preferred; if not removed, the bacon should be brushed over with warm glaze. Serve the birds on the toast, which should previously be put into the dripping-tin to catch the trail as it drops from the birds, garnish with watercress, and send the gravy and breadcrumbs to table in sauce-boats.

Time.—From 12 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. each. Seasonable from September to February.

1318.—QUAILS, STUFFED. (Fr.Cailles Farcies.)

Ingredients.—Quails, liver farce No. 398 (see Forcemeats), Madeira sauce No. 225 (see Sauces), finely-chopped truffle, finely-chopped cooked ham, 2 ozs. of butter, white of egg, pork caul, salt and pepper.

Method.—Bone the quails, stuff them with the prepared farce, press into a good shape, and encircle each one with a band of buttered paper. Heat the butter in a sauté-pan, baste the birds well, and roast them in a moderate oven from 15 to 20 minutes, basting frequently. Meanwhile, wash the caul in salt and water, dry it well, and cut it into pieces to contain half a bird. Split the birds in halves with a hot wet knife, enfold each half in a piece of caul, brush over with white of egg, and sprinkle one half of them with ham and the other half with truffle. Re-heat the butter in the sauté-pan, replace the birds, cover them with a buttered paper, and cook gently in the oven for 10 minutes. Dish in a close circle on a potato border, alternating the colours, fill the centre with asparagus points, peas, flageolets, or purée of spinach, and pour the hot Madeira sauce round. If preferred, the birds, instead of being sprinkled with ham and truffle, may be simply wrapped in caul, cooked for 10 minutes, then brushed over with warm glaze, and served in paper cases.

Time.—About ½ an hour to cook. Average Cost, 9d. to 1s. each. Seasonable, from September to February.

The Quail (Fr. caille).—The quail is found in almost all the countries of Europe, and is widely distributed in North Africa, India, China and North America. It is a bird of passage, and immense flocks traverse the Mediterranean Sea from Europe to Africa in the autumn, returning again in the spring, frequently alighting in their passage on many of the islands of the Archipelago which they almost cover with their vast numbers, and are taken in great quantities. The quail arrives in Britain in May, and migrates southwards in October. The male arrives first, and appears to cry for its mate by a peculiar whistling note. The colour of the plumage is brown on the upper parts of the body, with lighter and darker markings. The under parts are of a yellowish shade. Its wings are rounded, the tail is short, and the tarsi are destitute of spurs. Its average length is 8 inches. Its eggs are of a light-greenish tint. It is a very pugnacious bird, and in classical times "quail fights" were an amusement of the Greeks and Romans. Among various species are the Coromandel Quail, the Virginian or American Quail, a larger bird than the European Quail, and the handsome little Chinese Quail, some 4 inches in length. The flesh of the quail is white and tender and delicate in flavour.

1319.—RAISED PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Gibier.)

Ingredients.—Game of any kind, equal quantities of finely chopped veal and pork, veal forcemeat, paste (see Pork Pie, No. 1116), coarsely chopped truffle, stock that will jelly when cold (preferably game stock), egg, salt and pepper.

Method.—Mix the veal and ham together, season liberally with salt and pepper, and add 1 or 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped truffle. Divide the birds into neat joints, and remove all bones except those which are deeply imbedded in the flesh and difficult to detach. Make and mould the paste as described in the recipe for Pork Pie, and line the bottom and sides with veal forcemeat. Put in the prepared game, season each layer with salt and pepper, and intersperse small pieces of the meat farce, taking care to leave spaces to be afterwards filled with stock. Pile the game high in the centre, cover with a thin layer of veal farce, put on the cover, then follow the directions given for preparing, baking and finishing Pork Pie.

Note.See French Game Pie, Grouse Pie, and Partridge Pie.

1320.—RAGOUT OF WILD DUCK.

Follow the directions given for Wild Duck, Salmi of, No. 1340, when utilising cold remains; otherwise first roast the duck for about 20 minutes (see Wild Duck, Roasted, No. 1339), cut it into neat joints, and afterwards proceed as directed.

1321.—REEVES, TO DRESS. (See Larks, Roasted, No. 1245, Larks, Stuffed and Roasted, No. 1246, and Wheatears To Dress, No. 1277.)

1322.—RISSOLETTES OF GAME À L'HORLY.

Ingredients.—For the mixture: 6 tablespoonfuls of any kind of game, ¼ of a pint of thick brown sauce (see Sauces), 1 egg, salt and pepper. For the batter: 1 egg, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of milk, ½ a teaspoonful of salad-oil, salt to taste.

Method.—Heat the sauce in a small stewpan, put in the minced game, egg and seasoning, stir briskly over the fire until the mixture thickens, turn on to a plate to cool. Mix the flour, milk, salt, salad-oil and yolk of egg smoothly together, put it aside for about ½ an hour, and when ready to use lightly add the white of egg previously whipped to a stiff froth. Divide the game preparation into pieces about the size of a large walnut, dip them into the batter, and fry in a deep pan of hot fat until nicely browned. Drain well, dish in a pyramidal form on a folded serviette or dish-paper, garnish with crisply-fried parsley, and serve hot.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 6d., exclusive of the game.

1323.—ROOK PIE.

Ingredients.—6 young rooks, ¾ of a lb. of rump steak, ¼ of a lb. of butter, ½ a pint of stock, salt and pepper, paste.

Method.—Skin the birds without plucking them, by cutting the skin near the thighs, and drawing it over the body and head. Draw the birds in the usual manner, remove the necks and backs, and split the birds down the breast. Arrange them in a deep pie-dish, cover each breast with thin strips of steak, season well with salt and pepper, intersperse small pieces of butter, and add as much stock as will ¾ fill the dish. Cover with paste (see Veal Pie), and bake from 1½ to 2 hours, for the first ½ hour in a hot oven to make the paste rise, and afterwards more slowly to allow the birds to become thoroughly cooked. When the pie is about ¾ baked, brush it over with yolk of egg to glaze the crust, and, before serving, pour in, through the hole on the top, the remainder of the stock.

Time.—To bake, from 1½ to 2 hours. Average Cost, uncertain, as they are seldom sold. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.

The Rooks are wild birds, found abundantly in most parts of Britain and Ireland. They live in communities, and feed on seeds, insects and vermin. Their flesh is tough and coarse-flavoured. Only the young birds are eaten, generally being shot almost before they take to the wing. The backbones and adjoining flesh is always removed, as these parts have a strong, bitter taste, which soon contaminates the rest of the flesh.

1324.—RUFFS, TO DRESS. (See Larks, Roasted, No. 1245, Larks, Stuffed and Roasted, No. 1246, and Wheatears, To Dress, No. 1277.)

1325.—SNIPE, ROASTED. (Fr.Bécassines Rôties.)

Ingredients.—Snipe, toast, bacon, good gravy (see Gravies), watercress, butter for basting.

Method.—These birds, like the ortolan, plover and woodcock, are dressed without being drawn. They are trussed in the same way as other birds for roasting, but the head is skinned and left on, the long beak of the bird being passed through the legs and body instead of a skewer. Brush them over with warm butter, tie a thin slice of fat bacon over each breast, and hang them on the spit feet downwards. Put the toast under them to catch the drippings from the trail, baste frequently with butter, and roast them for about 15 minutes, or less if preferred very much underdone. Dish on the toast, garnish with watercress, and serve the gravy in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 3s. 6d. the brace. Seasonable from November to February.

The Snipe (Fr. becassine) is a migratory bird, generally distributed over Europe, and met with abundantly in most parts of Britain, where it frequents damp and marshy grounds, feeding on insects, small molluscs, and worms, which form its principal food. In the Hebrides and Orkneys snipes are plentiful, and are fattest in frosty weather. The snipe, which is a grallatore or wading bird is characterized by its long slender bill, and the peculiar bleating which it utters in the summer, changing its note entirely during the breeding season. When the female is sitting upon her nest the male bird will keep on the wing for hours, mounting like a lark, and uttering a shrill piping noise; then, with a bleating sound, resembling that of a goat, it will descend with great velocity to the nest, from which it will not wander far. The eggs of the snipe, four in number, are olive-white, spotted with brown. The Jack snipe, very similar to the common snipe in appearance, and the smallest of the British snipes, only visits Britain in winter. The Great or Solitary Snipe is less common than the ordinary variety, which it resembles in colour, but is of a darker brown. When flying it spreads its tail like a fan. All the snipes are active cautious birds, and when their nests are menaced will affect lameness to divert attention.

1326.—TEAL, ROASTED. (Fr.Sarcelle Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—Teal, butter for basting, good brown gravy, Bigarade sauce No. 226 (see Gravies and Sauces), watercress, lemons.

Method.—Pluck, draw, and truss the teal for roasting. Brush them over with hot butter, and roast before a clear fire from 25 to 30 minutes, basting frequently. Serve on a hot dish, garnish with watercress and quarters of lemon, and send the sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—From 25 to 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 2s. each. Seasonable from October to March 15; in better condition after the frost has set in.

1327.—THRUSH, TO ROAST. (Fr.Grive Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—Thrush, butter for basting, gravy, watercress, croûtes.

Method.—After trussing the birds, cover each breast with well-buttered paper, instead of bacon, which would impair the delicate flavour of the birds. Place them side by side on a skewer, baste well with hot butter and roast before a clear fire for about 10 minutes, basting almost continuously with butter. Serve on croûtes, garnish with watercress, and send the gravy to table separately.

Time.—To roast the birds, about 10 minutes. Average Cost, uncertain, thrush being seldom sold. Allow 2 to each person.

1328.—VENISON, BROILED POLISH FASHION. (Fr.Escalopes de Venaison à la Polonaise.)

Ingredients.—8 or 10 slices, ¼ of an inch thick, cut from a leg of venison, 1½ ozs. of clarified butter, ½ a pint of Velouté or Allemande sauce, ½ a gill of wine vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of meat glaze or meat extract, 12 juniper berries, salt and pepper.

Method.—Crush the juniper berries, simmer them for 10 or 15 minutes in the vinegar, then add the meat glaze and sauce, and cook gently for 15 minutes. When ready to use, strain, return to the stewpan, season to taste, and stir in ½ an oz. of butter. Flatten the slices of venison with a cutlet-bat, and trim neatly. Heat the remainder of the butter in a sauté-pan, and fry the slices of venison quickly until nicely browned on both sides. Arrange them neatly in a hot entrée dish, pour over the prepared sauce and serve.

Time.—To fry, from 10 to 15 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 3d. to 1s. 6d. per lb. Seasonable from September to January, but may be be bought from June.

The Deer (Fr. daim).—These elegant and active animals, included under the name of deer, constitute the family Cervidae, being represented by the stag or red-deer. The horns and antlers are solid, more or less branched, according to the age of the deer, and are shed and reproduced annually. Except in the case of the reindeer, the male alone is furnished with antlers, which are used as defensive and offensive weapons. Particular terms are used to designate deer according to their age. A stag of the first year is called a calf or hind-calf; the second year it is termed a knobber; the third year a brock, the fourth year a staggard, the fifth year a stag, and the sixth year a hart. The female is called a calf the first year, the second year a hearse, and the third year a hind. Deer are found widely distributed over the world, with the exception of Australia and South Africa; in the latter continent the antelope, characterized by permanent horns, takes it place. There are numerous species of deer, as the reindeer, elk, fallow-deer, roebuck, moose, etc. The flesh of deer is called venison, and is highly esteemed.

1329.—VENISON, CHOPS AND STEAKS OF.

Venison chops are cut from the loin, and a thick slice from the leg is usually served as a steak. They should be grilled over a clear fire, and served with a sauce made of equal quantities of oiled butter, red wine, and dissolved red-currant jelly. See Venison, Broiled Polish Fashion, and Venison Cutlets.

Venison.—This is the name given to the flesh of some kinds of deer, and is esteemed very delicious. Different species of deer are found in warm as well as cold climates, and are in several instances invaluable to man. This is especially the case with the Laplander, whose reindeer constitutes a large proportion of his wealth. There—

The reindeer unharness'd in freedom can play,
And safely o'er Odin's steep precipice stray,
Whilst the wolf to the forest recesses may fly,
And howl to the moon as she glides through the sky.

In Lapland the reindeer is the substitute for the horse, the cow, the goat and the sheep. From its milk is produced cheese; from its skin clothing; from its tendons bowstrings and thread; from its horns glue; from its bones spoons; and its flesh furnishes food. In the middle ages the deer formed food for the not over-abstemious monks, represented by Friar Tuck's larder in Sir Walter Scott's novel, Ivanhoe; and at a later period it was a deer-stealing adventure that drove the "ingenious" William Shakespeare to London, to become a common player, and the greatest dramatist that ever lived. In England we have the stag, an animal of great beauty, and much admired. He is a native many parts of Europe, and is supposed to have been originally introduced into this country from France. About a century back the stag was to be found wild in some of the rough and mountainous parts of Wales as well as in the forests of Exmoor, in Devonshire, and the woods on the banks of the Tamar. Herds of deer may still be seen in many English parks and in some of our forests.

1330.—VENISON CUTLETS. (Fr.Côtelettes de Venaison.)

Ingredients.—Best end of the neck of venison, butter, fresh mushrooms, to each lb. allow ¼ of a pint of good brown stock or gravy (see Stocks and Gravies), and 1 oz. of butter, salt and pepper.

Method.—Skin and trim the mushrooms, put them into a stewpan with the butter, gravy, and plenty of seasoning, and stew gently from 35 to 40 minutes, or until tender. Divide the venison into cutlets about ½ inch in thickness, trim the bones at the end, but let the rest of the fat remain; flatten and pare the cutlets. Brush over with warm butter, season with salt and pepper, and grill over or in front of a clear fire from 20 to 25 minutes, turning occasionally, and brushing over frequently with hot butter. Place a small pat of fresh butter on the top of each cutlet, serve as hot as possible, and send the stewed mushrooms to table separately.

Time.—About 40 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. per lb. Seasonable from September to January.

The Roebuck (Fr. chevreuil).—The common roe or roebuck (Cervus capreolus) is smaller in size than the fallow deer, and its antlers are smaller, with only three short branches. It is brown in colour, varied with grey and red tints. The roebuck is very graceful in its movements, and is a denizen of wooded and mountainous districts.

1331.—VENISON, HASHED. (Fr.Capilotade de Venaison.)

Ingredients.—Remains of roast venison, and to each lb. allow 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1 glass of port wine, 1 tablespoonful of red currant jelly.

Method.—Cut the meat into neat slices, break up the bones, put them with the trimmings of the meat, and any venison gravy there may be, into a stewpan, cover with cold water, and simmer gently for 1 hour. When water alone is used, a small onion and a bunch of herbs should be added. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, and fry until brown. Add the strained stock, stir until boiling, then put in the meat, wine, jelly, salt and pepper to taste, cover the stewpan closely, and let it stand at the side of the stove for about 20 minutes for the meat to become thoroughly impregnated with the flavour of the sauce, which must not, however, be allowed to boil. Serve as hot as possible, garnished with croutons of fried or toasted bread, and hand red currant jelly separately.

Time.—About ½ hour, after the stock is made. Average Cost, 8d. to 10d., exclusive of the venison. Seasonable from September to January, but may be bought from June.

The Stag (Fr. cerf).—The male of the red-deer is called the stag or hart, and the female a hind. The stag is much larger than the fallow-deer, and his age is indicated by his horns, which are round instead of palmated, like those of the fallow-deer. During the first year the stag has no horns, but a short and rough excrescence with a thin hairy skin. The following year the horns are single and straight, and in the third year they have two antlers, three the fourth, four the fifth, and five the sixth year.

This number is not always constant, for they are sometimes more and frequently are less. After the sixth year the antlers do not invariably increase; and though they may amount in number to six or seven on each side, the animal's age is estimated rather by the size of the antlers and the thickness of the branch which sustains them than by their variety. These horns are shed every year, usually in the spring, and new ones supply their place. When the old horns have fallen off the new ones do not make their appearance immediately, but the bones of the skull are covered with a transparent periosteum, or membrane which enwraps the bones of animals. After a short time the skin begins to swell and to form a sort of tumour. From this presently rising from the head the antlers shoot forth from side to side; and in a short time, if the animal is in good condition, the entire horns are completed. The solidity of the extremities, however, is not perfect until the horns have arrived at their full growth. Old stags usually shed their horns first, which generally happens towards the end of February or the beginning of March. Those between five and six years old shed theirs about the middle or latter end of March; those still younger in April, and the youngest of all not until the middle or latter end of May. These rules, which are applicable generally, are subject to variation, for a severe winter will retard the shedding of the horns. The hind has no horns, and is less fitted for being hunted than the stag. She takes the utmost care of her fawns and secretes them in the most obscure thickets, lest they should fall a prey to their numerous enemies, as the wolf, the dog, the eagle and the falcon. When the hind has young she defends her offspring with the most resolute bravery. If pursued by the hunter she will fly before the hounds for half a day and then return to her fawn, whose life she has thus preserved at the hazard of her own.

1332.—VENISON, HAUNCH OF, ROASTED. (Fr.Quartier de Chevreuil Rôti.)

Ingredients.—A haunch of venison, flour, brown sauce or brown gravy (see Sauce and Gravies), red currant jelly.

Method.—The haunch is the prime part of venison, and its excellence depends greatly on the relative proportions of fat and lean. An abundance of clear creamy-white fat of close texture may be generally accepted as an indication of the good quality of the meat. The flesh of the buck is more highly esteemed than that of the doe. Venison, like mutton, improves with age, and this can be judged by the condition of the hoof, which in an old animal is deeply cut and rugged, whereas that of a young one has a small and smooth cleft. In cold weather venison should be allowed to hang for about 14 days in a cool, dry place, but it must be carefully examined every day. The meat round the haunch bone first becomes tainted; it is therefore advisable to run a small sharp knife into the flesh; on being withdrawn, it has an unpleasant smell, the effected parts must at once be washed with warm milk and water, dried thoroughly, and covered thickly with ground ginger and pepper, which must, however, be washed off before cooking. If a little of these condiments be sprinkled on the venison in the first instance, and the meat wiped dry every day, decomposition may be considerably retarded. When ready for use, saw off the knuckle-bone, rub well all over with clarified fat or dripping, and enfold in a well-greased paper. Make a stiff paste of common flour and water, put it over the joint, cover with another well-greased paper, and tie securely with string. Roast in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven from 3 to 4 hours, according to size and baste frequently. Within ½ an hour of serving remove the paper and paste, dredge lightly with flour, and baste well with hot butter until the joint acquires a good brown colour. Serve as hot as possible, as the fat quickly cools and hardens, and send the brown sauce or gravy and the red currant jelly to table separately. The best end of the neck of venison, boned and rolled, makes an excellent dish, but other parts are not often roasted, the neck and shoulder being considered better adapted for stews, pies, and pasties.

Average Cost.—1s. 6d. per lb. Seasonable—buck venison from June to the end of September; doe venison from October to January.

The Reindeer (Fr. renne).—This species of deer inhabits the northern and Arctic regions, and is thicker in the body and its legs are proportionately shorter than those of the red-deer. It is distinguished from other species by the circumstance that the female as well as the male possesses horns; those of the latter are, however, much larger and stronger. In colour the reindeer is of a dusky-brown hue, with greyish under parts; these change to lighter tints in the winter. The reindeer is very hardy, keen of sight and hearing, swift of foot, its pace averaging nine or ten miles an hour, at which speed it can draw with ease a sledge attached to it with a burden of some 200 lbs. Its strength and hardiness render the reindeer invaluable to the Laplander, to whom it is the substitute for the horse, sheep and goat. From its milk cheese is provided; from its skin clothing; from its tendons bowstrings and thread; from its horns glue; from its bones various articles of use, and its flesh furnishes food. Reindeer moss, a lichen which grows extensively in the sterile tracts of northern and arctic Europe and America, provides the reindeer with its chief supply of food during the winter season. A variety of the reindeer, the Caribou, inhabits northern America, and is hunted for the sake of its skin and flesh, the layer of fat, called depouille, on the back of the male, being esteemed a special delicacy.

1333.—VENISON IN A CHAFING-DISH.

Ingredients.—1 lb. of venison, the juice of 3 small onions, 1 egg, 1 oz. of butter, flour, 1 teaspoonful of finely chopped parsley, nutmeg, salt and pepper.

Method.—Pound the peeled, sliced and blanched onions in a mortar until reduced to a pulp, place this in muslin, and press out the juice with the back of a wooden spoon. Remove all skin, fat and gristle from the meat, chop it finely, and mix with it the onion-juice, parsley, and a pinch of nutmeg. Stir in the egg, season to taste, form into flat cakes the size and shape of a fillet, and coat them lightly with flour. Heat the butter in a chafing-dish, put in the steaks, and fry gently for 10 minutes, turning them once. Place the cover on the chafing-dish, continue to cook gently for 5 minutes longer, then serve.

Time.—To cook the steaks, about 15 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from June to January.

The Fallow Deer (Fr. daim).—This is the domestic or park-deer, is allied to the stag, but is smaller in size and differs in the shape of its horns. The colour of the fallow-deer is reddish-brown with white spots, and white inside the limbs and beneath the tail. Fallow deer are chiefly kept in parks, and roam in herds under the control of a "master deer." The male is termed a buck, the female a doe, and the young deer fawns. They are readily tamed and become very docile. Their flesh furnishes excellent venison, and a soft leather is manufactured from their skins. From the shavings of their horns ammonia is prepared, whence the popular name of "hartshorn."

1334.—VENISON, NECK OF, TO ROAST.

Method.—Let the neck remain attached to the shoulder until required for use, so as to preserve the appearance of both joints. In preparing, follow directions for Neck of Mutton, To Roast, No. 1054; and cook according to instructions given in Venison, Haunch of, Roasted, No. 1332.

1335.—VENISON, SHOULDER OF. (See Venison, Haunch of, Roasted. Also Venison, Stewed.)

1336.—VENISON STEWED. (Fr.Ragoût de Venaison.)

Ingredients.—A shoulder of venison well hung and boned, a few thin slices of mutton fat (preferably off the best end of a neck), ¼ of a pint of port, 1½ pint of stock, ½ a teaspoonful of peppercorns, ½ a teaspoonful of whole allspice, salt and pepper, red-currant jelly.

Method.—Pour the wine over the slices of mutton fat, and let them remain for 2 or 3 hours. Flatten the venison with a cutlet-bat or rolling-pin, season liberally with salt and pepper, and cover with the slices of mutton fat. Roll up lightly, bind securely with tape, put it into a stew-pan already containing the boiling stock and the bones from the joint. Add the wine in which the mutton fat was soaked, the peppercorns and allspice, cover closely, and simmer very gently from 3 to 3½ hours. Serve with the gravy strained over, and send red-curreant jelly to table separately.

Time.—To cook the vension, from 3 to 3½ hours. Average Cost, 1s 6d. per lb. Sufficient for 10 or 12 persons. Seasonable September to January, but may be bought from June.

The New Venison.—The deer population of our splendid English parks was, for a very long time, limited to two species, the fallow and the red. But as the fallow-deer itself was an acclimatized animal, of comparatively recent introduction, it came to be a question why might not the proprietor of any deer-park in England have the luxury of at least half a dozen species of deer and antelopes, to adorn the hills, dales, ferny brakes and rich pastures of his domain? The temperate regions of the whole world might be made to yield specimens of the noble ruminant, valuable either for their individual beauty, or for their availability to gastronomic purposes.

We are indebted for the introduction of foreign deer to some English nobleman, who have made the experiment of breeding them in their parks, and have obtained such a decided success that it may be hoped their example will induce others to follow in a course which will eventually give to England's rural scenery a new element of beauty, and to English tables a fresh viand of the choicest character.

A practical solution of this interesting question was made by Viscount Hill, at Hawkestone Park Salop, in January, 1859. On that occasion a magnificent eland, an acclimated scion of the species whose native home is the South African wilderness, was killed for the table. The noble beast was thus described: "He weighed 1,176 lb. as he dropped; huge as a short-horn, but with bone not half the size; active as a deer, stately in all his paces, perfect in form, bright in color, with a vast dewlap, and strong-sculptured horn. This eland in his lifetime strode majestic on the hill-side, where he dwelt with his mates and their progeny, all English born, like himself." Three pairs of the same species of deer were left to roam at large on the picturesque slopes throughout the day, and to return to their home at pleasure. Here, during winter, they are assisted with roots and hay, but in summer they have nothing but the pasture of the park; so that, in point of expense, they cost no more than cattle of the best description. The male eland is unapproached in the quality of his flesh by any ruminant in South Africa; it grows to an enormous size, and lays on fat with as great facility as a true short-horn, while in texture and flavour it is infinitely superior. The lean is remarkably fine, the fat firm and delicate. It has been tried in every fashion—braised brisket, roasted ribs, broiled steaks, filet saute, boiled aitchbone, etc.—and in all these points has demonstrated that a new meat of surpassing has been added to the products of the English park.

1337.—VENISON, POTTED. (Fr.Terrine de Venaison.)

Ingredients.—2 lbs. of venison, ¼ of a lb. of butter, 1 glass of port wine, salt and pepper, clarified butter.

Method.—Put the venison into a stewing-jar with a close-fitting lid, add the wine and ¼ of a lb. of butter, and season with salt and pepper. Cover the top of the jar with 2 or 3 thicknesses of buttered paper, press the lid down tightly, and cook in a moderately cool oven for 2 hours. Drain well, chop finely, pound in a mortar until smooth, moistening the preparation gradually with gravy, and pass it through a wire sieve. Season to taste, press into small pots, and cover with clarified butter.

Time.—To cook the venison, about 2 hours. Average Cost, 3s. 10d. Sufficient for 6 or 8 pots. Seasonable from June to February.

1338.—WIDGEONS, ROASTED. (Fr.Sarcelle Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—Widgeons, butter for basting, watercress, lemons. For the sauce: ½ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces), 1 glass of port wine or claret, the juice of 1 lemon and 1 orange, salt and pepper, castor sugar.

Method.—Truss the birds for roasting. Baste well with hot butter, and roast in front of a clear fire for about 20 minutes, or bake in a moderately hot oven for the same length of time. Keep them well basted with hot butter, and shortly before serving sprinkle lightly with flour, to give the birds a nice appearance. Meanwhile make the brown sauce as directed, add to it the wine, orange and lemon-juices, a pinch of sugar, salt, and pepper to taste, simmer for 15 minutes, then strain, skim, and serve with the birds on a hot dish, garnished with watercress and quarters of lemon, and hand the sauce separately.

Time.—About 20 minutes. Average Cost, from 1s. 6d. each. Seasonable from August 1 to March 15.

1339.—WILD DUCK, ROASTED. (Fr.Canard Sauvage Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 wild duck, ½ a pint of good gravy, ½ a pint of either Bigarade or port wine sauce (see Gravies and Sauces), flour, butter for basting, lemons.

Method.—Truss the bird for roasting, and if the fishy taste is disliked, cover a deep baking-tin to the depth of ½ an inch with boiling water, add a tablespoonful of salt, put in the bird, and bake it for 10 minutes, basting very frequently with the salt and water. Then dry, sprinkle lightly with flour, baste well with hot butter, and either roast in front of a clear fire for about 20 minutes, or bake for the same length of time in a moderately hot oven, basting frequently with hot butter. These birds should always be served rather underdone, otherwise they lose their flavour. An orange salad frequently accompanies this dish. To make this salad the oranges should be cut across into thin slices, the pips, every particle of skin and pith removed, and the fruit arranged in layers in a dish, each layer being sprinkled with a little castor sugar, salad-oil and, if liked, a little brandy.

Time.—About 30 minutes. Average Cost, from 3s. each. Seasonable from August 1 to March 15.

1340.—WILD DUCK, SALMI OF. (Fr.Canards Sauvages en Salmis.)

Ingredients.—The remains of cold roast wild ducks, 1 pint of stock made from the bones and trimmings of game, 1 glass of port wine or claret, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 teaspoonful each of orange-juice and lemon-juice, a few thin strips of fresh orange-rind, 1 small onion, 2 or 3 sprigs of thyme, 1 bay-leaf, salt and pepper, cayenne.

Method.—Cut the remains of the ducks into neat pieces, put the bones and trimmings, the onion, thyme and bay-leaf into a stew-pan, cover with cold water, and simmer for at least 1½ hours. Melt the butter in a stewpan, stir in the flour, cook until a brown roux or thickening is formed, then add the strained stock, and stir until it boils. Add the pieces of duck, orange and lemon-juices, and wine, season to taste, cover the stewpan closely, and let it stand for about 20 minutes, where the contents will become thoroughly hot, but they must not be allowed to boil.

A salmi is a convenient way of utilizing cold game of any description, and with a little variation of flavouring the above may be adapted to hare, grouse, pheasant, or partridge. Although the cold remains of any bird make, with the addition of a good sauce, an excellent dish a salmi to be eaten in perfection should be made from birds freshly cooked for the purpose. A salmi may be garnished with croûtons of fried bread or puff paste, braised olives, button mushrooms or truffles, while slices of lemon, or divisions of oranges are considered a suitable garnish for wild duck.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 9d. to 10d., exclusive of the wild duck. Seasonable from August 1 to March 15.

Note.—In cooking or re-heating game, every effort should be made to retain the characteristic flavour of the bird or animal; and all flavouring materials added to the sauce or gravy must be used in moderation, otherwise they overpower and destroy the flavour the dish should possess.

1341.—WOODCOCK, ROASTED. (Fr.Bécasse Rôtie.)

Ingredients.—Woodcocks, toast, bacon, butter for basting, good brown gravy (see Gravies), watercress.

Method.—The skin of these birds is particularly tender, therefore they must be plucked very carefully. They are trussed in the same manner as other birds for roasting, but the head is skinned and left on, the long beak of the bird being passed through the legs and body in place of a skewer. Brush over with warm butter, fasten a thin slice of fat bacon over each breast, and hang them on the spit feet downwards to roast. Put the toast under to receive the drippings from the trail, baste frequently with hot butter, and roast for about 15 minutes, or 4 or 5 minutes less when preferred very much underdone. Serve on the toast, garnish with watercress, and send the gravy to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—About 15 minutes. Average Cost, from 3s. 9d. to 5s. per brace. Seasonable from August 1 to March 15.

The Woodcock (Fr. bécasse) is a long-billed bird of the same genus as the snipe, and migratory in its habits. It arrives in flocks in Britain in March and April, returning to warmer climates in the autumn. It is also found during the winter in Aleppo and Japan. The woodcock is about 12 inches in length, and weighs about 12 oz. Its colour is brown, variegated with darker hues; the tail is black, tipped with grey. Its eggs are brownish-white, mottled with brown. The wood-cock is a shy bird, and difficult to capture. It feeds at early morn and at dusk; its principal food are worms. The flesh of the woodcock is held in high estimation. This bird is common in North America and resembles the European woodcock in its plumage and habits, but is of a smaller size.

REMOVES AND ENTRÉES.

 
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1. Chaudfrois of Chicken. 2. Grilled Pigeon. 3. Rabbit in Aspic.