Mrs. Beeton's Book of Household Management/Chapter XXVI

ENTRÉES.

 
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1. Fried Rabbit. 2. Fricasse of Rabbit. 3. Cutlets with Peas.

RECIPES FOR COOKING HARE AND RABBIT

 
CHAPTER XXVI
 

1342.—HARE, BAKED, WITH TRUFFLES. (Fr.Lièvre aux Truffes.)

Ingredients.—1 young hare, ½ a lb. of truffles, 6 ozs. of finely-chopped pickled pork, 6 ozs. of finely-chopped veal, 1 finely-chopped shallot, 1 glass of sherry, aromatic seasoning, salt and pepper, fat for basting, ¾ of a pint of Espagnole Sauce No. 244.

Method.—Prepare the hare as directed in Notes on Trussing. Pound the pork, veal and shallot until smooth, and moisten meanwhile with a little good stock, and truffle liquor when using bottled truffles. Pass the farce through a wire sieve, season to taste, and add the sherry. Cut the truffles into dice, put 1 tablespoonful aside to be afterwards used for the sauce, and add the remainder to the farce. Press lightly into the body of the hare, sew up the opening, truss into shape, and cover the back with 2 or 3 folds of greased paper. Baste well with hot fat, bake in a moderately hot oven from 1 to 1¼ hours, basting frequently, and 20 minutes before serving remove the paper to allow the back to brown. Add the remainder of the truffle to the Espagnole sauce, and serve separately.

Time.—To bake, from 1 to 1½ hours, according to size. Average Cost, hare, 4s. 6d. to 6s. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

Hares and Rabbits.—Indication of youth in a hare or rabbit are a narrow cleft in the lip, sharp and smooth claws, soft and thin ears. A thick haunch, ears dry and rough and blunt, and rugged claws, are all signs of advanced age. When freshly killed, the flesh has a moist and bluish appearance.

1343.—HARE, BROILED. (Fr.Lièvre grillé.)

Ingredients.—Remains of a roast hare, salt, cayenne, butter.

Method.—Separate into neat joints, brush them over with oiled butter, and season highly with salt and pepper. Broil over a clear fire until both sides are nicely browned, brushing over with butter 2 or 3 times meanwhile. Serve with good gravy or any appropriate sauce.

Time.—10 minutes.

1344.—HARE IN CASSEROLE. (Fr.Lièvre en Casserole.)

Ingredients.—1 hare, 1½ pints of good stock, or equal parts of stock and good stout, 3 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 onion chopped, 3 cloves. 10 peppercorns and a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), all tied together in muslin, salt and pepper, veal forcemeat (see Forcemeats, No. 413), red-currant jelly.

Method.—Prepare the hare as directed and cut it into pieces convenient for serving. Heat 2 ozs. of butter, fry the hare until nicely browned, and pack closely in a casserole. Fry the onion brown, add it and the cloves, etc., to the hare, cover with stock, put on the lid, and cook gently for about 2½ hours, or until the hare is tender. Knead the remaining oz. of butter and the flour smoothly together, divide into small pieces, and add them to the contents of the casserole, about ½ an hour before serving. Shape the forcemeat into small balls, fry in hot butter or fat, drain well, and add them 5 minutes before serving. Remove the herbs tied in muslin, season to taste, and serve in the casserole, with red currant jelly handed separately.

Time.—From 2½ to 3 hours. Average Cost, 5s. 6d. to 6s. 6d. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

The Hare (Fr. lièvre).—This little animal is found generally distributed over Europe, and, indeed in most parts of the northern world. Its extreme timidity is its protection, for it is attentive to every sound, and its ears, both long and tubular, enable it to hear with great acuteness. By the construction of its large prominent eyes it possesses a wide range of vision. The hare lives upon vegetable food, but its flesh is considered dry, although it is esteemed in many respects to be superior to that of the rabbit, being more savoury, and of a much higher flavour. The hare usually feeds in the evening but during the day it adheres closly to its "form."

1345.—HARE, CIVET OF. (Fr.Civet de Lièvre.)

Ingredients.—1 young hare, ¼ of a lb. of fat bacon, 1 pint of good stock, 1 glass of port or claret, 2 ozs. of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, 2 dozen button onions, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper, croûtons of fried bread

Method.—Divide the hare into small joints, cut the bacon into dice, fry it lightly in 1½ ozs. of hot butter in a stewpan, then take it out and put in the pieces of hare. Sprinkle in the flour, and let it brown with the hare, which should be turned occasionally so that every part of it may acquire a good colour. Replace the bacon in the stewpan, add the stock and the bouquet-garni, season to taste, stir until boiling, then cover closely and simmer gently for about 1¼ hours. Meanwhile skin the onions, fry them until well browned in the remainder of the butter, and about 20 minutes before serving add them with the wine to the contents of the stewpan. Pile the pieces of hare on a hot dish, interspersed with dice of bacon and onions. Season the sauce to taste, and strain it over, and garnish the base of the dish with the fried croûtons.

Time.—About 1¼ hours. Average Cost, from 6s. to 7s. 6d. Seasonable from September to February.

1346.—HARE, CROQUETTES OF. (Fr.Croquettes de Lièvre.)

Ingredients.—6 tablespoonfuls of finely-chopped cooked hare, 2 yolks of eggs, ½ a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233), a pinch of powdered cloves, salt and pepper, egg and breadcrumbs, frying-fat, parsley.

Method.—Make the sauce as directed, add the yolks of eggs, and stir over the fire until it thickens. Put in the hare, add the cloves, and salt and pepper to taste, mix well, and turn on to a plate. When cool, form into cork shaped pieces, coat with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat until nicely browned. Drain well, and serve garnished with crisply-fried parsley.

Time.—To fry, from 4 to 5 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 4 persons.

1347.—HARE, HASHED. (Fr.Lièvre hashé.)

Ingredients.—Remains of cold roast hare, ¾ of a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces), 1 glass of port or claret, salt and pepper, red currant jelly.

Method.—Cut the hare into neat slices, and put these aside while the bones and trimmings are being boiled for stock. Make the brown sauce as directed, and, when economy is an object, use equal parts of stock and stout instead of adding wine to the sauce when finished. Season the sauce to taste, put in the slices of hare, let them remain until thoroughly hot, then serve with red-currant jelly.

Time.—15 minutes, to reheat the hare. Average Cost, 1s. 4d. to 1s. 6d.

1348.—HARE, JUGGED. (Fr.Civet de Lièvre à l'Anglaise.)

Ingredients.—1 hare, 1½ pints of good stock, 1 glass of port wine or claret, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 3 ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 medium-sized onion, 4 cloves, 12 peppercorns, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper, veal forcemeat (see Forcemeats, No. 413), red currant jelly.

Method.—Prepare the hare as directed in Notes on Trussing, and cut it into pieces about the size of a small egg. Heat 2 ozs. of butter in a frying-pan, fry the pieces of hare brown, then put them into a stew-jar with a little salt, the onion stuck with cloves, 1 glass of wine, the lemon-juice, peppercorns, herbs, and the stock previously made hot. Cover the jar closely, and cook in a moderate oven for about 3 hours. When the oven is too hot the jar should be placed in a baking-tin surrounded by boiling water, or, when more convenient, the jar may stand in a saucepan of boiling water on the stove. About ½ an hour before serving, knead the remaining oz. of butter and the flour together, stir into the stock, add the other glass of wine, and seasoning if necessary. Make the forcemeat as directed, shape it into small balls, fry in hot butter or fat, and drain well. Pile the pieces of hare on a hot dish, strain the gravy over, arrange the forcemeat balls round the base, and serve the red currant jelly separately.

Time.—To cook, about 3 hours. Average Cost, 5s. 6d. to 6s. 6d. Seasonable from September to March.

1349.—HARE, POTTED.

Ingredients.—1 hare, slices of bacon, good stock, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 3 cloves, 10 peppercorns, 1 blade of mace, 2 bay-leaves, cayenne, salt and pepper, clarified butter.

Method.—Prepare the hare as directed in Notes on Trussing, and cut it into rather small pieces. Line the bottom of a stew-jar or stewpan with slices of bacon, pack the pieces of hare closely on the top, add the herbs, cloves, peppercorns, mace, bay-leaves, and a liberal seasoning of salt. Barely cover with stock, lay slices of bacon on the top, cover closely, and cook very gently either on the stove or in the oven for about 3 hours, adding more stock from time to time. Remove the bones, chop the flesh and the bacon finely, and pound these in a mortar until smooth, moistening gradually with stock, previously strained. Season rather highly, pass the preparation through a fine sieve, and press it into small pots. Cover with clarified butter, and keep in a cool dry place.

Time.—To stew, about 3 hours. Average Cost, 5s. 6d. to 6s.

Note.—Cold remains of hare may also be potted, a little good gravy or brown sauce being used to moisten the preparation.

1350.—HARE, ROASTED. (Fr.Lièvre Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 hare, bacon, veal forcemeat (see Forcemeats), ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 glass of port, 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped shallot or onion, a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley, a good pinch of thyme, salt and pepper, red currant jelly, milk for basting.

Method.—Choose a young hare, which may be known by its smooth and sharp claws, and the narrow cleft in the lip. To be eaten in perfection it should hang about 8 days. When ready for use, skin, draw, and truss according to directions given in Notes on Trussing. Forcemeat is a matter of taste; if used, it should be pressed lightly inside the hare and the body sewn up with a needle and strong cotton before trussing. Carefully follow the directions given for trussing, then brush the hare all over with warm butter or dripping, cover the back with slices of fat bacon, and tie it down with siring in 3 or 4 places. Roast the hare in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven from 1½ to 2 hours, basting it very frequently with milk, to which may be added, when economy is not an object, 1 or 2 ozs. of butter. Meanwhile, remove the gallbladder carefully from the liver, put the liver into cold water, bring to the boil, cook for 5 minutes, then drain and chop finely. Melt the butter in a small stewpan, add the liver, onion, parsley and thyme, fry for 10 minutes, then drain, and return the butter to the stewpan. If available, pound the liver, etc., in a mortar until smooth, and rub through a fine wire sieve. Re-heat the butter, stir in the flour, and cook over the fire until a nut-brown roux is obtained, then add the stock (if none is at hand substitute the milk used for basting), stir until it boils, then add the liver preparation, season to taste, for 10 minutes, and just before serving put in the wine. When the hare is rather more than three parts cooked remove the bacon, to allow the back to brown, dredging slightly with flour, and basting frequently with butter during the process. Remove the trussing strings, dish up on a hot dish, and serve with the liver sauce and red currant jelly separately.

Time.—To roast, from 1½ to 2 hours. Average Cost, 6s. to 6s. 6d. Seasonable from September to March.

1351.—HARE, ROAST BARON OF. (Fr.Baron de Lièvre Rôti.)

Ingredients.—1 hare, larding bacon, veal forcemeat (see Forcemeats), ¾ of a pint of brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233) 1 glass of port, red currant jelly, butter or fat for basting.

Method.—This dish will be found most useful for a small dinner. The body, cut close to the shoulder-blades, alone is used, but the legs, neck and head can be converted into soup, potted, or made into a civet of hare. Parboil the liver, chop it finely, add it to the veal forcemeat, then stuff the body of the hare and sew it up with strong cotton. Carefully remove the skin from the back, and lard it, i.e., insert fine strips of larding bacon. Wrap the hare in 2 or 3 folds of well-greased paper, secure it with string, and roast in front of a clear fire or in a moderate oven from 40 to 50 minutes, basting frequently with hot butter or dripping. When the cooking is nearly completed remove the paper to allow the lardoons to crisp. Make the sauce as directed, add the wine, season to taste, and serve in a sauce-boat.

Time.—To cook, 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 6s. to 6s. 6d., including the whole hare. Seasonable from September to the end of March.

1352.—HARE SOUP. (Fr.Potage de Lièvre.)

See page 166, Soup Section, Recipe No. 69.

1353.—RABBIT IN ASPIC JELLY. (Fr.Lapin en Gelée.)

Ingredients.—Cooked rabbit, aspic jelly, hard-boiled eggs, shredded bacon.

Method.—Divide the rabbit into neat pieces. Cover the bottom of a plain mould with a thin layer of liquid, but cold, aspic jelly, and, when set, decorate with slices or sections of egg, and add more jelly. Arrange the pieces of rabbit in layers interspersed with strips of bacon and slices of egg, and fill up with jelly. Put aside until set, then unmould, garnish with chopped aspic, and serve.

Time.—To set the aspic, from 2 to 3 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 3s. Seasonable from September to March.

The Rabbit.—This animal is an inhabitant of the temperate regions, but does not reach so far north as the hare, to which it is allied. The wild rabbit is a native of Great Britain, and is found in large numbers in Norfolk and Cambridgeshire. The flesh of the wild rabbit is darker than that of the domesticated species, and is by some considered to possess a higher flavour, although neither so white nor so delicate. It is also smaller in size and less fat than the tame rabbit.

1354.—RABBIT, AMERICAN STYLE. (Fr.Lapin à l'Americaine.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, ¼ of a pint of tomato purée, 1½ ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 2 ozs. of dripping, stock, salt and pepper, lemon-juice, castor sugar.

Method.—Wash and dry the rabbit thoroughly, and divide it into neat joints. Heat the dripping in a stewpan, fry the rabbit until well-browned, and drain away the fat. Barely cover with stock, put on a close-fitting lid, and cook very gently until tender. Meanwhile heat the butter in another stewpan, fry the flour slowly until it acquires a nut-brown colour, then stir in the tomato purée. When ready, remove the rabbit and keep it hot. Strain and add ¾ of a pint of the stock to the blended flour and butter. Stir until boiling, season to taste, and add a pinch of sugar and about 1 teaspoonful of lemon-juice. Put in the rabbit, make thoroughly hot, then serve.

Time.—To stew, from 1 to 1¼ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. 1d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1355.—RABBIT À LA MINUTE. (Fr.Lapin à la Minute.)

Ingredients.—1 young rabbit, 4 ozs. of butter, 1 good tablespoonful of flour, 2 tablespoonfuls of chopped mushrooms, ½ dessertspoonful of chopped parsley, ½ a saltspoonful of mace, salt and pepper, ¾ of a pint of boiling stock or water.

Method.—Wash and thoroughly dry the rabbit and cut it into neat joints. Heat 2½ ozs. of butter in a stewpan, put in the rabbit, sprinkle with salt and pepper, and add the mace. Put on the cover, which should fit as closely as possible, and cook gently for 45 minutes, turning the pieces over and basting frequently. Meanwhile melt the remainder of the butter in another stewpan, add the flour, stir and cook gently for a few minutes without browning, then add the stock. Boil up, simmer gently for 10 minutes, and pour over the rabbit when it has cooked for 40 minutes. Add the parsley, mushrooms, salt and pepper to taste, and continue to cook slowly for 20 minutes longer, or until the rabbit is tender. Serve with the sauce poured over.

Time.—About 1 hour. Average Cost, 1s. 10d. to 2s. 2d. Sufficient for 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

Varieties of Rabbits.—Among the numerous varieties of rabbits, some are kept for their beauty, and are known as "fancy" rabbits. These are of foreign origin, and probably came originally from Persia, India and China. The most valued are the lop-eared and Angora; other kinds, as the Belgian hare-rabbit, the silver-grey, the Himalayan and the Dutch rabbit are kept for some qualities of form or for the excellence of their flesh. For the table the Belgian hare-rabbits are the best, for their size, weight and the rapidity with which they arrive at maturity. The common white, and yellow and white species have white and delicate flesh, and when cooked in a similar way to the turkey are said to rival it in flavour. Wild or semi-wild rabbits are distinguished as "warreners," who burrow underneath the earth, and live in communities; "parkers," whose favourite resort is the park or pleasure ground of an estate, where they usually breed in great numbers, and frequently drive away the hares; and the "hedgehog," of roaming habits.

1356.—RABBIT, BARBECUE OF. (Fr.Lapin Grillé.)

Ingredients.—1 very young rabbit, salad-oil or oiled butter, salt and pepper. For the sauce: 2 tablespoonfuls of good gravy, 1 tablespoonful of lemon-juice, 1 teaspoonful of French mustard. For the garnish: sliced lemon, fried parsley.

Method.—Cut off the head, let the rabbit lie in salt and water for 1 hour, and afterwards dry it thoroughly. Score the back and legs closely, season with salt and pepper, and coat liberally with salad-oil or oiled butter. Heat up the gravy and other ingredients. Let it remain for 1 hour, then again sprinkle the rabbit with salt and pepper, brush it over with oil or butter, and broil it over or in front of a clear fire. Turn frequently, and brush over with oil or butter whenever it appears in the least dry. Divide into neat joints, and dish up, pour over a little brown sauce, and garnish with sprigs of fried parsley and sliced lemon.

Time.—To broil, from 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 6d. to 1s. 9d. Sufficient for 3 to 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

The Common or Wild Rabbit.—This well-known rodent belong to the same family (Leporidæ) as the hare, but is smaller in size, and its hind legs and ears are shorter. In the wild state the fur of the rabbit is a greyish-brown; the colour under domestication, however, changes frequently to black, white or other shades. The fur is used for many purposes, as the manufacture of hats, the imitation of more costly furs, etc. The rabbit is one of the most prolific of animals in Australia and New Zealand, where it was introduced from England, it has increased so rapidly as to become a serious pest. During the time of the Roman power under the Emperor Augustus the Balearic Islands were once infested by rabbits to such an extent that the inhabitants were obliged to beg the aid of a military force to exterminate the prolific rodents. Sandy tracts and the slopes of hills, in which it burrows, are the favourite resort of the rabbit. Martial, the Roman writer of epigrams, declared that it was from the rabbit, with its remarkable faculty for tunnelling in the earth, that man first learned the art of fortification, mining and covered roads. Large numbers of wild rabbits are kept in enclosures or "warrens" in favourable localities, and are killed to supply the markets, as well as for their fur and skin.

1357.—RABBIT, BOILED. (Fr.Lapin bouilli.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, 1 onion, 1 carrot, ½ a turnip, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 6 peppercorns, salt, onion sauce (see Sauces, No. 265), boiled or fried bacon.

Method.—Truss the rabbit (see Notes on Trussing), put it into boiling water; when the water re-boils add the vegetables cut into large pieces, the bouquet-garni, peppercorns, and a teaspoonful of salt. Cook gently from 45 to 60 minutes, according to the age and size of the rabbit. Remove the skewers, serve on a hot dish, coat with onion sauce, and send the remainder to table in a sauce-boat. Serve the bacon on a separate dish, unless small rolls are preferred, when they may be used as garnish. The liquor in which the rabbit was cooked may be served separately as broth, or afterwards converted into a white soup.

Time.—From 45 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. Sufficient, one large rabbit for 4 persons.

1358.—RABBIT, CREAM OF. (Fr.Créme de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of raw rabbit, ¼ of a pint of THICK white sauce (No. 221), 1 small egg. salt and pepper, ½ a pint of brown sauce (No. 233).

Method.—Chop the flesh of the rabbit finely, or pass it 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine, and pound it in a mortar until smooth. Work in the egg, add the white sauce, season well with salt and pepper, and pass the mixture through a fine sieve. Press lightly into 6 or 8 well-buttered bomb or other small moulds, steam gently until firm, and serve with the brown sauce strained over the dish.

Time.—To steam the moulds, from 15 to 20 minutes. Average Cost, about 2s. Sufficient for 6 or 8 moulds. Seasonable from September to March.

Fecundity of the Rabbit.—The reproduction of this animal has been the subject of wonder to all naturalists. It breeds seven times in the year, and generally begets seven or eight young ones at a time. If we suppose this to happen regularly for a period of four years, the progeny that would spring from a single pair would amount to more than a million. The rabbit, however, has many enemies, and its numbers are largely kept down by carnivorous animals of every description. As previously mentioned, in the time of the Roman power rabbits once infested the Balearic Islands to such an extent that the inhabitants were obliged to implore the assistance of a military force from Augustus to exterminate them.

1359.—RABBIT, CURRIED. (Fr.Lapin au Kari.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, 4 or 5 ozs. of cooked rice, 3 ozs. of butter or fat, 2 onions, 1 apple, ¾ of a pint of stock, 1 tablespoonful of curry-powder, 1 tablespoonful of flour, the juice of a lemon. Salt.

Method.—Wash the rabbit, dry it thoroughly, and divide it into small joints; slice the apple and the onions. Heat the butter or fat in a stewpan, fry the rabbit until lightly browned, remove it, put in the onions, and when they have acquired a deep brown colour add the curry-powder and flour, and fry for 10 minutes. Now put in the stock, and when boiling replace the rabbit, add the apple, salt to taste, cover, and

GAME.

 
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1.—Hen Wild Duck. 2.—Wood Pigeon. 3.—Woodcock. 4.—Cock Wild Duck. 5.—Black Plover. 6.—Golden Plover. 7.—Snipe. 8.—Pheasants. 9.—Hare. 10.—Teal.

simmer gently for 1½ to 1¾ hours. Before serving, add the lemon-juice and seasoning if necessary. Pile the rabbit in the centre of a hot dish, strain the sauce over, and serve the rice separately.

Time.—From 2¼ to 2½ hours. Average Cost, from 2s. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1360.—RABBIT CUTLETS. (Fr.Côtelettes de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—2 rabbits, liver farce No. 398, brown sauce (see Sauces), egg, breadcrumbs, butter or frying-fat, parsley.

Method.—Cut off the legs and necks of the rabbits, and put them aside to be converted into a ragoût or pie. Remove the flesh from the back of each rabbit, keeping it whole, and afterwards divide it into pieces of even and suitable size. Flatten them with a cutlet-bat, trim neatly, and fry gently for 10 or 15 minutes in hot butter or fat. Press between 2 dishes until cold, then cover one side rather thickly with liver farce, and coat carefully with egg and breadcrumbs. Fry in a deep pan of fat until nicely browned, then drain well and serve garnished with fried parsley. Send the sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—To fry, 10 or 15 minutes, and afterwards 6 or 7 minutes. Average Cost, rabbits from 1s. 2d. to 1s. 6d. each. Seasonable from September to March.

1361.—RABBIT, DARIOLES OF. (Fr.Darioles de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—½ a lb. of finely-chopped raw rabbit, 1 oz. of panada, 2 tablespoonfuls of brown sauce No. 233, 2 tablespoonfuls of cream, 1 egg, salt and pepper, mushroom or oyster sauce.

Method.—Pound the rabbit until smooth, add the egg, panada, salt and pepper to taste, and, when well mixed, pass through a fine wire sieve. Stir in the cream and brown sauce, press the preparation lightly into well-buttered darioles, and steam gently until firm. Unmould and serve with mushroom, oyster or celery sauce.

Time.—To steam the darioles, from 20 to 25 minutes. Average Cost, 1s. 8d. to 2s. 2d. Sufficient for 6 or 8 darioles. Seasonable from September to March.

1362.—RABBIT, FRICASSEE OF. (Fr.Lapin en Fricassée.)

Ingredients.—1 young rabbit, 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, white stock, ½ a pint of milk, 2 onions sliced, 1 carrot sliced, ½ a small turnip sliced, 1 or 2 strips of celery shredded, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 1 blade of mace, 6 white peppercorns, salt and pepper.

Method.—Cut the rabbit into neat joints, and after rinsing in warm water, place them in a stewpan, and add just sufficient white stock to cover. Bring to boiling point, add the prepared vegetables, peppercorns and a little salt, cover closely, and cook gently for about 1¼ hours, or until the rabbit is tender, adding a little milk from time to time, to replace the stock. Meanwhile melt the butter, add the flour, stir and cook gently without browning, and put aside until wanted. When ready, take up the rabbit and keep it hot, strain and add ¾ of a pint of the stock to the blended flour and butter, stir until boiling, and simmer gently for 10 minutes. Pass the vegetables through a fine sieve, and stir the purée into the sauce. Season to taste, replace the rabbit, make thoroughly hot, then serve.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1363.—RABBIT, FILLETS OF. (Fr.Filets de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—2 rabbits, larding bacon, a mirepoix (see No. 949), stock glaze, ½ a pint of brown sauce.

Method.—Remove the flesh from the back of each rabbit (see Rabbit Cutlets), divide into pieces of suitable size, and lard one side of them in close even rows. Place the vegetables in a stewpan, add stock to nearly cover them, and lay the fillets on the top. Cover with a greased paper, put on the lid, which should fit closely, and cook very gently for about 1 hour, adding more stock from time to time. Put the fillets into a hot oven for a few minutes, to crisp the bacon, then brush them over with glaze, and serve on a hot dish with the sauce poured round.

Time.—To braise the fillets, about 1 hour. Average Cost, rabbit from 1s. 2d. to 1s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1364.—RABBIT, FRIED WITH TARTARE SAUCE. (Fr.Lapereau frit à la Tartare.)

Ingredients.—1 young rabbit. For the marinade, or sauce: ¼ of a pint of salad-oil, 1 tablespoonful of chili vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of malt, vinegar, 1 finely-chopped shallot, 2 cloves, 1 bay-leaf, 1 blade of mace, salt and pepper, ¼ of a pint of mayonnaise sauce No. 201, 1 tablespoonful of coarsely-chopped pickled gherkins, egg, breadcrumbs, frying-fat.

Method.—Bone the legs of the rabbit, and remove the flesh from the back in large fillets. Place them in a deep dish, pour over the marinade, and let them remain in it for at least 1 hour, turning frequently. Make the mayonnaise sauce as directed, and add to it the chopped gherkin. Drain the pieces of rabbit well, coat them with egg and breadcrumbs, and fry in hot fat until nicely browned. Drain well, arrange in a pyramidal form on a hot dish, garnish with crisply-fried parsley, and serve the mayonnaise sauce in a sauce-boat.

Time.—From 1½ to 2½ hours. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. to 2s. 9d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1365.—RABBIT, JUGGED. (Fr.Civet de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, 1 pint of good stock, 1 glass of port or claret, 1 dessertspoonful of lemon-juice, 2½ ozs. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 medium-sized onion, 2 cloves, 8 peppercorns, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper, veal forcemeat No. 413, red-currant jelly.

Method.—Wash and dry the rabbit and cut it into neat joints. Fry in 1½ ozs. of hot butter until well browned, and afterwards follow the directions for Hare, Jugged, p. 763.

Time.—To cook, about 2 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 3d. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

The Rabbit House.—To keep rabbits in good health, especially if they are valuable and of a pure and delicate breed, it is very important that the hutches should be properly constructed, sheltered from draughts, and protected from damp. If a number of rabbits are kept, a dry brickwork building, such as a stable or similar outbuilding, with good ventilation, may advantageously be used for this purpose. Around three sides of the building hutches in tiers should be arranged, the lowest tier being placed some few inches from the ground. The size of the hutches will be dependent upon the number of rabbits and the particular purpose for which they are required, but should not be less than 20 in. in width, constructed of white deal, with a gradual slope from the front to the back of the hutch, the latter being provided with a zinc gutter. Each hutch should be divided into two sections, the smaller, about one-third of the length of the hutch, serving a a dark or sleeping compartment with an arched hole, made smooth to prevent injury to the fur of the rabbit when passing from one part of the hutch to the other. A double floor to the hutch will conduce to the health and cleanliness of the rabbit. The lower floor should be constructed of pine, about 1 in. in thickness, and the upper floor made of half-inch laths, 1 in. apart, placed diagonally or at right angles to one another. In the case of "outside hutches" care must be taken that the hutches have a southern aspect, and are protected from cold and wet, but ventilation must not be forgotten, for pure air is indispensable where many rabbits are kept; it should, however, be regulated in cold or wet weather by the closing or shutting of opposite doors or windows. Where a large number of rabbits are kept for breeding and rearing for the market, a rabbit-court is the most advantageous for that purpose.

1366.—RABBIT, LARDED AND BRAISED. (Fr.Lapin piqué et braisé.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, larding bacon, stock, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 2 ozs. of dripping, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and dry the rabbit thoroughly, cut it into neat pieces, and lard each piece by inserting thin strips of larding bacon. Heat the dripping in a stewpan, fry the rabbit quickly until lightly browned, and drain away the fat. Cover with stock, add salt and pepper to taste, and the herbs tied in muslin, cover closely, and cook gently from 1¼ to 1½ hours, or until the rabbit is quite tender. Knead the butter and flour together, and add it, in small pieces, to the contents of the stewpan about 20 minutes before serving. Serve with the sauce strained over.

Time.—From 1½ to 1¾ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 8d. to 2s. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1367.—RABBIT, MARBLED.

Ingredients.—2 rabbits, 1 lb. of pickled pork or bacon in slices, stock, 2 hard-boiled eggs, 1 raw egg, ½ an oz. of gelatine, ½ a teaspoonful of powdered mixed herbs, ½ a teaspoonful of finely-chopped parsley.

Method.—Cut off the heads and necks, wash the rabbits, and let them soak for at least 1 hour in strong salted water. Pack closely in a stewpan, lay the slices of pork or bacon on the top, and barely cover with stock. Cover closely, simmer gently from 1 hour to 1¼ hours, or until the rabbits are tender, and remove the flesh from the bones in as large pieces as possible. Chop all the small pieces of flesh as finely as possible, mix with it the herbs and seasoning, and half its weight in breadcrumbs, and finely-chopped pork or bacon, and moisten with egg. Cut the remainder of the pork or bacon into strips. Fry the livers and kidneys in hot butter or fat, drain them well, and when cool slice them rather thinly. Form the prepared forcemeat into small balls, drop them into boiling stock or water, and simmer for 10 minutes. Add 1 pint of strained stock to the gelatine, stir over the fire until dissolved, season to taste, and, if cloudy, clear with white of egg. When cool, pour a little into a mould, let it set, then cover with pieces of rabbit, interspersed with strips of pork or bacon, forcemeat balls, liver, kidney, and slices of egg. Repeat until all the materials are used, taking care to leave spaces to admit the stock, which must be added to completely cover the rest of the ingredients. Put aside until set, then unmould, and use as required.

Time.—Altogether, about 4 hours. Average Cost, 3s. 4d. to 4s. Sufficient for 1 or 2 moulds. Seasonable from September to March.

1368.—RABBIT PATTIES. (Fr.Pâtés de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—6 ozs. of either raw or cooked rabbit, 2 ozs. of ham or lean bacon, stock or water, salt and pepper, short crust or puff paste, 1 egg.

Method.—Cut both rabbit and bacon into rather small dice, season liberally with salt and pepper, mix well, and moisten with stock or water. Have ready some patty-pans lined with paste, fill them with the meat preparation, and put on the covers. Brush over with egg, and bake in a moderately hot oven for about 20 minutes, or until cooked if using raw meat. Serve either hot or cold.

Time.—To bake, 20 minutes or longer. Average Cost, about 1s., in addition to the rabbit. Sufficient for 12 patties. Seasonable from September to March.

Fancy Rabbits.—The chief points required by a fancier are respectively the graceful fall of the ears, the dewlap, the colour and marked points, and the shape and general appearance. The ears should extend at least 7 in., measured from tip to tip in a line across the skull, and must also have a uniform and graceful droop. Sometimes the ears, instead of drooping down, slope backwards; a rabbit with this characteristic is scarcely admitted into a fancy lot, and is of little value. The next position is when one ear lops outwards and the other stands erect; this constitutes the half-lop. The forward or horn-lop is one degree nearer perfection than the half-lop; the ears slope forward and down over the forehead. Horn-lops are often perfect in other respects, with the exception of the droop of the ears, and frequently become the parents of young ones which are perfect. In the ear-lop, the ears spread out in a horizontal position like the wings of a bird when in flight. Occasionally a rabbit drops one ear completely, but raises the other so nearly horizontally as to constitute an ear-lop. This variety is superior to all others except the perfect full-lop, and if well-bred and with good points is esteemed a valuable rabbit.

The ears of the real or full-lop hang down by the side of the cheek, slanting somewhat outward in their descent, with the open part of the ear inward, and sometimes either backwards or forwards instead of perpendicular; when the rabbit stands in an easy position, the tips of the ears touch the ground. The hollows of a fancy rabbit of the first quality should be turned so completely backwards that only the outer part of them should remain in front; they should match exactly in their descent, and should slant outwards as little as possible.

The dewlap, seen only in fancy rabbits when they have attained their full growth, is a fold of skin under the neck and throat, which commences immediately under the jaw and goes down the throat and between the forelegs, and projects in breadth beyond the chin. If perfect, it adds greatly to the beauty of the appearance of the rabbit.

The colour of the fur of fancy rabbits may be of various hues, provided these colours are arranged in a particular manner, forming imaginary figures or fancied resemblances to certain objects, such peculiarities of marking being denoted by distinctive designations.

A good fancy rabbit must also have other characteristic marks to be a perfect model of its kind. The tail must be of the same colour as the back and snout; there must be a black or blue-black patch on the back, known as "the saddle"; there should also be dark stripes on both sides of the body in front, passing backwards to meet the saddle and uniting on the top of the shoulders. These stripes form "the chain," and are so called from their resemblance to a chain or collar hanging round the neck.

Comparatively few thoroughbred fancy rabbits will have all these markings clearly defined on the fur; but the more closely they approach to the pattern described, the greater will be the value of the animal as relates to its colour. The beauty and consequent worth of a fancy rabbit depends, however, much on its shape, or what is styled its carriage. A rabbit is said to have a good carriage when its back is finely arched, rising full two inches above the top of its head, which must be held so low as to allow the muzzle and the points of the ears to reach almost to the ground.

1369.—RABBIT PIE. (Fr.Pâté de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, ½ a lb. of bacon or pickled pork, ½ a lb. of beefsteak, ½ a pint of stock, salt and pepper, short crust or puff paste.

Method.—Wash the rabbit, divide it into small joints, cut the beef into small thin slices, and the pork into dice. Place these ingredients in layers in a pie-dish, season each layer liberally with salt and pepper, and ¾ fill the dish with stock. Cover with paste (see Veal and Ham Pie No. 798), bake from 1¾ to 2 hours in a brisk oven until the paste has risen and set, and afterwards more slowly. Before serving, add the remainder of the hot stock to the pie. When the pie is intended to be eaten cold, forcemeat balls and hard-boiled eggs will be found an improvement, and the appearance may be improved by brushing it over with yolk of egg when ¾ baked.

Time.—To bake, from 1¾ to 2 hours. Average Cost, 2s. 3d., exclusive of the paste. Sufficient for 6 or 7 persons.

The Angora Rabbit.—As its name implies, this handsome rabbit is a native of Angora, a city and district of Asia Minor, and noted for the long hair of the animals which live in this region, particularly the sheep, goats and cats, whose wool and fur are exceptionally fine in texture. The fur of the Angora rabbit to long, waved and silky and is much valued as an article of commerce.

1370.—RABBIT, PILAU OF. (Fr.Pilau de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, ½ a lb. of Carolina rice, 4 ozs. of butter, 2 large onions sliced, 1½ pints of stock (about), salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash and dry the rabbit thoroughly, and divide it into neat joints. Heat 2 ozs. of butter in a stewpan, add the onions, and cook gently until lightly browned. Wash and drain the rice, add it to the onions and butter, stir over the fire for about 10 minutes, then cover with boiling stock and simmer gently. Fry the rabbit very slowly in the remainder of the butter until well browned, and put it, and the butter in which it was fried, into the stewpan containing the rice. Continue to cook slowly for 1 hour, or until the rabbit is quite tender, adding, from time to time, just as much stock as is necessary to prevent the rice sticking to the bottom of the stewpan, meanwhile keeping the stewpan closely covered. Serve the rabbit piled on the rice.

Time.—About 2 hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 3d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

The Himalaya Rabbit.—Amidst the mighty Himalaya mountains, whose peaks are the highest on the globe, the pretty rabbit here portrayed is found; and his colour seems to be like the snow, which, above the altitude of from 13,000 to 16,000 feet, perpetually crowns the summits of these monarchs of the world.

1371.—RABBIT PUDDING. (Fr.Pouding de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, ½ a lb. of pickled pork cut into dice, flour, salt and pepper, suet paste No. 1671.

Method.—Wash the rabbit, cut it into neat joints, and put the head, neck, liver and kidneys aside, to be afterwards stewed for gravy. Mix together 1 tablespoonful of flour, 1 teaspoonful of salt, ¼ of a teaspoonful of pepper; coat the pieces of rabbit with the mixture, and put them closely in a basin lined with paste, interspersing the dice of pork (see Beef and Kidney Pudding, No. 841). Nearly fill the basin with cold water, cover first with paste, and afterwards with 2 or 3 folds of greased paper, and steam for at least 2½ hours. Turn out the pudding on a hot dish and send the gravy made from the head, etc. to table separately.

Time.—To steam the pudding, from 2½ to 3 hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 4d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1372.—RABBIT, ROAST WITH ESPAGNOLE SAUCE. (Fr.Lapin Rôti à l'Espagnole.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, veal forcemeat (see Forcemeats), bacon, ¾ of a pint of Espagnole sauce No. 244.

Method.—Stuff the rabbit with the forcemeat, sew up the opening, and truss according to directions given on Trussing. Cover the back with slices of streaky bacon, baste well with hot dripping, and roast from 50 to 60 minutes before a clear fire or in a moderately hot oven. Baste frequently, otherwise the flesh will be dry, and a few minutes before serving remove the bacon to allow the back of the rabbit to brown. Remove the skewers, serve on a hot dish with some of the sauce poured round, garnish with the bacon cut into dice, or have ready some crisply-fried small rolls of bacon, and send the remainder of the sauce to table in a sauce-boat.

Time.—From 50 to 60 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. to 2s. 9d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1373.—RABBIT, RICH STEW OF. (Fr.Gibelotte de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, ¼ of a lb. of streaky bacon, 1 pint of good stock, 1 glass of claret, 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 18 button onions, a bouquet-garni (parsley, thyme, bay-leaf), 2 cloves, 6 peppercorns, salt and pepper.

Method.—Divide the rabbit into small joints, cut the bacon into dice, and peel the onions. Heat the butter in a stewpan, fry the onions and bacon until brown, and remove to a plate. Now put in the rabbit, and when it has acquired a little colour sprinkle in the flour, and continue the frying until both rabbit and flour are well browned. Replace the onions and bacon, add the hot stock, bouquet-garni, cloves, peppercorns, and salt to taste, cover closely, and stew gently for about 1 hour, or until the rabbit is tender. 15 minutes before serving add the claret, and when the sauce again reaches simmering point put in the liver, previously washed and cut into small pieces, and let it cook for about 10 minutes. Pile the rabbit in the centre of a hot dish, season the sauce to taste and strain it over, garnish the base with groups of bacon-dice and onions, and serve.

Time.—About 1½ hours. Average Cost, 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons.

1374.—RABBIT SOUFFLÉ. (Fr.Soufflé de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—6 ozs. of finely-chopped raw rabbit, 2 ozs of butter, 2 ozs. of flour, 3 eggs, ½ a pint of milk, salt and pepper, brown sauce (see Sauces).

Method.—Melt the batter, add the flour, stir in the milk, simmer gently for 10 minutes, and put the sauce aside to cool. Pound the flesh of the rabbit until smooth, work in the yolks of eggs, add the white sauce, and season liberally with salt and pepper. Pass the mixture through a wire sieve, add the stiffly-whipped whites of eggs, and turn into a well-butterd soufflé-tin. Steam gently from 40 to 50 minutes and serve with the brown sauce poured round.

Time.—To steam, from 40 to 50 minutes. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 1 large soufflé. Seasonable from September to March.

1375.—RABBIT WITH SPANISH ONIONS.

Ingredients.—1 large rabbit, ¼ of a lb. of ham or bacon, 4 or 5 Spanish onions, flour, salt and pepper.

Method.—Wash the rabbit, cut it into pieces convenient for serving, cut the onions into thin slices, and the ham or bacon into dice. Line the bottom and sides of a fireproof earthenware stew-jar or casserole with slices of onion, put in a single layer of rabbit, add a few pieces of ham, sprinkle well with flour, salt and pepper, and cover with slices of onion. Now put in the remainder of the rabbit, with the bacon, flour, and seasoning as before, cover the surface completely with slices of onion, and add 2 tablespoonfuls of cold water. Put on the lid, which must fit closely, place the stew-jar in a moderate oven, or on a cool part of the stove, and cook very slowly from 2 to 2½ hours. At the end of that time it will be found that the onions have yielded an abundance of gravy. If a homely dish is desired, serve the contents of the stew-jar in their simple form, or transfer the pieces of rabbit to a stewpan, strain over them the gravy, rub the onions through a fine hair sieve, add these to the contents of the stewpan, and when thoroughly hot, serve.

Time.—From 2 to 2½ hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 4 or 5 persons.

1376.—RABBIT STEWED IN MILK. (Fr.Lapin au lait.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, 1 small onion very finely-chopped, a small blade of mace, 1 pint of milk (about), salt and pepper, 1 teaspoonful of cornflour.

Method.—Wash the rabbit, cut it into neat joints, and soak and blanch the head and neck in strong salted water. Pack the pieces closely in a baking-dish or pie-dish, sprinkle over them the onion, season well with salt and pepper, and add the mace. Nearly fill the dish with milk, cover with an inverted dish or piedish, and cook in a moderate oven from 1¼ to 1½ hours. About 10 minutes before serving mix the cornflour smoothly with a little cold milk, boil up, and add it to the contents of the piedish and allow to cook for another 10 minutes. When ready, arrange the rabbit neatly on a hot dish, strain the sauce over, then serve.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 4d. to 1s. 8d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1377.—RABBIT, BROWN STEW OF. (Fr.Ragoût de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, 1 pint of stock, 2 ozs. of butter, ¾ of an oz. of

TINNED MEAT.

 
Mrs Beeton (47).jpg

1. Spiced Beef. 2. Corned Beef. 3. Preserved Ham.

PRESERVED AND TINNED MEATS.

 
Mrs Beeton (48).jpg

flour, 2 cloves, 1 blade of mace, 1 bay-leaf, salt and pepper, small rolls of crisply-fried bacon.

Method.—Cut up the rabbit, fry it in hot butter, removing the pieces as soon as they are lightly browned. Fry the onions and flour until well browned, add the stock, herbs and seasoning, stir until boiling, then replace the rabbit, cover, and simmer gently for about 1 hour. Arrange the rabbit neatly on a hot dish, strain over the sauce, and garnish with the bacon.

Time.—From 1¾ to 2 hours. Average Cost, 1s. 9d. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1378.—RABBIT, WHITE STEW OF. (Fr.Lapin en Blanquette.)

Ingredients.—1 young rabbit, ¾ of a pint of white stock, ¾ of a pint of milk, 1 oz. of butter, 1 oz. of flour, 1 onion sliced, 1 or 2 strips of celery shredded, 1 blade of mace, 8 white peppercorns, salt and pepper. For the garnish: 2 tablespoonfuls each of finely-shredded carrot, onion and turnip.

Method.—Wash and joint the rabbit, place it in a stewpan with the stock and milk, and bring to the boil. Add the onion, previously blanched, celery, mace, peppercorns and a little salt, and simmer gently until the rabbit is tender. Knead the flour and butter together, and add it, in small pieces, when the rabbit is three-quarters cooked. Serve with the sauce strained over, garnished with the vegetables, previously cooked separately.

Time.—From 1¼ to 1¾ hours. Average Cost, 2s. to 2s. 6d. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1379.—RABBIT, RAGOÛT OF. (Fr.Ragoût de Lapin.)

Ingredients.—1 rabbit, 4 ozs. of streaky bacon, 2 ozs. of butter, 1½ ozs. of flour, 1 onion cut into dice, 1 carrot cut into dice, ½ a small turnip cut into dice, 6 peppercorns, salt and pepper, 1 pint of boiling stock or water.

Method.—Wash and dry the rabbit thoroughly, and cut the bacon into 1 inch squares. Heat the butter in a stewpan, fry the rabbit until the entire surface is nicely browned, then remove and keep it hot. Fry the onion slightly, put in the flour, stir and cook slowly until well-browned, and add the stock or water. Boil gently for 10 minutes, add salt to taste, put in the carrot and the turnip, and the bacon and peppercorns. Replace the rabbit in the stewpan, cover closely, and cook very gently for about 2 hours, or until the rabbit is tender. Serve on a hot dish, with the sauce strained over, and garnished with the dice of turnip and carrot, which should be previously boiled separately.

Time.—About 2½ hours. Average Cost, 1s. 8d. to 2s. Sufficient for 3 or 4 persons. Seasonable from September to March.

1380.—RABBIT, TURBAN OF.

Ingredients.—2 rabbits, larding bacon, 1 oz. of butter, ½ an oz. of flour, 1 egg, ½ a gill of stock or water, pepper and salt, glaze, brown sauce (see Sauces, No. 233.).

Method.—Separate the flesh from the bones (see Rabbit Cutlets, No. 1360, and Rabbit, Fillets Of, No. 1361), divide the back into pieces of even size, and lard them neatly. Melt the butter, stir in the flour, add the stock, cook until the mixture leaves the sides of the pan, then put it aside to cool. Chop the remainder of the flesh finely, or pass it 2 or 3 times through a mincing machine, and afterwards pound it until smooth. Work in the panada, add the egg and seasoning to taste, and when well mixed pass through a fine wire sieve. Press the mixture lightly into a well-buttered border or turban mould, and steam until firm. Meanwhile, the fillets should have been braised and glazed according to directions given in Rabbits, Fillets Of. Now arrange them neatly within the shape, pour the sauce round, and serve.

Time.—To cook the fillets, about 1 hour. To steam the turban, about 35 minutes. Average Cost, 3s. to 3s. 6d. Sufficient for 5 or 6 persons.