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NIOSH Hazard Review: Carbonless Copy Paper/Tables and Figures


2—1 CF coating slurry formulation 7
3—1 Exposures from CCP handling 14
3—2 Solvent emissions from CCP with intact microcapsules and 1% crushed microcapsules (mg/m2 per hour) 17
3—3 Airborne concentrations of total dust and solvents produced with standardized paper handling in the laboratory (mg/m3) 18
3—4 GC/MS analysis of CCP samples, SurSol 290 solvent, and area air samples (ppb) 20
3—5 Formaldehyde concentration after repeated turning of CCP sheets in a test chamber 22
3—6 Formaldehyde concentrations in the test chamber at various points after turning (total of 60 sheets for each condition) 23
3—7 Formaldehyde concentrations in the test chamber during a 90-min period 23
3—8 Formaldehyde concentrations in a test chamber containing eight CCP products 24
3—9 Effect of ventilation on formaldehyde concentrations in test chambers containing CCP 26
3—10 Summary of formaldehyde concentrations reported in CCP studies 26
4—1 Published case reports, case series, and health hazard evaluations involving exposure to CCP or CCP components 31
4—2 Summary of health-related inquiries from customers to Appleton Papers, Inc., May 1976 to December 1986 47
4—3 Summary of cross-sectional studies that used questionnaires to assess the health effects of indoor air contaminants in general or CCP specifically 49
4—4 Job or workspace factors associated with the prevalence of work-related symptoms after adjustment for other personal, psychological, job, workspace, and building factors in northern California office workers, June—September 1990 59
4—5 Types and locations of skin and mucous membrane symptoms in a Swedish questionnaire study 62
4—6 Dose-response relationship of CCP handling frequency with symptoms reported by respondents 64
4—7 Frequency of respiratory tract symptoms by type of paper and exposure level 65
4—8 Positive findings from physician interviews of 53 respondents to a health questionnaire 67
4—9 Dose-response relationship between CCP handling and mucous membrane and skin symptoms in two form-printing shops 68
4—10 Incidence of symptoms in exposed workers and their matched comparison workers during two exposure periods 69
4—11 Experimental laboratory investigations of allergic and irritative reactions in humans exposed to CCP 72
4—12 Analysis of repeated insult patch test (RIPT) studies submitted by industry clients in response to 1987 and 1997 Federal Register notices on CCP and its components 76
4—13 Frequency of occurrence and animal irritation category for chemicals identified in 12 French CCPs 100
5—1 Summary of studies that examined exposure-response relationships between CCP handling and irritative symptoms of the skin, eyes, or upper respiratory tract 108
5—2 Elevated ORs for CCP exposure and irritation of the skin, eyes, nose, or respiratory system reported in the indoor air cross-sectional studies 109


2—1 Three-part carbonless copy paper system 6
4—1 Production of CCP and number of inquiries per year for all U.S. manufacturers from 1987 to 1996 48
4—2 Prevalence of pruritus among CCP handlers by sheets of CCP handled during the exposure period 70