Notes on Muhammadanism
|This OCR text has been imported without a page scan and contains errors and page headers. You can help by finding and uploading a page scan, or correcting the errors.|
XXI. ZAKAT, OR LEGAL ALMSGIVING.Edit
ZAKA T (lit. "purification"), the legal alms, or poor rate, is the fourth of the five founda tions of practice. Zakat should be given an nually of five descriptions of property, provided they have been in possession a whole year ; namely, money, cattle, grain, fruit, and mer chandise. There are several minor differences amongst the various sects as to the precise explanation of the law with reference to these legal alms ; but the following are the general rules observed by Sunni Musulmans:
(1.) Money. If he is a Sdhib-i-Nissdb (i. e. one who has had forty rupees in his possession for a year), he must give alms at the rate of one rupee in every forty, or two and a half per cent.
(2.) Cattle. Should his property consist of sheep or goats, he is not obliged to give alms
126 ZAKAT, OK LEGAL ALMSGIVING.
until they amount to forty in number. He must then give one for one hundred and twenty, and two for the next eighty, and then one for every hundred afterwards. For camels the following is the rate : from 5 to 24, one sheep or goat ; from 25 to 35, one yearling female (bint-i-mukhdz) camel ; from 36 to 45, one two-year old female (bint-i-ldbun) camel ; from 46 to 60, one three-year old female (hiqqah) camel ; from 61 to 75, one four-year old female (jaz ah) camel ; from 76 to 90, two two-year old female camels ; from 91 to 120, two three-year old female camels ; and from 1.21 and upwards, either a two-year old female camel for every forty, or a three-year old female camel for every fifty.
For cows or bulls: If 30 cows, a one-year old female calf; if 40, a two-year old female calf, and so on, a one-year old female calf for every 10.
Alms for buffaloes are the same as for sheep.
For horses, either the same rate as for camels, or two rupees eight annas for every horse whose value exceeds one hundred rupees. Animals used for riding, and beasts of burden, are exempt.
ZAKAT, OR LEGAL ALMSGIVING. 127
(3.) Fruits. For fruits watered by rain a tenth is given ; but if irrigated, then a twen tieth part.
(4.) Grain. The same rates as for fruits.
(5.) Merchandise. For the capital, as well as for the profits, ZaJcdt is given at the rate of one in forty, provided the owner be a Sahib-i- nissab. For gold bullion, half a misqdl ( = 6772 grains) is given for every 20 misqal weight. For silver bullion at the rate of 2-J per cent. For whatever is found in mines, if over 240 dirhams in weight ( = 21bs. 2oz. 2dr.) 3 a fifth is required ; and if the money be laid out in merchandise, alms are to be given on the profits.
Wood and pearls are exempt, and also clothing; but not jewels.
The following are the classes of persons on whom it is lawful to bestow the Zakat :
1. Such pilgrims to Mecca as have not the means of defraying the expenses of the journey.
2. Religious mendicants.
3. Debtors who cannot discharge their debts.
5. Poor travellers.
128 ZAKAT, OR LEGAL ALMSGIVING.
6. Proselytes to Muhammadanism.
The ZaJcdt, or legal alms, must be distin guished from the Sadaqa, or offerings, which is a term more especially applied to the offer ings on the Id-ul-Fitr (q.v.) although it is used for almsgiving in general.
As far as we have been able to ascertain, it does not appear that the Muharnmadans of the present day are very regular in the pay ment of the Zakat, which ought to be given on the termination of a year s possession. In countries under Muhammadan rule it is ex acted by Government.
It is somewhat remarkable that Muhammad in his institution of legal almsgiving did not more closely copy the Jewish law in the giving of the "tenths," more particularly as the number ten appears to have been so frequently preferred as a number of selection in the cases of offerings in both sacred and secular history. The Muhammadan Zokat, however, differs very materially from the Jewish tithe ; for the latter was given to the Levites of the Temple, and employed by them for their own support ancf for that of the priests, as well as for festival
ZAKAT, OR LEGAL ALMSGIVING. 129
purposes. The Muhammadan priesthood are supported by grants of land, and offerings at the time of harvest, and are not permitted to take any of the Zakdt. Moreover, the descen dants of the " Prophet" are not allowed to accept of either Zakdt or Sadaqa, because "they are of the Prophet's own blood and not to be included in the indigent."
Whatever may be the weak points in Mu- hammadanism, all candid observers, acquainted with the condition of Muhammadan nations, must admit that its provision for the poor is highly commendable. As we have journeyed from village to village amongst the Afghans, we have been frequently struck with the ab sence of great poverty; and even in our large cities, where Muhammadan beggars are numer ous, it must be remembered that they are either religious mendicants or professional beg gars, and for the most part quite unworthy of charitable relief.
XXII. HAJJ, OR PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA.
HAJJ, or Pilgrimage to Mecca, is the fifth of the five foundations of practice. It is said, by Muhammad, to be of Divine institution, and has the authority of the Quran for its obser- vance. Its performance is incumbent upon those men and women who have sufficient means to meet the expenses of the journey,
HAJJ, OR PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA. 131
and to maintain their families at home during their absence.
The ceremonies observed on this occasion are so ridiculous that they do more to reveal the imposture of Muhammad than any other part of his system. They are, even by the con fession of Muhammadans themselves, the re licts of the idolatrous superstitions of ancient Arabia; and they are either evidences of the dark and superstitious character of Muham mad s mind, or, what is perhaps even more probable, they show how far the " Prophet" found it suit his purpose to compromise with the heathen Arabians of his day. The merits of the pilgrimage are so great, that every step taken in the direction of the K ciba blots out a sin; and he who dies on his way to Mecca is enrolled on the list of martyrs.
However ingeniously the apologists of Islam may offer excuses for some of the weak points of Muhammad s religious system, and endeavour to shield the " Prophet of Arabia " from the o-rave and solemn charge of having " forged the name of God," the pilgrimage to Mecca can admit of no satisfactory solution. In its
institution the false prophet layeth open his
132 HAJJ, OR PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA.
own folly, for in the ridiculous ceremonies of the Hajj, we see the law-giver, whose professed mission it was to uproot the idolatry of Arabia, giving one of its superstitious customs the authority of a Divine enactment. The pilgrim age to Mecca is one of the numerous inconsistencies of Muhammad s pretended revelation.
The following is the orthodox way of per forming the pilgrimage, founded upon the example of the "Prophet" himself.
Upon the pilgrim's arrival at the last stage near Mecca, he bathes himself, and performs two rak at prayers, and then divesting himself of his clothes, he assumes the pilgrim s sacred robe, which is called Ihrdm. This garment consists of two seamless wrappers, one being wrapped round the waist, and the other thrown loosely over the shoulder, the head being left uncovered. Sandals may also be worn, but not shoes or boots. After he has assumed the pilgrim s garb, he must not anoint his head, shave any part of his body, pare his nails, nor
HAJJ, OR PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA. 133
wear any other garment than the Ihrdm. Im mediately on his arrival at Mecca he performs the legal ablutions, and proceeds to the Musjid- ul-Hardm, or Sacred Mosque, and kisses the ffajr-td-astvad, or the black stone, and then encompasses the Kaba seven times. This act, which is called Tawdf, is performed by com mencing on the right and leaving the Kaba on the left. The circuits are made thrice with a quick step or run, and four times at a slow pace. He then proceeds to the Maqdm-i- Ibrahim (the place of the prophet Abraham) and performs two rak at prayers, after which he turns to the black stone and kisses it. He then goes to the gate of the temple leading to Mount Safa, and from it ascends the hill and
134 HAJJ, OR PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA.
runs from the summit of Mount Safa to that of Mount Marwah seven times ! On the top of the hill he remains for a few moments, and raising his hand heavenwards supplicates the Almighty.
On the eighth day, which is called Tamviak he unites with his fellow-pilgrims at Mina in the usual services of the Muslim ritual, and stays the night.
After morning prayer he rushes to Mount Arifat, where, having said two rak at prayers with the Imam and heard the Khutbah (or oration), he remains until sunset. He then proceeds to Muzdalifah, and having said the sunset and night prayers, he stays the night at that place.
The next morning, which is the Id-ul-Azhd, or great feast, he comes to three places in Mina, marked by three pillars called Jamra. At each of these pillars he picks up seven small stones, or pebbles, and having said some particular prayer over each pebble and blown upon it, he throws it at one of the pillars. This ceremony is called Rami-ul-Jamdr, or the throwing <?f pebbles.
He then proceeds to the place of sacrifice at
HAJJ, OR PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA. 135
Mina, and performs the usual sacrifice of the Id-ul-Azha ; after this sacrifice he gets him self shaved and his nails pared. The pilgrim garb is then removed and the pilgrimage is ended, although he should rest at Mecca the three following days, which are called the Ay- ydm-ut-Tashriq, or the days of drying up the blood of the sacrifice. These are three days of well-earned rest after the vigorous peri patetic performances of the last four days.
The pilgrimage must be performed on three days of the month of Zul Hijja, namely from the seventh to the tenth ; a visit to Mecca at any other time has not the merit of a pilgrimage.
Before he leaves Mecca the pilgrim should once more perform the circuits round the Kaba, and throw stones at the sacred pillars, each seven times.
He then proceeds to Medina, and makes his salutations at the Shrine of Muhammad. The Wahhabis do not perform the last act, as it is contrary to their principles to visit shrines. The Musulman who has performed the pil grimage is called Hdji.
The Kaba is also called the Qibla, or the
136 HAJJ, OK PILGRIMAGE TO MECCA.
direction to which Muslims are to pray. Mosques are, therefore, always erected Qibla- wards. At the commencement of Islam, the Qibla was Jerusalem ; but when Muhammad failed to conciliate the Jews to his prophetic pretensions, he made the K aba the Qibla, or the direction in which to pray.
The pilgrimage cannot be performed by proxy, as some English authors have stated, although it is considered a meritorious act to pay the expenses of one who cannot afford to perform it. But if a Muhammadan on his death-bed bequeathed a sum of money to be paid to a certain person to perform the pil grimage, it is considered to satisfy the claims of the Muslim law. If a Muslim have the means of performing the pilgrimage, and omit to do so, its omission is equal to a kabira, or mortal sin.
XXIII. THE LAW.Edit
MUHAMMADAN law consists of two divisions, Rawd and Ndrawd, i.e., Things lawful and Things unlawful.
I. That which is lawful is divided into- five classes.
1. Farz. That which has been enjoined in the Quran.
2. Wdjib. That of which there is some doubt as to its Divine institution.
3. Sunnat. The example of Muhammad, which consists of three kinds :
Sunnat-i-F ili. That which Muhammad
himself did. Sunnat-i-Qauli. That which Muhammad
said should be practised.
- Sunnat-i-Taqriri. That which was done
in the presence of Muhammad and which he did not forbid.
138 THE LAW.
4 Mustahab. That which Muhammad sometimes did and sometimes omitted.
5. Mubdh. That which may be left unper formed without any fear of Divine punish ment.
II. Things unlawful are of three classes :
1. Hardm. That which is distinctly for bidden in the Quran and Hadis.
2. Makruh. That of which there is some doubt as to its unlawfulness, but which is generally held to be unclean or unlawful.
3. Mufsid. That which is corrupting and pernicious.
The divisions of lawful and unlawful do not merely apply to food, but also to ablutions and other customs and precepts.
THE Muhamraadan doctors divide sins into two classes, very much as the Roman Catholic divines do ; the usual Roman designation being that of mortal and venial sin, whilst Muhammadans use the expressions Kabira and Saghira, " Great" and " Little." Kabira are those great sins, of which, if a Musalman do not repent, he will go to the purgatorial hell reserved for sinful Muslims. The divines of Islam are not agreed amongst themselves as to the exact number of Kabira sins, but they are generally considered to be seventeen (vide Fawaid-us Shari at).
1. Kufr, or infidelity.
2. Constantly committing Saghira, or little sins.
3. Despairing of the mercy of Grod.
4. Considering one s self safe from the wrath of God.
5. False witness.
6. Qazaf, or falsely charging a Musulmai) with adultery.
7. Taking a false oath.
9. Drinking wine.
10. Appropriation of the property of or phans.
13. Unnatural crimes.
16. Fleeing in battle before the face of an infidel.
17. Disobedience to parents.
PUNISHMENT is divided into three classes: Hadd, T azir, and Qisds.
1. Hadd is that punishment which is said to have been ordained of God in the Quran and the Hadfs, and which must be inflicted. The following belong to this class : Adultery, for which the adulterer is stoned. Fornication, for which one hundred stripes are inflicted. Drunkenness, for which there are eighty stripes. The slander of a married parson, that is, bring ing a false charge of adultery against a married person, for which the offender must receive eighty lashes. This punishment is said to have been instituted by God, when A yesha, the favourite wife of " the Prophet," was falsely charged with adultery ! Apostacy, for which the Murtadd, or Apostate, is killed, u nless he repent of his error within three days. When an Apostate from Islam has been killed according to the law, or has left the country,
his property goes to those of his heirs who still remain Musulmdns (vide the " Al Sira- jiyah").
2. Tazir is that punishment which is said to have been ordained of God, but of which there are not special injunctions, the exact punishment being left to the discretion of the Qazi, or Judge.
3. Qisds (lit. " retaliation " ) is that punish ment which can be remitted by the person offended against, upon the payment of a fine or compensation. The punishment for murder is of this class. The next akin to the murdered person can either take the life of his kinsman s murderer, or accept a money compensation (Diat). There is also retaliation in case of wounds. Qisds is the lex talionis of Moses, 66 eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe " (vide Exodus xxi. 24). But in allowing a money compensation for murder, Muhammad departed from the Jewish code.
XXVI. LAWFUL FOOD.Edit
No animal is lawful food unless it be slaugh tered according to the Muhammadan law, namely, by drawing the knife across the throat and cutting the windpipe, the carotid arteries, and the gullet, repeating at the same time the words " Bismillah Allaho Akbar," i. e. " In the name of the great God." A clean animal, so slaughtered, becomes lawful food for Mus lims, whether slaughtered by Jews, Christians, or Muhammadans.
In the " Sharah Waqaia " it is said that the following creatures are lawful (haldl) :
1. Those animals that are cloven-footed and chew the cud, and are not beasts of prey.
2. Birds that clo not seize their prey with their claws, or wound them with their bills, but pick up food with their bills.
3. Fish ; but no other animals which move in the water.
144 LAWFUL FOOD.
Some commentators say that the horse is lawful ; but it is generally held to be " mak- ruh."
Fish found dead in the water is unlawful ; but if it be taken out and die afterwards it is lawful.
Alligators, turtles, crabs, snakes, frogs, etc., are unlawful. Wine is expressly forbidden in the Quran ; and, in the judgment of the learned, this prohibition extends to whatever has a ten dency to intoxicate, such as opium, bhang, chars,* and tobacco. The Akhund of Swatf has issued several "fatwdhs," prohibiting the use of tobacco ; but the chilam (or pipe), having become a national institution, no notice has been taken of the inhibition. The Wahhabis do not permit its use. In Trans-Indus terri tory, the hukka, or chilam, is never allowed in a mosque.
- Bhang and Chars are intoxicating preparations of
t The Akhund of Swat is a great religious leader amongst the Muhammadans of North India and Central Asia. He resides at Seydu, in Swat, about twenty miles beyond the British frontier.
LAWFUL FOOD. 143
From what we have written, it will be seen that a Muslim can have no religious scruples to eat with a Christian, as long as the food eaten is of a lawful kind. Sayyid Ahmad Khan Bahadur, C.S.I., has written a treatise proving that Muhammadans can eat with the Ahl-i-Kitdb, namely, Jews or Christians. The Muhammadans of India, whilst they will eat food cooked by idolatrous Hindus, refuse to touch that cooked either by Native or Euro pean Christians ; and they often refuse to allow Christians to draw water from the public wells, although Hindus are permitted to do so. Such objections arise solely from jealousy of race, and an unfriendly feeling towards the ruling power. In Afghanistan and Persia, no such objections exist ; and no doubt much evil has been caused by Government allowing Hindu stani Musulmans to create a religious custom which has no foundation whatever, except that of national hatred to their English conquerors.
FARZ-I-KAFA I are those commands which are imperative (farz) ; but which, if one person in eight or ten perform, it is equivalent to all having performed it.
1. To return a salutation.
2. To visit the sick, and inquire after their welfare.
3. To follow a bier on foot to the grave.
4. To accept an invitation.
5. To reply to a sneeze, e. g. if a person sneeze, and say immediately afterwards, " God be praised " (Alhamdo lillah), it is incumbent upon at least one of the party to exclaim, " God have mercy on you " (Yarhamuk Allah).
There is an interesting chapter on the custom of saluting after sneezing in Isaac D Israeli s " Curiosities of Literature," from which it appears that it is almost universal amongst nations.
FITEAT (lit. " nature ") is said to be certain ancient practices of the prophets before the time of Muhammad, which have not been for bidden by him.
In the Hadis " Muslim," the customs of fitrat are said to be ten in number.
1. The clipping of the mustachios, so that they do not enter the mouth.
2. Not cutting or shaving the beard.
3. Cleaning the teeth (i. e, miswdk).
4. Cleansing the nostrils with water at the usual ablutions.
5. Cutting the nails.
6. Cleaning the finger- joints.
7. Pulling out the hairs under the arms.
8. * * * *
g # # * *
10. Cleansing the mouth with water at the time of ablution.
THE usual Muhamraadan salutation is " as saldmu alekam" i.e. " The peace of God be with you."
When a person makes a " saldm," and any of the assembly rise and return it, it is con sidered sufficient for the whole company.
The lesser number should always be the first to salute the greater ; he who rides should salute him who walks ; he who walks, him who stands ; the stander, the sitter, etc. A man should not salute a woman on the road ; and it is considered very disrespectful to salute with the left hand, that hand being used for legal ablutions.
The ordinary salute is made by raising the right hand either to the breast or to the fore head.
In Central Asia the salutation is generally given without any motion of the hand or body.
Pupils salute their masters by kissing the hand or sleeve, which is the usual salutation made to men of eminent piety.
Homage is paid by kissing the feet of the ruler, or by kissing the ground or carpet.
In Afghanistan, conquered people pay hom age by casting their turbans at the feet of the conqueror ; and the heads of tribes often lessen the size of their turbans before appearing in the presence of their rulers.
XXX. THE CALIPH.
THE Caliph, or Khalifa (i. e. the vicegerent of the Prophet), is the sovereign dignity amongst Muhammadans, vested with absolute power. The word more frequently used for the office in Muhammadan works of jurisprudence is Imam (leader), or Imdm-ul-Azam (the great leader). It is held to be an essential principle in the establishment of the office, that there shall be only one Caliph at the same time ; for the Prophet said : " When two Caliphs have been set up, put the last to death and preserve the second, for the last is a rebel " (vide Mishkat, bk. xvi. chap. i.). According to all Sunni Muhammadan books, it is absolutely necessary that the Caliph be " a man, an adult, a sane person, a free man, a learned divine, a powerful ruler, a just person, and one of the Quraish " (i. e. of the tribe to which the Prophet himself belonged). The Shia hs, of
THE CALIPH. 151
course, hold that he should be one of the descendants of the Prophet s own family; but this is rejected by the Sunnis and Wahhabis. The condition that the Caliph should be of the Quraish, is ve.ry important ; for thereby the present Ottoman Sultans fail to establish their claims to the Caliphate.
After the deaths of the first five Caliphs,- Abu Bakr, Omar, Os man, Ali, and Hasan, the Caliphate, which is allowed by all parties to be elective, and not hereditary, passed suc cessively to the Ommiades and Abbasides. The temporal power of the Abbaside Caliphs was overthrown by Houlakon Khan, son of the celebrated Jengiz Khan, A.D. 1258 ; but, for three centuries, the descendants of the Abba- side, or Bagdad, Caliphs resided in Egypt, and asserted their claim to the spiritual power.
The founder of the present dynasty of Ottoman Sultans was Os man, the son of a tribe of Oghouz Turks, a powerful chief, whose descendant, Bazazet I., is said to have obtained the title of Sultan from one of the Abbaside Caliphs in Egypt, A.D. 1389. When Selim I. conquered Egypt (A.D. 1516), it is asserted that he obtained a transfer of the title
of Caliph to himself from one of the successors of the old Bagdad Caliphs. It is, however, a mere assertion ; for the title and office being elective, and not hereditary, it was not in the power of any Caliph to transfer it to another. Force of circumstances alone has compelled the ruler of the Ottoman Empire to assume the position, and has induced his subjects to acquiesce in the usurpation. We have not seen a single work of authority, nor met with a single man of learning, who has ever at tempted to prove that the Sultans of Turkey are rightful Caliphs ; for the assumption of the title by any one who is not of the Quraish tribe is undoubtedly illegal and heretical, as will be seen from the following authorities :
(Mishkdt-ul-Musdbih, bk. xxiv. chap xii.) " Ibn-i-Umr relates that the Prophet of God said : c The Caliphs shall be in the Quraish tribe as long as there are two persons in it, one to rule and another to serve. " (Sharh-ul-Muwdqif, p. 606. Arabic Edition.
"It is a condition that the Caliph (Imam) be of the Quraish tribe. All admit this, except the Khawarij and certain Mutazilahs. We all
THE CALIPH. 153
say with the Prophet : Let the Caliph be of the Quraish ; and it is certain that the Com panions acted upon this injunction, for Abu Bakr urged it as an authority upon the Ansars, on the day of Sakhifah, when the Companions were present and agreed. It is, therefore, for a certainty established that the Caliph must be of the Quraish."
(The Hiyjat-Ullah-al-Bdlaghah, p. 335. Arabic Edition. Delhi.)
It is a necessary condition that the Caliph (Imam) be of the Quraish tribe."
(The Kashhdf-i-Istaldhat. A Dictionary of Technical Terms. Edited by Colonel H". Lees, in loco.)
" The Caliph (Imam) must be a Quraish."
It is a matter of history that the Wahhabis regarded the Turkish Sultan as a usurper when Sana took Mecca and Medina in ] 804 ; and to the present day, in countries not under Turkish rule, the Khutbah is recited in behalf of the Amir, or ruler of the Muslim state, instead of the Ottoman Sultan, which would not be the c&se if he were acknowledged as a lawful Caliph. In a collection of Khutbahs, entitled the Majmuci Khutbah, the name of the Sultan
1/54 THE CALIPH.
does not once occur, although this collection is much used in Muhammadan states. We have seen it stated that the Sultan is prayed for in Hyderabad and Bengal ; but, we believe, it will be found, upon careful inquiry, that he was not mentioned by name, until very recently, in any of the mosques of India. Khutbah in which there are prayers for the Ottoman Sultan by name, have been imported from Constanti nople ; but, whoever may be the rightful Caliph, it is certain that, according to law, the only sovereign who can be prayed for in an Indian mosque, is " Alexandrina Victoria, Empress of India" (Qaisdr-i-Hind) ; for all Muhammadans admit that the Friday Khutbah cannot be re cited without the permission of the ruler.
XXXL MUHAMMADAN CLERGY,
SCHOLARS, AND SAINTS.
THE Muslims have no hereditary priestly caste as the Hindus, nor have they a distinct order of clergy exactly corresponding with those of the Christian Church. But still there is a powerful hierarchy possessed of great political and religious influence, which resembles the Jewish Scribes and Lawyers.
In countries under Muhammadan rule the religious dignitaries are appointed by the king, who is properly the highest spiritual authority in the kingdom. The Shekh-ul- Islam at Constantinople unites in himself the functions of the Primate and Lord Chancellor.
The following are the chief religious func tionaries, in a state governed according to Muhammadan law.
Qdzi. The minister of justice, who passes
156 MUHAMMADAN CLERGY, ETC.
sentence in all cases of law ; religious, moral civil, or criminal.
Mufti. The law officer who expounds the law, and in difficult cases supplies the Qdzi with " fatwas " or decisions.
There are still persons in India bearing the titles of Qdzi and Mufti, but the offices have ceased to exist under British Government. The Indian law, however, permits civil cases being decided by Muhammadan divines, if both parties consent to the arrangement.
Imam. The Arabic word Imam is said, by Sale, to answer to the Latin antistes, the pre sident of the temple. It is also used for the four successors of Muhammad, the four great doctors of the four orthodox sects, the twelve great leaders of the Shia hs, and for any great religious leader. It is, however, commonly used for the person who leads the daily prayer, and is in receipt of the revenues of the mosque. The titles of Qdzi, Mufti, and Imam may be said to embrace the various appointments held by Muhammadan divines ; but there are also numerous titles to denote doctors of Sciehce and Divinity.
Tabib. A doctor of medicine.
MUHAMMADAN, CLERGY, ETC. 157
Hakim. A doctor of philosophy, used also for a doctor of medicine.
Muhaqqiq. A very learned doctor in one or two sciences.
Maulawi, also Mulld. A doctor of divinity, used for any person who has been educated in the Muhammadan religion, and assumes the office of teacher.
Faqih. A doctor of law.
MutaJcallim. A doctor of theology.
Muhaddis. A doctor of the law l of the traditions.
Mufassir. One learned in the commentaries on the Quran.
Madavris. An academical doctor, i. e., one educated in some school of reputation.
Doctors of Divinity are of three grades : Maulavi, Alim (pi. ^Ulama), Mujtahid (pi. Muj- tahidin). The title of Mujtahid is held by very few Sunni Muhammadans, but is more common amongst the Shia hs.
In addition to these titles, which express the degree of learning, there are others which demote the piety and sanctity of the individual PIT and Wall are the common titles ; but the
158 MUHAMMADAN CLERGY, ETC.
following express certain degrees of reputed sanctity :
A bid, one constantly engaged in the worship of God.
Zdhid, one who leads a life of asceticism. The title of Faqir does not always denote ono who has renounced the possessions of the world, but is applied to any one of a humble spirit, one poor in the sight of God, rather than in need of worldly assistance.
Quibah and Ghana, the- highest orders of sanctity. According to vulgar tradition, a Ghaus is a saint whose ardour of devotion is such, that in the act of worship his head and limbs fall asunder! whilst a Quibah is one who is supposed to have attained to the state of sanctity which reflects the heart of the Prophet.
There are four titles of respect which scarcely belong to either the religious or the learned class, but are of more general use :
Shekh, an appellation which literally signifies an elder or aged person. It is a common title of respect, and is almost synonymous with our English " Mister." In Egypt and Arabia it
MUHAMMADAN CLERGY, ETC. 159"
appears to be used for the Hindustani and Persian Khan, or chief.
Miydn, (lit. " a master" or "friend") gene rally used for the descendants of celebrated saints, but also as a title of respect.
Sayyid, generally pronounced Syud (lit. " lord "). For the descendants of Muham mad from his daughter Fatirnah and her hus band Ali. The word Sayyid is often used as- part of a name, without reference to family descent from the Prophet ; as Sayyid Ahmad,. Sayyid Shah, &c.
Mir, also used for Sayyids, but not exclu sively.
XXXII. THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE.
MUHAMMADAN theological literature is very ex tensive, and in consequence of the cheapness of lithographic printing, it is daily increasing. The following are its chief divisions : (1.) Hadis. Accounts of the precepts and practice of Muhammad. The collectors of Hadis may be numbered by hundreds, but the chief authorities are the six books known as the Sihdh-i-Sita, or "six correct books." The popular work on the subject amongst the Sunnis of India being the Mishkat-ul-Musabih. (See article on Traditions.)
(2.) Ustil (lit. " roots "). Treatises on the rules and principles of the four foundations of the Islam law, being expositions of the exe gesis of the Quran and Hadis, and the prin ciples of Ijma and Qias. The most popular works on this subject are the Manar, by
THEOLOGICAL LITERATURE. 161
Abdullah ibn Ahmad, A.H. 710, and the Talwi Tauzia, by Ubaid-Ullah ibn Mas ud, A.H. 747.
(3.) Aqaid (lit. " creeds "). Expositions of scholastic theology, founded upon the six ar ticles of faith. The most celebrated exposition of the Islam creed being that by Imam Grhazali, A.H. 505. In India the work most read is the Sharah-i- Aqdid, by Maulavi Mas ud S ad-ud- din Taftazani, A.H. 792.
(4.) Ftqah. Works on Muhammadan law, whether civil or religious. The work most read amongst Sunnis is the Hiddyah, written by a learned man named Ali, A.H. 593; part of which has been translated by the late Colonel Charles Hamilton. A smaller work, entitled the Sharah Waqaiah, by Abdul Haqq, is also much used.
(5.) Ttifoir. Commentaries on the Quran. These are very numerous, and contain very many Jewish traditions of the most worthless character. One of the latest and most learned of these productions is said to be the short commentary by Shah Wali Ullah of Delhi, who dfed A.H. 1176.
The best known commentaries amongst the Sunnis are Baizawi (A.H. 685), Madarik (A.H.
701), Jalalain (A.H. 911), Baghawi (A.H. 515), Mazhari (A.H, 1225), Hoseini (A.H. 900).
(6.) Siyar. Ecclesiastical history, i.e., the history of Muhammad and his successors. This branch of literature, Sayyid Ahmad Khan of Aligarh says, " is the one which requires the most emendation."
The chief authorities on the life of Mu hammad and early days of Islam, in addition to the Hadis, are Ibn Ishaq, Ibn Hisham, Waqidi, and Tabari ; whilst the most popular histories amongst the Sunnis of India are the Rawzat-ul-Ahbab, by Ataa Ullah ibn Fazl "Ullah, A.H. 1000, and the Madarij-un-Nabuwat, by Shekh Abdul Haqq, A.H. 1025.
In addition to his theological studies, the Mubammadan student is instructed in Mantiq (logic), Sarf (inflexion), and Nahw (syntax).
The text of a book is called Matan, the irarginal notes Ilashiyah, and its commentary -Shark.
XXXIII. MUHAREAM AND ASHURAA.Edit
THE Muharram (lit. " that which is sacred ") commences on the first of the month* of that name, and is continued for ten days, the tenth day being called Ashurda. They are days of mcitam, or lamentation, in commemoration of the martyrdom of Ali, and of Hasan, and
- The twelve months of the Muhammad lunar year are
as follows :
The sacred month.
The month which is void.
The first of spring.
The last of spring.
The first dry month.
The last of spring.
The revered month.
The month of division.
The hot month.
The month for going forth (hunt
The month of rest. The month of pilgrimage.
3. Rabi -ul-awwal.
4. Rabi -ul-.ikhir.
8. Sh aban.
9. Ramazan, 1(^. Shawwal.
11. Zul-Q ada
164 MUHARRAM AND ASHURAA.
Husain,* as observed by the Shia hs ; but the day Ashurda (the tenth) is also held sacred by the Sunnis, the observance of the month having been enjoined by Muhammad on account of its having been the month of creation.
The ceremonies of .the Muharram differ much in different places ; but the following are the main features of the festival as observed by the Shia hs, A place is prepared which is called the Adwvr-lchdna (the ten-day house), or Imam-Bara (the Imam place), in the centre of which is dug a pit, in which fires are kindled, and at night the people, young and old, fence across the fire with sticks and swords, and whilst dancing round it, call out, " Oh Ali ! noble Hasan ! noble Husain ! bridegroom ! alas friend ! stay ! stay ! " etc. ; the cry being re peated in the most excited manner hundreds of times, until the whole assembly has reached the highest pitch of excitement. They then form
- The Khalifa AH was assa-^inated in the Mosque of
Cufn, A.T). (5(50. Hasan was poisoned by his wife, at the instigation of Yazid. Husain was slain, with three aid thirty strokes of lances and swords, AJ>. 680. The story of Hi Sfein is out; ol the most touching pages of Muslim history
MUHARRAM AND ASHURAA. 165
themselves in circles, and beat themselves with chains in the most frantic manner. The women repeat a funeral eulogium, and the Maulavis, the jRowzat-us-Sliuhddda, or the Book of Martyrs.
On thfe seventh day there are representations of the marriage ceremony of Qasim, and of the martyrdom of Husain ; and on the eighth day- a lance or spear is carried about the city to represent Husain s head, which was carried on the point of a javelin by order of Yazid. In addition to these representations, there are the Tazias, Tabiits, or biers, of the tombs of Hasan and Husain, a horse-shoe in representation of Husain s swift horse, and the standards of Hasan, Husain, and Qasim, and other Muslim celebrities,
The Sunni Muhammadans do not usually take part in these ceremonies, but observe the tenth day, Ashurda, being the day on which God is said to have created Adam and Eve, heaven, hell, the tablet of decree, the pen, fate, life, and death.
Muhammad commanded his followers to ob-
serve the Ashurda by bathing, wearing new
166 MUHARRAM AND ASHURAA.
clothes, applying Surma* to the eyes, fasting, prayers, making peace with one s enemies, as sociating with religious persons, relieving or phans, and giving of alms.
The fast of Ashurda is a Sunnat fast, i. e. not founded upon an injunction in the Quran, but upon the example of Muhammad.
- Surma is antimony or galena ground to a fine powder,
and applied to the eyelids to improve the brightness of the eyes.
XXXIY. AKHTRT CHAHAR SHAMBA.*
AKHIRI CHAHA R SIIAMBA is the " last Wednes day " of the month of Safar, and is a feast held in commemoration of Muhammad s having ex perienced some mitigation of his last illness and having bathed. It was the last time he performed the legal bathing, for he died on the twelfth day of the next month. In some parts of Islam it is customary, in the early morning of this day, to write seven verses of the Quran, known as the Seven Saldms, and then wash off the ink and drink it as a charm against evil.
The Akhiri Chahar Shamba is not observed by the Wahhabis, not being enjoined in the Quran and Hadis.
- The Persian name for the day; the Arabic being
ArVda-ul-Akhir, i.e. " the last Wednesday."
XXXV. BARA WAFAT.*
THE /;,/m Wttfnt (i.e. n r l "twelve," and Wufdt, "deat.li") is the twelfth day of the month, Babi-ul- A \v\val. It is observed in com memoration of Muhammad s death.
On this day, Fatihhs (i.e. the first chapter of the Quran), are said for Muhammad; and Loth in private houses and in the mosques, the learned recite portions of the Traditions and other works in praise of the excellences of Muhammad. These customs are usually ob served for the whole twelve days, although the twelfth day is held most sacred.
The Wahhabis do not observe the Bdra Wafdt, as its observance is not enjoined in the Quran or Iladis.
11 The Ilindii.staiii name of the day, there being no special title for the day in Persian or Arabic.
SIIAIM-BARA T, the "night of record," is ob served on the fifteenth day of the month, Sh aban. It is the "Guy Fawkes Day" of India, being the night for display of fireworks. On this night, Muhammad said, God regis ters annually all the actions of mankind which they are to perform during the year ; and that all the children of men, who are to be born and to die in the year, are recorded. Muhammad enjoined his followers to keep awake the whole night, to repeat one hundred rak at prayers, and to fast the next day ; but there are gene rally great rejoicings instead of a fast, and large sums of money are spent in fireworks. The Shab-i-Barat must not be confounded with
- The Persian title; the Arabic being Laylat-id-Muba-
the Laylat-ul-Qadr (night of power), mentioned in the Qurtin, which is the twenty-seventh night of the Ramazan. The Shab-i-Bardt, how ever, is frequently called Skub Qadr, or the night of power, by the common people.
XXXVII. ID-TJL-FITR, OR THE LESSER FESTIVAL.
J Ii)-UL-FlTR (lit. " the feast of breaking the fast "), is called also the feast of Ramazan, the Feast of Alms, and the Minor Festival. It is held on the first day of the month of Shawwal, which is the day after the close of the Ramazan fast. On this day, before going to the place of prayer, the Sadaqa, or propitiatory offerings, are made to the poor in the name of God. The offerings having been made, the people assemble either in the Jama -i-Masjid (i. e., the principal mosque), or proceed to the Idgah, which is a special place of worship on festivals. The worship commences with two raKat prayers, after which the Imam takes his place on the second step of the mimbar (pulpit) and recites ^he Khutbah, concluding with a prayer for the king. After this is ended, he offers up a mundjdt, or supplication, for the people, for the
172 ID-UL-FITR, OR THE LESSER FESTIVAL.
remission of sins, the recovery of the sick, in crease of rain, abundance of corn, preservation from misfortune, and freedom from debt. He then descends to the ground, arid makes further supplication for the people, the congregation saying Amin at the end of each supplication. At the close of the service the members of the congregation salute and embrace each other, and offer mutual congratulations, and then return to their homes, and spend the rest of the day in feasting and merriment.
XXXIX. NIKAH, OR MARRIAGE.Edit
NIKAH, is the celebration of the marriage con tract as distinguished from the festive rejoicings which usually accompany it ; the latter being called Shddi in Persian and Urdu, and Urs in Arabic.
Marriage, according to Muhammadan law, is simply a civil contract, and its validity does not depend upon any religious ceremony.
The legality of marriage depends upon the consent of the parties, which is called I jab and Qabul, viz. declaration and acceptance ; the presence of two male witnesses, or one male and two females;* and a dower of not less than ten dirhems to be settled upon the woman. The omission of the settlement does not, how ever, invalidate the contract; for, under any
- In Muhammadan law woman, instead of being man s
"better half," is only equal to half a man !
178 NIKAH, OR MARRIAGE.
circumstances, the woman becomes entitled to her dower of ten dirhems or more. Muham- madans are permitted by the Quran* to marry four free women, and to have as many female slaves as he may possess. Marriages for a limited period were sanctioned by "the Prophet"; but this law is said to have been abrogated, although it is allowed by the Shia hs even in the present day. These temporary marriages are called Mufah, and are undoubt edly the greatest blot in Muhammad s moral legislation.
Marriage is enjoined upon every Muslim, and celibacy is frequently condemned, by Muham mad. The "clergy" are all married men, and even the ascetic orders are, as George Herbert would have said, " rather married than un married." It is related in the Hadis, that Muhammad said that, " when the servant of God marries, he perfects half his religion." Not long ago we met a Faqir of the Nuksh- bandia order, a man of considerable reputation
- " Of women who seem good in your eyes marry two,
or three, or four ; and if ye fear that ye shall not act equitably, then one only, or the slaved whom ye have acquired." (Sura iv. 3.)
NIKAH, OR MARRIAGE. 179
at the court of Cabul, who said that he wished to lead a celibate life, but that his disciples had insisted upon his " perfecting his religion " by entering upon the married state !
As the religious ceremony does not form part of the legal conditions of marriage, there is no uniformity of ritual observed in its celebration. Some Qazis merely recite the Fdtihah (the first chapter of the Quran), and the Dar&d, or blessing; but the following is the more com mon order of performing the service. The Qazi, the bridegroom, and the bride s attorney, with the witnesses having assembled in some con venient place, arrangements are made as to the amount of Dower, or Mahr. The bridegroom then repeats after the Qazi the following :
1. The Istighfdr, " I desire forgiveness from God, who is my Lord."
2. The four chapters of the Quran com mencing with the word " Qul" These chap ters have nothing in them connected with the subject of marriage, and appear to be selected on account of their brevity.
- f 3. The Kalima, or Creed. " There is no
deity but God, and Muhammad is the Prophet
180 NTKAH, OR MARRIAGE.
4. The Sift Ul-Imdn. A profession of belief in God, the angels, the scriptures, the prophets, the resurrection, and in fate or absolute decree of good and evil.
The Qazi then requests the bride s attorney to take the hand of the bridegroom, and to say, " Such an one s daughter, by the agency of her attorney, and by the testimony of two witnesses, has, in your marriage with her, had such a dower settled upon her, do you consent to it?" To which the bridegroom replies, " With my whole heart and soul, to my mar riage with this woman as well as to the dower already settled upon her, I consent, I consent, I consent ! "
After this the Qazi raises his Lands, and offers the following prayer :
" great God ! grant that mutual love may reign between this couple, as it existed be tween Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Joseph and Zulekha,* Moses and Zipporah, his Highness Muhammad and Ayesha, and his Highness Ali Murtuza and Fatimah-uz-Zahra."
- According to Muhammad, Joseph afterwards married
Zulekha, the widow of Potiphar.
NIK AH, OR MARRIAGE. 181
The ceremony being over, the bridegroom embraces his friends and receives their con gratulations. Nikah is preceded and followed by festive rejoicings, which have been variously described by Oriental travellers ; but they are not parts of either the civil or religious cere mony.
XL. TALAQ, OR DIVORCE.
IN Islam the wife is the property of the hus band, and consequently she can be disposed of by divorce at a moment s notice. The law has, however, placed certain slight restrictions upon the exercise of this right, and has ruled that there are three kinds of divorce :
(1) Taldq-i-Ahsan, or "the most laudable form of divorce," is when the husband divorces his wife when she is in a state of purity, by one sentence, " thou aH divorced" or words to that effect. This is esteemed the best form, because the sentence having been only pronounced once, the husband can again change his mind, with the consent of his divorced wife, at any sub sequent period, until she marries another. *
(2.) Taldq-i- Hasan, or "a laudable form of divorce," is when the husband divorces his wife
TALAQ, OR DIVORCE. 183
by pronouncing the sentence, " tliou art di vorced" during his wife s period of purity, and at intervals of a month.
(4.) Taldq-i-Bid ai, or " an irregular form ef divorce," is when the husband repeats the sentence three times on one occasion.
Whenever the sentence of divorce is repeated three times it is a Taldq-i-Mutlaq, or an ir revocable divorce, after which the husband cannot marry his repudiated wife until she has married and lived with another, and is divorced by her second husband.
In all cases of repudiation, except when a wife requests her husband to divorce her, the dower must be repaid to the woman, an ar rangement which often prevents a man exer cising the privilege.
The ground of divorce, under the Mosaic law, was " some uncleanness in her" (vide Deut. xxiv. 1 4), and of which there were two well-known interpretations. The school of Sbammai seemed to limit it to a moral de linquency in the woman, whilst that of Hillel extended it to the most trifling causes. Our Lord appears to have confirmed the interpre tation of Shammai (St. Matt. v. 32), whilst
184 TALAQ, OR DIVORCE.
Muhammad adopted that of Hillel, but dis pensing with the " bill of divorcement " en joined by the Mosaic code, thereby placing the woman entirely at the will and caprice of her husband.
XLL JANA ZA, OR BURIAL.
JANA ZA is the term used both for the bier and for the Muharamadan funeral service. The burial service is founded upon the practice of Muhammad, and varies but little in different countries, although the ceremonies connected with the funeral procession are diversified. la Egypt, for instance, the male relations and friends of the deceased precede the corpse, whilst the female mourners follow behind. In North India and Central Asia, women do not usually attend funerals, and the friends and relatives of the deceased walk behind the bier. There is a tradition amongst some Muharnma- dans that no one should precede the corpse, as the angels go before. Funeral processions in Central Asia are usually very simple in their Arrangements, and are said to be more in ac cordance with the practice of the " Prophet," than those of Egypt and Turkey. It is con-
180 JANAZA, OR IUTKTAL.
sidered a very meritorious act to carry the bier, and four from among the near relations, every now and then relieved by an equal num ber, carry it on their shoulders. Unlike our Christian custom of walking slowly to the grave, Muhammadans carry their dead quickly to the place of interment ; for Muhammad is related to have said, that it is good to carry the dead quickly to the grave to cause the righteous person to arrive soon at happiness, and if he be a bad man it is well to put wickedness away from one s shoulders. Fu nerals should always be attended on foot ; for it is said, that Muhammad on one occasion re buked his people for following a bier on horse back. " Have you no shame ? " said he, " since God s angels go on foot, and you go upon the back of quadrupeds?" It is a highly meri torious act to attend a funeral, whether it be that of a Muslim, a Jew, or a Christian. There are, however, two traditions given by Bokhari, which appear to mark a change of feeling on the part of the time-serving Prophet of Arabia towards the Jews arid Christians. " A bier passed by the Prophet, and he stood up ; and it was said to the Prophet, this is the bier of
JANAZA, OR BURIAL. 187
a Jew. It is the holder of a soul/ he re plied, ( from which we should take warning and fear. This rule is said to have been abrogated, for, " on one occasion the Prophet sitting on the road when a bier passed, and the Prophet disliked that the bier of a Jew should be higher than his head, and he therefore stood np." Notwithstanding these contradictory tra ditions, we believe that in all countries Mu- hammadans are wont to pay great respect to the funerals of both Jews and Christians. Not long ago, about sixty Mubammadans attended the funeral of an Armenian Christian lady at Peshawur, when the funeral service was read by the Native clergyman. In the procession the Muhammadans took their turn with the Native Christian converts in carrying the bier, and assisting in lowering the coffin into the grave. During the reading of the service, some few seated themselves on the grass, but the majority listened attentively to the funeral office, which was impressively read by the Native pastor, himself a Christian convert from Muhammadanism.
The Muhammadan funeral service is not re cited in the graveyard, it being too polluted a
188 JANAZA, OR BURIAL,
place for so sacred an office ; but either in a mosque, or in some open space near the dwel ling of the deceased person, or the graveyard. The owner of the corpse, i. e. 9 the nearest relative, is the proper person to recite the service ; but it is usually said by the family Imam, or the village Qazi.
The following is the order of the service :
Some one present calls out, 66 Here begin the prayers for the dead."
Then those present arrange themselves in three, five, or seven rows opposite the corpse, with their faces Qiblawards (i. e. towards Mecca). The Imam stands in front of the ranks opposite the head* of the corpse, if it be that of a male, or the waist, if it be that of a female.
The whole company having taken up the Qidm, or standing position, the Imam recites the Niyat.
" I purpose to perform prayers to God, for this dead person, consisting of four Takbirs."
Then placing his hands to the lobes of his ears, he says the first Takl/ir.
" God is great !"
Then folding his hands, the right hand placed upon the left, below the navel, he recites the Subhdn :
" Holiness to Thee, God," " And to Thee be praise."
- The Shia hs stand opposite the loins of a man.
JANAZA, OR BURIAL. 189
" Great is Thy Name."
" Great is Thy Greatness."
" Great is Thy Praise." *
" There is no deity but Thee." Then follows the second TcikUr :
" God is great ! " Then the Darud :
" God, have mercy on Muhammad and Tipon his descendants, as Thou didst bestow mercy, and peace, and blessing, and compassion, and great kindness upon Abraham and upon his descendants."
"Thou art praised, and Thou art great ! " " God, bless Muhammad and his descend ants, as Thou didst bless and didst have com passion and great kindness upon Abraham and upon his descendants."
Then follows the third TakUr :
" God is great ! "
After which the following prayer (ZW) is recited :
" O God, forgive our living and our dead, and those of us who are present, and those who are absent, and our children, and our full
- This sentence is not generally recited in the Subhan
of the daily prayer.
190 JANAZA, OR BITKIAL.
grown persons, our men and our women. God, those whom Thou dost keep alive amongst us, keep alive in Islam, and those whom Thou causest to die, let them die in the Faith."
Then follows the fourth Takbir :
" God is great ! "
Turning the head round to the right, he says :-
" Peace and mercy be to Thee."
Turning the head round to the left, he says :
" Peace and mercy be to Thee." The Takbir is recited by the Imam aloud, but the Subhdn, the Saldm, the Darud, and the Dua\ are recited by the Imam and the people in a low voice.
The people then seat themselves on the ground, and raise their hands in silent prayer in behalf of the deceased s soul, and afterwards addressing the relatives they say, "It is the decree of God." To which the chief mourner replies, " I am pleased with the will of God." He then gives permission to the people to retire by saying, " There is permission to depart."
Those who wish to return to their houses do so at this time, and the rest proceed to the
grave. The corpse is then placed on its back in the grave, with the head to the north and feet to the south, the face being turned towards Mecca. The persons who place the corpse in the grave repeat the following sentence: " We commit thee to earth in the name of God and in the religion of the Prophet."
The bands of the shroud having been loosed, the recess, which is called the Idhd 9 is closed in with un burnt bricks and the grave filled in with earth. In some countries it is usual to recite the Surat i Twd Hah as the clods of earth are thrown into the- grave ; but this practice is objected to by the Wahhabis, and by many learned divines. This chapter is as follows :
" From it (the earth) have We (God) created you, and unto it will We return you, and out of it will We bring you forth the second time."
After the burial, the people offer a fdtihah (i.e., the first chapter of the Quran] in the name of the deceased, and again when they have proceeded about forty paces from the gi K ave they offer another jdtihah ; for at this juncture, it is said, the two angels Munkar and
192 JANAZA, OR BURIAL.
Nakir examine the deceased as to his faith.* After this, food is distributed to beggars and religious mendicants as a propitiatory offering to God, in the name of the deceased person.
If the grave be for the body of a woman, it should be to the height of a man s chest, if for a man, to the height of the waist. At the bottom of the grave the recess is made on the side to receive the corpse, which is called the Idhad. The dead are seldom interred in coffins, although they are not prohibited.
To build tombs with stones or burnt bricks, or to write a verse of the Quran upon them, is forbidden in the Hadis ; but largest one and brick tombs are common to all Muhamrnadan countries, and very frequently they bear in scriptions.
On the third day after the burial of the dead, it is usual for the relatives to visit the grave, and to recite selections from the Quran. Those who can afford to pay Maulavis, employ these learned men to recite the whole of the Quran at the graves of their deceased relatives ; and, as we have already remarked, in a former article,
- Vide article on Angels.
JANAZA, OR BURIAL. 193
the Quran is divided into sections to admit of its being recited by the several Maulavis at once. Daring the days of mourning the relatives abstain from wearing any article of dress of a bright colour, and their soiled garments remain unchanged.
SLAVERY ^ubudlyat) has been consecrated by Muhammadan law, and some of its provisions have been taken from the Mosaic code. The traces of heathenism are, however, observable in most of the Muslim laws with reference to this question. For example, according to Jewish law,* if a master slew his slave he was liable to punishment, whereas the Islamic codef annexes no worldly punishment for the murder of a slave.
There is no limit to the number of slave girls with whom a Muslim may cohabit, and it is the consecration of this illimitable indulgence which so popularizes slavery amongst Muham madan nations. Some Muslim writers J of the
Exodus xxi. 20. f Hidaya, l>k. xvi. I Life of Muhammad, by ayyid Ameer Ali, p. 257. It
present day contend that Muhammad looked upon the custom as temporary in its nature, and held that its extinction was sure to be achieved by the progress of ideas and change of circumstances ; but the slavery of Islam is interwoven with the Law of marriage, the Law of sale, and the Law of inheritance, of the system, and its abolition would strike at the very foundations of the code of Muhammad- anism.
Slavery is in complete harmony with the spirit of Islam, whilst it is abhorrent to that of Christianity. That Muhammad ameliorated the condition of the slave, as it existed under the heathen laws of Arabia, we cannot doubt ; but it is equally certain that the Arabian legislator intended it to be a perpetual in stitution.
The following traditions * with reference to the action of the Prophet in this matter are notable:
" Imnin-ibn-Husain said a man freed six
is often said that the buying and selling of slaves is not sanctioned by Islam ; this is not correat, as will be seen upon reference to the MuhammacL n Law of Sale.
- Mishkat, bk. xiii chap. xx. pt. 1.
slaves at his death, and lie had no other pro perty besides ; arid the Prophet called them, and divided them into three sections, and then cast lots ; he then ordered that two of them should be freed, and he retained four in slavery, and spoke severely of the man who had set them free."
" Jabir said we used to sell the mothers of children in the time of the Prophet, and of Abu Bakr; but Omar forbade it in his time."
For certain sins the manumission of slaves is the legal penalty, and a slave may purchase his own freedom with the permission of his ovmer.
In the Akhlak-i-Jilali,* which is the popular work upon practical philosophy amongst the Muhammadans, it is said that "for service a slave is preferable to a freeman, inasmuch as he must be more disposed to submit, obey, and adopt his patron s habits and pursuits."
Although slavery has existed side by side with Christianity, it is undoubtedly contrary to the spirit of the teaching of our divine Lord,
- Akhlak-i-Jalali, by Fakir Jani Muhammad Asa ad.
who has given to the world the grand doctrine of universal brotherhood.
Mr. Lecky believes * that it was the spirit of Christianity which brought about the aboli tion of slavery in Europe. He says, " The services of Christianity were of three kinds. It supplied a new order of relations, in which the distinction of classes was unknown. It im parted a moral dignity to the servile classes. It gave an unexampled impetus to the move ment of enfranchisement."
History of European Morals, vol. ii. p. 70.
XLIII. THE KHUTBAH, OR THE FRIDAY S SERMON.Edit
THE Khutbah is the oration or sermon delivered in the mosque every Friday, and on the chief festivals, after the meridian prayer. After the usual ablutions, the four Sunnat prayers are recited. The Khatib, or preacher, then seats himself on the Mimbar (pulpit), whilst the Muazzin proclaims the Azan ; after which he stands up on the second step,f and delivers the sermon, which must be in the Arabic language, and include prayers for " Muham mad, the Companions, and the King." There are several books of Khutbahs published for the use of preachers. The most celebrated of these preachers manuals is the Mujmua Khitab, printed by Abdur Rahman of Cawnpore. The sermons are arranged for every Friday in the year, and are the compositions oi: various Muslim divines. It is remarkable that short sermons are meritorious ; for it is related that the " Prophet " remarked that " the length of a man s prayers and the short ness of his sermon are the signs of his sense and understanding ; therefore make your prayers long and your Khutbah short."
The following is a translation of the third Khutbah in the book of sermons already men tioned ; it is a fair specimen of an average Khutbah, both as to its length and matter :
" In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful.
" Praised be God. Praised be that God who hath shown us the way in this religion. If He had not guided us into the path we should not have found it.
" I bear witness that there is no deity but God. He is one. He has no associate. I bear witness that Muhammad is, of a truth, His servant and His Apostle. May God have mercy upon him, and upon his descendants, and upon his companions, and give them peace.
" Fear God, ye people, and fear that day, the day of judgment, when a father will not be able to answer for his son, nor the son for the father. Of a truth God s promises are true. Let not this present life make you proud. Let not the deceiver (Satan) lead you astray.
" ye people who have believed, turn ye to God, as Nasua * did turn to God. Verily God doth forgive all sin, verily He is the merciful, the forgiver of sins. Verily He is the most munificent, and bountiful, the King, the Holy One, the Clement, the Most Merciful."
The preacher then descends from the pulpit, and sitting on the floor of the mosque, offers
- Wasud, is the name which occurs in the sixth verse cf
the Surat-i-Tahrimah (Ixvi.) in the Quran ; it is translated " true repentance " by Sale and Re-dwell, but it is sup posed to be a pel-son s name by several commentators.
THE KHUTBAH, OK THE FRIDAY S SERMON. 201
up a silent prayer. He then, again, ascends the Mimbar, as before, and proceeds thus :
" In the name of God, the compassionate, the merciful.
" Praised be God. We praise Him. We seek help from Him. We ask forgiveness tf sins. We trust in Him. We seek refuge in Him from evil desires and from former sinful actions. He who has God for his guide is never lost ; and whomsoever He leadeth aside none can guide into the right path.
" We bear witness that there is no deity but God. He is one. He hath no partner.
" Verily we bear witness that Muhammad is the servant and apostle of God, and may God have mercy upon him, who is more exalted than any being. May God have mercy upon his descendants, and upon his companions. May God give them peace ! Especially upon Amir-ul-Mominin Abu Bakr Sadiq (may God be pleased with him). And upon him who was the most temperate of the " friends r Amir-ul-Mominin Omar Ibn-ul-Khattab (may God be pleased with him). And upon him whose modesty and faith were perfect, Amir ul-Mominin Osman (may God be pleased with
202 THE KHUTBAH, OR THE FRIDAY S SERMON.
him). And upon the Lion of the powerful God, Ainir-ul-Mominin Ali ibn Abu-Talib (may God be pleased with him). And upon the two Imams, the holy ones, the two martyrs, Amir-ul-Mominin Abu Muhammad Hasan and Abu Abdullah Husain (may God be pleased with both of them). And upon the mother of these two persons, the chief of women, Fatimah-uz-Zdrah (may God be pleased with her). And upon his (Muham mad s) two uncles, Hamza and Abbas (may God be pleased with them). And upon the rest of the " companions," and upon the " fol lowers " (may God be pleased with all of them). Of Thy mercy, most merciful of all merciful on.es, God, forgive all Musalman men and Musalman women, all male believers, and all female believers. Of a truth thou art He who wilt receive our prayers.
" God, help those who help the religion of Muhammad. May we also exert ourselves to help those who help Islam. Make those weak, who weaken the religion of Muhammad.
" O God, bless the king of the age, and make him kind and favourable to the people.
" servants of God, may God have mercy
THE KHUTBAH, OR THE FRIDAY S SERMON. 203
upon you. Verily, God enjoineth justice and the doing of good, and gifts to kindred ; and He forbiddeth wickedness, and wrong, and oppres sion. He warneth you that haply ye may be mindful.*
" ye people, remember the great and exalted God. He will also remember you. He will answer your prayers. The remembrance of God is great, and good, and honourable, and noble, and meritorious, and worthy, and sublime."
The preacher then descends, and taking up his position as Imam, facing the Mihrdbfi conducts two rak at prayers. The Khatib, however, does not always officiate as Imam.
In the above Khutbah we have inserted the petition usually offered up in behalf of " the king" in India, although it does not occur in the collection of sermons from which we have translated. Until the Mutiny of 1857,
The ninety-second verse of Sdrat-i-Nahe (cxvi.) of tjtie Quran.
f The Mihrab is the centre of the wall of a mosque, facing Mecca, to which the Imam (priest) prays. It usually consists of a circular niche in the wall.
204 THE KHUTBAH, OR THE FRIDAY S SERMON.
we believe that in the majority of mosques in North India it was recited in the name of the King of Delhi, and even now we are informed that some bigoted Imams say it in the name of the Sultan of Turkey. The recital of the Khutbah serves to remind every Muhammadan priest, at least once a week, that he is in the land of warfare (Ddr-ul-Ilarb) ; and the fact that Muhammadans under Christian rule are in an anomalous position, is a source of trouble to many a conscientious Muslim. A few years ago, a celebrated Muhammadan divine sent for a native Christian officer, as he wished to obtain his aid in an important matter. The nature of the good man s difficulty was as follows : The Friday prayer, or Khutbah, must, according to Muhammadan law, he said in the name and by the permission of the ruler of the land. He had been saying the Friday prayer without permission of the ruler, and he feared that these prayers had, consequently, not been ac cepted by the Almighty. He, therefore, asked the Christian officer to obtain the necessary permission from the magistrate of the district*. The Christian was also a man versed in Muslim law, and he quoted authorities to prove that
Till-: KIIUTBAH, OR TI1K FRIDAY S SERMON. 205
the permission of an infidel" rule- was not what Islam enjoined.
In Turkey and Egypt, and in other countries under Muslim rule, it is the custom for the Khatib to deliver the Khutbah whilst he holds a wooden sword reversed.
The prayer for the reigning monarch, if he be a Muslim, would be offered up in the follow ing manner :
" God, aid Islam, and strengthen its pillars, and make infidelity to tremble, and destroy its might, by the preservation of Thy servant, and the son of Thy servant, the sub missive to the might of Thy Majesty and Glory, whom God hath aided, our master Amir Sher Ali Khdn, son of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan, may God assist him and prolong his reign. God, assist him, and assist his armies. Thou God of the religion and Lord of the world, assist the armies of Muslims ; frustrate the armies of infidels and polytheists, thine enemies, the enemies of the religion."
XLIV. JIHAD, OR RELIGIOUS WAR.
JIHAD* (lit. " an effort ") is a religious war against the infidels, as enjoined by Muhammad in the following passages in the Quran : Siirat-un-Nisa (vi.).
" Fight, therefore, for the religion of God."
God hath indeed promised Paradise to every one, But God hath preferred those who fiyht for the faith."
Su rat-ul Muhammad (xlvii.).
"Those who fight in defence of God s true reliyion, God will not suffer their works to perish."
Those who engage in war against the infidels are called Ghdzis. The whole question of Jihad has been fully discussed by Dr. W. W. Hunter, of the Bengal Civil Service, in his work en titled, " Indian Musalmans," which is the re-
- Some Muhaminadan divines say there are two Jihads,
viz., JiMd-ul-Akbar, or the Greater Warfare, which is against one s own lusts ; and Jihad-al-Asghar, or the Lesser Warfare, against infidels.
suit of careful inquiry as to the necessary conditions of a Jihad, or Cresentade, instituted at the time of the excitement which existed in India in 1870-71, in consequence of a sup posed Wahhabi conspiracy for the overthrow of Christian rule in that country. The whole matter, according to the Sunni Musulmans, hinges upon the question whether India is Ddr-ul-Harb, the land of enmity, or Ddr-ul- Isldm, the land of Islam.
The Muftis belonging to the Hanifia and Shafa ia sects at Mecca decided that, " as long as even some of the peculiar observances of Islam prevail in a country, it is Ddr-ul-Isldm.^ The decision of the Mufti of the Maliki sect was very similar, being to the following effect :
u A country does not become Ddr-ul-Harb as soon as it passes into the hands of the infidels, but when all or most of the injunctions of Islam disappear therefrom."
The law doctors of North India decided that, " the absence of protection and liberty to Musulmans is essential in a Jihdd or religious war, and that there should be a probability of victory to the armies of Islam."
The Shia h decision on the subject was as
follows: * A Jihad is lawful only when the armies of Isldm are led by the rightful Imam, when arms and ammunitions of war and ex perienced warriors are ready, when it is against the enemies of God, when he who makes war is in possession of his reason, and when he has secured the permission of his parents, and has sufficient money to meet the expenses of his journey."
The Sunnis and Shia hs alike believe in the eventual triumph of Islam, when the whole world shall become followers of the Prophet of Arabia; but whilst the Sunnis are, of course, ready to undertake the accomplishment of this great end, " whenever there is a probability of victory to the Musulmdns," the Shid hs, true to the one great principle of their sect, must wait until the appearance of a rightful Imain.
Not very long ago a learned Muhammadan Qdzi (judge) was consulted by the writer of these notes with reference to this interesting question, namely, whether India is Ddr-ul- Isldm, or Ddr-ul-Harb. At first he replied, Ddr-ul- Islam, and then, after a short paus*e, he said, " Well, sir, may I tell you the truth ? " Upon being assured that the ques-
tion was put merely as one of theological in quiry, and not for any political reasons, he replied, " It is Ddr-ul-IIarb." One of his reasons for arriving at this conclusion was the well-known doctrine of Islam that a Muslim cannot be a Zimmi, or one who pays tribute to an infidel power. We believe that the fact that Muhammadans under Christian rule are in an anomalous position, is a source of trouble to many a conscientious Muslim. Many Mus lims believe that Hijrat, or flight, is incumbent upon every child of the Faith who is under Kafir (infidel) rule ; but, as our friend the Qazi put it, " Where are they to go to ? " The Muslim who abandons his country under such circumstances is called a Muhdjir, or refugee.
When an infidel s country is conquered by a Muslim ruler, its inhabitants are offered three alternatives :
(1.) The reception of Islam, in which case the conquered become enfranchised citizeus of the Muslim state.
(2.) The payment of a poll tax (Jiziyah), by which unbelievers in Islam obtain protection, and become Zimmis.
(3.) Death by the sword.
In a state brought under Muslims, all those who do not embrace the faith are placed under certain disabilities. They can worship God according to their own customs, provided they are. not idolators ; but it must be done without any ostentation, and, whilst churches and synagogues may be repaired, no new place of worship can be erected. Vide Hidayah,* where we read : " The construction of churches, or synagogues, in Muslim territory is unlawful, this being forbidden in the Traditions ; but if places of worship belonging to Jews, or Christians, be destroyed, or fall into decay, they are at liberty to repair them, because buildings cannot endure for ever."
Idol temples must be destroyed, and idolatry suppressed by force in all countries ruled according to strict Muslim law.
- Hamilton s Translation, vol. ii. p. 219.
XL V. MARTYRS.
THE title of Shahid, or martyr, is given to anyone who dies under the following circum stances :
1. A soldier who dies in war for the cause of Islam.
2. One who innocently meets with his death from the hand of another.
3. The victim of a plague.
4. A person accidentally drowned.
5. One upon whom a wall may fall acci dentally.
6. A person burnt in a house on fire.
7. One who dies from hunger.
8. One who dies on the pilgrimage to Mecca.
If a martyr dies in war, or is innocently mur dered, he is buried without the usual washing before burial, as it is said that the blood of a martyr is a sufficient ablution.
XLVI. THE FOUR ORTHODOX SECTS.
are four orthodox sects or schools of interpretation amongst the Sunnis, the Hanifi, the Shafa i, the Maliki, and the Ham- bali.
1. The Hanifis are found in Turkey, Central Asia, and North India. The founder of this sect was Imam Abu Hanifa, who was born at Koofa, the capital of Irak, A.D 702, or A.H. 80, at which time four of the " Prophet s " com panions were still alive. He is the great oracle of jurisprudence, and (with his two pupils Imam Abu Yusaf and Imam Muhammad) was the founder of the Hanifi Code of Law.*
2. The Shafa ias are found in South India and Egypt. The founder of this school of interpre tation was Imam Muhammad ibn i Idris al
- A Digest of the Hanifi Code of Law has been pub
lished in English by Mr. N. B E. Baillie.
THE FOUR ORTHODOX SECTS. 213
Shafa i, who was born at Askalon, in Palestine, A.D. 772 (A.H. 150).
o. The Malikis prevail in Morocco, Barbary, and other parts of Africa, and were founded by Imam Malik, who was born at Madina, A.D. 717 (A.H. 93). He enjoyed the personal ac quaintance of Hanifa, and he was considered the most learned man of his time.
4. The Hambalis were founded by Imam Abu Abdullah Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hambal, who was born at Bagdad, A.D. 786 (A.H. 164). He attended the lectures delivered by Shafa i, by whom he was instructed in the traditions. His followers are found in Eastern Arabia, and in some parts of Africa, but it is the least popular of the four schools of inter pretation. They have no Mufti at Mecca, whilst the other three sects are represented there. The Wahhabis rose from this sect.
From the disciples of these four great Imams have proceeded an immense number of com mentaries and other works, all differing on a variety of points in their constructions, although coinciding in their general principles.
XLVIL THE SHfA HS.
THE Shia hs (lit. " followers") arc the followers of Ali, the husband of Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad. They maintain that All was the first legitimate Khalifa, or successor to Muhammad, and therefore reject Abu Bakr, Omar, and Osman, the first three Khalifs, as usurpers. According to the Shia hs the Muslim religion consists of a knowledge of the true Imam, or leader, and the differences amongst themselves with reference to this question have given rise to endless divisions. Of the pro verbial seventy-three sects of Islam, not fewer than thirty-two are assigned to the Shia hs.
The twelve Imams, according to the Shia hs, are as follows :
1. Hazrat All.
4. Zain-ul- Abidin.
5. Muhammad Baqr.
THE SHIA HS. 215
6. Jan r Sadiq.
7. Musa Kazim.
8. Ali Miisa Raza.
9. Muhammad Taqi.
10. Muhammad Naqi.
11. Hasan Askari.
i 12. Abu Qasim (or Imam Mahdi).
The last Imam, Abu Qasim, is supposed by the Shia hs to be still alive and concealed in some secret place ; and that he is the same Mahdi, or director, concerning whom Mu hammad prophesied that the world should not have an end until one of his own descendants should govern the Arabians, and whose coming in the last days is expected by all Muslims.
During the absence of the Imam, the Shia hs appeal to the Mujtahids, or enlightened doctors of the law, for direction in all matters both temporal and spiritual. Since the accession of Ismail, the first of the Sufi dynasty, A.D. 1499, the Shia h faith has been the national reli gion of Persia. The enmity which exists between Sunni and Shia h Muhammadans is, perhaps, lordly equalled by the mutual animosity which too often exists between Romanists and Protes tants.
2 lf> THE SHIA HS.
It is not true that the Shia h Muhammadans reject the Traditions of Muhammad, although the Sunnis arrogate to themselves the title of traditionists. They do nob acknowledge the Sih<ih-i-Sita, or six correct books of the Sunnis and Wahhabis, but receive the five collections of Traditions, entitled : 1. Kafi ; 2. Man-la- yastahzirah-al-Faqih ; 3. Tahzib ; 4. Istibsar ; 5. Nahaj-ul-Balaghat.
The Shia h school of law is called the Imdmia,* and it is earlier than that of the Sunnis ; for Abu Hanifa, the father of the Sunni code of law, received his first instructions in jurisprudence from Imam Jafir Sadiq, the sixth Imam of the Shia hs ; but this learned doctor afterwards separated from his teacher, and established a school of his own.
The differences between the Shia hs and Sunnis are very numerous, but we will enu merate a few of them :
1. The discussion as to the office of Imam, already alluded to.
2. The Shia hs have a profound veneration
" A Digest of the Imamia code has been published by Mr. N. B.^E. Baillie. London, 1869.
THE SHIA HS. 217
for Imam Ali, and some of their sects regard him as an incarnation of divinity. They all assert that next to the Prophet, Ali is the most excellent of men.
3. They observe the ceremonies of the Muharram in commemoration of Ali, Hasan, Husain, and Bibi Fatimah, whilst the Sunnis only regard the tenth day of Muharram, the Ashurda, being the day on which God is said to have created Adam and Eve, etc.
4. The Shia hs permit Muta h, or temporary marriages, which are contracted for a limited period, and for a certain sum of money. The Sunnis say that Muhammad afterwards can celled this institution.
5. The Shia hs include the Majusi, or fire- worshippers, among the Ahl-i-Kitdb, or people of the Book, whilst Sunnis only acknowledge Jews, Christians, and Muslims, as Kitdbiahs.
6. There are also various minor differences in the ceremony of Suldt, or prayer, and in the ablutions previous to prayer.
7. The Shia hs admit a principle of religious compromise which is called Takia (lit. " guard ing one s self"), a pious fraud, whereby the Shia h Muhammadan believes he is justified
218 THE SHIA HS.
in either smoothing down or in denying the peculiarities of his religious belief in order to save himself from religious persecution. A Shia h can, therefore, pass himself off as a Sunni, or even curse the twelve Imams, in order to avoid persecution.
XLVIII. THE WAHHABIS.
THIS sect was founded by Muhammad, son of Abdul Wahhab, but as their opponents could not call them Muhammadans, they have been distinguished by the name of the father of the founder of their sect, and are called Wahhabis.* Shekh Muhammad was born at Ayina, a village in the province of Arad, in the country of Najd, in the year A,D. 1691. Having been carefully instructed in the tenets of the Muslim religion, according to the teachings of fhe Hambali sect, he in due time left his native place, in company with his father, to perform the pilgrimage to Mecca. At Madina, he was instructed by Shekh Abdullah-ibn-Ibrahim, of Najd ; and, it is supposed, that whilst sitting at the feet of this celebrated teacher, the
- Vide a Wahhabi book entitled Sulh-ul-Aklwan, by
>Sayyid Allaina Daud, of Bagdad.
son of Abdul Wahhab first realized how far the rigid lines of Islam had been stretched, almost to breaking, in the endeavour to adapt its stern principles to the superstitions of idolatrous Arabia. He accompanied his father to Harimala, and, after his father s death, he returned to his native village of Ayina, where he assumed the position of a religious teacher. His teachings met with acceptance, and he soon acquired so great an influence over the people of those parts that the Governor of Hassa compelled him to leave the district, and the reformer found a friendly asylum in Deraiah, under the protection of Muhammad- ibn-Saud, a chief of considerable influence, who made the protection of Ibn- Abdul- Wahhab a pretext for a war with the Shekh of Hassa. Ibn Saud married the daughter of Ibn-Abdul- A^ ^ ahllab, and established in his family the Wahhabi dynasty, which, after a chequered existence of more than a hundred years, still exists in the person of the Wahhabi chief at Ryadh.*
- The following ,ire the names of the Wahlmbi chiefs,
from the establishment of the dynasty: Muhan mad-ilni- Saud, died A.D. 17l>o; Abdu!-Aziz, assassinated 1803;
THE WAHHABIS. 221
The whole of Eastern Arabia has embraced the reformed doctrines of the Wahhabis, and Mr. Palgrave, in his account of his travels in those parts, has given an interesting sketch of the Wahhabi religionists, although he is not always correct as to the distinctive prin ciples of their religious creed.
In the great Wahhabi revival, political in terests were united with religious reform, as was the case in the great Puritan struggle in England ; and the Wahhabis soon pushed their conquests over the whole ,of Arabia. In A.D. 1803, they conquered Mecca and Madina, and for many years threatened the subjugation of the whole Turkish Empire ; but in A.D. 1811, Muhammad Ali, the celebrated Pasha of Egypt, commenced a war against the Wah habis, and soon recovered Mecca and Madina ; and in 1818, his son, Ibrahim Pasha, totally defeated Abdullah, the Wahhabi leader, and
Saud-ibn-Abdul Aziz, died 1814; Abdullah-ibn-Saud, be headed 1818; Turki, assassinated 1830; Fayzul, died 1866; Abdullah, still living. Fayzul and his son Abdullah en tertained Col. Sir Lewis Pelly, K.C.B., K.C.S.I., who visited the Wahhabi capital, as Her Britannic Majesty s represen tative, in 1865.
222 THE WAHHAHIS.
sent him a prisoner to Constantinople, where he was executed in the public square of St. Sophia, December 19th, 1818. But although the temporal power of the Wahhabis has been subdued, they still continue secretly to pro pagate their peculiar tenets, and in the present day there are numerous disciples of the sect not only in Arabia, but in Turkey and in India. It is a movement which has influenced religious thought in every part of Islam.
The leader of the Wahhabi movement in India was Sayyid Ahmad, who was born at Rai Bareli, in Oudh, in A.D. 1786. He began life as a freebooter ; but about the year 1816, he gave up robbery j and commenced to study divinity in one of the mosques at Delhi. After a few years study, he performed the pilgrimage to the sacred city; and, whilst at Mecca, attracted the notice of the learned doctors by the similarity of his teaching to that of the Wahhabi sectaries, from whom the city had suffered so much. He was soon expelled from the town, and he returned to India a fanatical disciple of the Wahhabi leader. His success as a preacher was great, both in Bombay and Calcutta; and having collected a numerous
THE WAHHABIS. 223
following from the ranks of Islam within British territory, he proceeded to the north west frontier of India, and preached a Jihad, or Holy War, against the Sikhs. On the 21st of December, 1826, the war against the infidel Sikhs began, and almost every place in the Peshawur valley is, in some way, associated with this fanatical struggle. The mission oi this Wahhabi leader was soon brought to an untimely end ; for in the battle of Balakot, in Hazarah, in May, 1831, when the fanatics were surprised by a Sikh army, under Sher Singh, their leader, Sayyid Ahmad, was slain.* But, as in the case of the Wahhabi leader of Eastern Arabia, the propagation of the religious tenets did not cease with Sayyid Ahmad s death, and within the last thirty years Wah- habyism has widely influenced religious thought amongst the Muhammadans of India. The people who hold the doctrines of the Wahhabis do not always combine with them the fanatical spirit of either the son of Abdul Wahhab, or
"* The remnant of the Sayyicl s army formed the nucleus of the Wahhabi fanatics, who are now stationed at the village of Polosi, on the banks of the Indus, on the north west frontier of British India.
224 THE WAHHABIS.
of Sayyid Ahmad Khan ; they speak of them selves as Ahl-i-Hadis, or the people of the traditions, or thos who interpret the teaching of the Quran by the example of Muhammad ; but there can be but little doubt that the religious principles of the Wahhabis of India are identical with those of the Wahhabis of Arabia, although it does not follow that they are imbued with exactly the same fanatical spirit. It must, however, be remembered that there is no separation between Church and State in the principles of Islam, and that Muhammadans only cease to be fanatical and disloyal under foreign rule when they are certain that opportunities for resistance do not exist. In the fatwa (decision) given by a number of learned doctors of Lucknow and other places, dated 17th July, 1870, it was .stated that "it is necessary that there should be a probability of victory to the Musalmans, and qlory to the people of Hindustan. If there be no such probability, the Jih6d is unlawful
- Vide Hunter s Indian Musulmdns, Appendix II. Dr.
Badger, in his article in the " Contemporary Review," June, 1875, questions whether there is any real affinity between the Wahhabyism of India and Najd, but we be lieve they are identical in principle and spirit.
The Wahhabis speak of themselves as Mu- wahhid, or Unitarians, and call all others Mush- rik, or those who associate .another with God ; and the following are some of their distinctive religious tenets :
1. They do not receive the decisions of the four orthodox sects, but say that any man who can read and understand the Quran and the sacred Hadis can judge for himself in matters of doctrine. They, therefore, reject Ijmti after the death of the Companions of the Prophet.
2. That no one but God can know the secrets of men, and that prayers should not be offered to any Prophet, Wall, Pir, or Saint ; but that God may be asked to grant a petition for the sake of a saint.
3. That at the last day, Muhammad will obtain permission (izn) of God to intercede for his people. The Sunnis believe that permission has already been given.
4. That it is unlawful to illuminate the shrines of departed saints, or to prostrate before them, or to perambulate (tawdf) round them.
5. That women should not be allowed to visit the graves of the dead, on account of their immoderate weeping.
220 THE WAHHABIS.
6. That only four festivals ought to be observed, namely, Id-ul-Fitr, Id-ul- Azha, A shuraa, and Shab-i-Barat.
7. They do not observe the ceremonies of Matdud, which are celebrated on the anniversary of Muhammad s birth.
8. They do not present offerings (Nazr) at any shrine.
9. They count the ninety-nine names of God on their fingers, and not on a rosary.
10. They understand the terms "sitting of God," and " hand of God," which occur in the Quran, in their literal (Haqiqi] sense, and not figuratively (Majdzi) ; but, at the same time, they say it is not revealed how God sits, or in what sense he has a hand, etc.*
- On this account the Christian doctrines of the Trinity
and the Sonship of Christ do not present the same diffi culties to the mind of a WahhAbi which they do to that of a Simni.
XLIX. SUETIS VI, OR MYSTICISM.
THE term Sttfi is said to be derived from the Arabic Silf, " wool," on account of the woollen garments worn by the Eastern ascetics ; or from the Persian Sdf, " pure," with reference to the Sufiistic effort to attain to metaphysical purity; or from the Greek, <ro0m, " wisdom, i. e. 9 the true wisdom, or knowledge.
Tasawwafi or Sufiism, appears to be but the Muslim adaptation of the doctrines of the Vedanta school, which we also find in the writings of the old academies of Greece, and which Sir William Jones thought Plato learned from the sages of the East.
The Sufis are divided into innumerable sects; but although they differ in name, and in some of their customs, they are all agreed in the principal tenets, especially those which incul cate? the absolute necessity of blind submission
to an inspired teacher, or Murshid. They
228 SUFIISM. .
believe that God only exists. He is in all things, and all things in him, and all created beings visible and invisible are an emanation from God, and not really distinct from Him. That the soul of man existed before the body in which it is confined as in a cage. The great object of the Sufi being to escape from the trammels of humanity, and to return to the bosom of divinity, whilst the teachings of their mystic creed are supposed to lead the soul onward, stage by stage, until it reaches the god perfect knowledge.
The natural state of every Muslim is Ndsut, in which state the disciple must observe the precepts of the law, or Shariat ; but, as this is the lowest form of spiritual existence, the performance of the journey is enjoined upon every searcher after Truth.
The following are the stages (Manzil) which
the Sufi has to perform. Having become a
searcher after -God (TdHb\ he enters the first
stage of Ubudiyat, "service." When the Divine
attraction has developed his inclination into
the love of God, he is said to have reached < the
second stage of Ishaq, "love." This Divine
love, expelling all worldly desires from his
heart, he arrives at the third stage of Zudh, " seclusion." Occupying himself henceforward with contemplation and the investigations of the metaphysical theories concerning the nature, attributes, and works of God, which are the characteristics of the Sufi system, he reaches the fourth stage of M arijat, " knowledge." This assiduous contemplation of metaphysical theories soon produces a state of mental ex citement, which is considered a sure prognos tication of direct illumination from God. This fifth stage is called Wajd, " ecstasy." During the next stage he is supposed to receive a reve lation of the true nature of the Godhead, and to have reached the sixth stage of Hagiqat, "truth." The next stage is that of Wasl, " union with God," which is the highest stage to which he can go whilst in the body ; but when death overtakes him, it is looked upon as a total re-absorption into the Deity, forming the consummation of his journey and the eighth and last stage of Fand, " extinction." That stage in which the traveller is said to have attained to the love of God, is the point from which the Sufiistic poets love to discuss the doctrines of their sect. The Sdlik, or traveller.
is the Lover ( Ashiq), and God is the Beloved One (M ashnq}. This Divine love is the theme of most of the Persian and Pushtu poems, which abound in Sufiistic expressions which are difficult of interpretation to an ordinary English reader. For instance, Shardb, " wine," expresses the domination of Divine love in the heart. Gisi i, " a ringlet," the details of the 4 mysteries of Divinity. Mai Khtina, " a tavern," a stage of the journey. " Mirth," " wanton ness," and " inebriation," signify religious en thusiasm and abstraction from worldly things.
The eight stages which we have given are those usually taught by Sufi teachers in their published works ; but in North India we have frequently met with persons of this sect, who have learnt only the four following stages :
The first, Ndsut, "humanity," for which there is the Shariat, or law. The second, MalaktU, " the nature of angels," for which there is Tariydt, or the pathway of purity. The third is JabanU, "the possession of power," for which there is M ariJ&t, or know ledge. And the fourth is Ld/uU, " extinction," for which there is Haqiqat, or truth.
The Sufi mystic seeks, by concentration of
a^is thoughts and affections on God, to lose his own identity ; and the following fable, related by Jalal-ud-din, the author of the Masnawi,* illustrates their views on the subject. It re presents Human Love seeking admission into the Sanctuary of Divinity :
" One knocked at the door of the Beloved, and a voice from within inquired Who is there ? Then he answered, It is /. And the voice said, This house will not hold me and thee. So the door remained shut. Then the Lover sped away into the wilderness, and fasted and prayed in solitude. And after a year he returned, and knocked again at the door, and the voice again demanded, Who is there? And the Lover said, It is Thou Then the door was opened."
In Professor Max Mailer s address to the Aryan section of the International Congress of Orientalists assembled in London, in September, 1874, he said : " We have learnt already one lesson, that behind the helpless expressions
- The Masnawi is the celebrated book of the Sufi mys
tics which, it is said, takes the place of the Quran amongst the majority of people in Persia.
232 SUFI ISM.
which language has devised, whether in the East or the West, for uttering the unutterable
- * * there is the same intention, the same
striving, the same stammering, the same faith. Other lessons will follow, till in the end we shall be able to restore that ancient word which unites not only the East with the West, but with all the members of the human family, and may learn to understand what a Persian poet meant when he wrote many centuries ago : Diversity of worship has divided the human race into seventy-two nations. From all their dogmas I nave selected one the love of God. "
By "the seventy-two (seventy-three?) nations/ 1 are doubtless meant the number of sects into which Muhammad said Islam would be divided; but the -learned Professor surely cannot be ignorant of the fact that the "love oj God" selected by the Persian poet, as the dogma par excellence, is the Ishaq, or second
- Muhammad said that, as the Jews had been divided
into seventy-one sects, and the Christians into seventy-two, the Muslims would be divided into seventy-three, that is seventy-two in addition to the " orthodox" or Ndjiali sect, each sect, of course, claiming to be NdjiaJt.
stage of the Sufiistic Journej. Only those w ho have conversed with Sufis on this mystical love can well realise how impossible it is for the Christian to reconcile that practical love of God, which " gave His only begotten Son," and that practical love to God, which is shown by keeping His commandments, with that mys tical love, or Ishaq, which is the subject of Sufi divinity.
L. FAQIRS, OR DARWBSHBS.
THE Arabic word Faqir, signifies poor ; but it is used in the sense of being in need of mercy, and poor in the sight of God, rather than in need of worldly assistance. Darwesh is derived from the Persian dar, " a door," those who beg from door to door. The terms are generally used for those who lead a religious life. Re ligious Faqirs are divided into two great classes, the ba Sahra (with the law), or those who govern their conduct according to the principles of Islam ; and the be Sham (without the law) or those who do not rule their lives according to the principles of any religious creed, although they call themselves Musulmans. The former are called Sdlik, or travellers on the pathway (tariyuat) to heaven ; and the latter are either Azml (free), or Majzub (abstracted). The Sdlik embrace the various 1 religious orders who perform the Zikrs de scribed in our next note. The Majziib are
FAQIRS, OR DARWESHES.
totally absorbed in religious reverie. The Azdd shave their beards, whiskers, moustachio. 7 -, eyebrows and eyelashes, and lead lives of celibacy.
The Azdd and Majztib Faqirs can scarcely be said to be Muhammadans, so that a descrip tion of their various sects do not fall within the limits of these notes. The Salik Faqirs are also divided into very numerous orders ; but their chief difference consists in their Silsilah, or chain of succession, from their great teachers the Khalifas All, and Abu Bakr, who are said to have been the founders of the religious order of Faqirs. European writers have distinguished the various orders by their dress and their religious performances ; but we have not been able to find that these are the distinguishing features of difference amongst them.
The following are the chief orders which are met with in North India :
1. The Naqshbandia are followers of Khwa- jah Pir Muhammad Naqshband, and are a very
- numerous sect ; they usually perform the Zikr-
i-Khafi) or the silent religious devotion de scribed in the next chapter.
-30 FAQIRS, OR DARWESHES.
2. The Qadiria sprung from the celebrated Sayyid Abdul Qadir, surnamed Fir Dustagir, whose shrine is at Bagdad. They practise both the Zikr-i-Jali, and the Zikr-i-KliafL Most of the Sunni Maulavis on the north-west frontier of India are members of this order. In Egypt it is most popular amongst fishermen.
3. The Chishtia are followers of Banda Nawaz, surnamed the Gaysu daraz, or the long- ringletted. His shrine is at Calburgah.
The Shia hs generally become Faqirs of this order. They are partial to vocal music, for the founder of the order remarked, that singing was the food and support of the soul. They perform the Zikr-i-Jali, described in the next article.
4. The Jalalia were founded by Sayyid Jalal-ud-din, of Bokhara. They are met with in Central Asia. Religious mendicants are often of this order.
5. The Sarwardia are a popular order in Afghanistan, and comprise a number of learned men. They are the followers of Hasan Bisri, of Basra, near Bagdad.
These are the most noted orders of la Shara* Faqirs. The he Shara* Faqirs are very nume-
FAQIRS, OR DARWESHES.
rous. The most popular order is that of the Muddria, founded by Zinda Shah Murdar, of Syria, whose shrine is at Mukanpur, in Oudh. From these have sprung the Malang Faqirs who crowd the bazaars of India. They wear their hair matted, and tied in a knot. The Rafia order is also a numerous one in some parts of India. They practise the most severe discipline, and mortify themselves by beating their bodies.
D Ohsson enumerates thirty- two of the prin cipal religious orders, giving the name of the founder, and the place of his shrine.
Name of the Order.
Place of the Founder s Shrine.
Ibrahim ibn Adhani
Bastami Bayazid Bastami
Jebel Besta ui 2G1
Saqati Sirri Siqati
Bagdad . 295
Qadiri Abdul-QMir Jilani
Ruf 11 Sy yid Ahmad Ruf all
Kh wares m f>!7
Shazili j Abul Hasan
Maulavi Jalal-ud-din Mulaiia
Abul Fitan Ahmad
Naqshbandi Pir Muhammad
S adi S ad-ud-din
Rakht;Wii Haji Bakhtash
Kir Sher 736
Khilwati Umar Khilwati
Bahai \ Abdul Ghani
Bairami Haji Bairam
Abu Bakr Wafai
Name of the
Plnce of tle
Founder s Shrine. A.H.
Yijit Bus hi
Shams-lid- lin Mn^aesia 951
Shekh Umm Saniin Constantiaopl-i !)-"!
Pir Uftarli Barsah <)s^
Alim Sinan Ummi Elmahli
Niyazi Muharnnr-id Nivaz Lemnos 1100
Murj td Sh;imi Constantinople 1134
- ?1 Nurud iini
Nur-ud-din Constantinople 114(5
- V2 J;im; il1
Jamiil-ud-din ( 1 onstantinople
We insert the above list on the authority of M. D Ohsson ; but we have not had an oppor tunity of testing the correctness of its infor mation.
The order of Maulavis is the most popular religious order in Constantinople. They are called by Europeans the dancing, or whirling darveshes, and their religious performances constitute one of the public sights in Con stantinople. They have service at their Takiya, or convent, every Wednesday, and at Kasim Pasha every Sunday, at 2 o clock. There are about twenty performers, with high round felt caps and brown mantles. At a given signal they all fall flat on their faces, and rise and walk slowly round and round with their arms
FAQTKS, OR DARWESHES. 239
folded, bowing and turning slowly several times. They then cast off their mantles and appear in long bell-shaped petticoats and jackets, and then begin to spin, revolving, dancing, and turning with extraordinary velocity.
The founder of this religious order was a native of Balkh, in Central Asia. It is said the spiritual powers of this extraordinary man were developed at the early age of six years ; for once on a Friday Jalad-ud-din was at Balkh on the roof of a house with some children of his own age, when one of the boys asked him if it were possible for him to jump from one house to the other. He replied, " If you have faith, jump up towards heaven." He then sprang upwards and was immediately lost to sight. The youths all cried out as he disappearsd, but he soon returned from the celestial regions, greatly altered in complexion and changed in figure ; for he had obtained a sight of the abodes of bliss.
It is impossible to become acquainted with all the rules and ceremonies of the numerous orders of Faqirs ; for, like those of the Free-
240 FAQIRS, OK DARWESHES.
masons, they may not be divulged to the un initiated.
The following is said to be the usual method of admitting a Muhammadan to the order of a ba Shara Faqir. Having first performed the legal ablutions, the Muriel (disciple) seats him self before the Murshid (spiritual, guide). The Murshid then takes the Murid s right hand, and requires of him a confession of sin according to the following form: "I ask forgiveness of the great God than Whom there is no other deity, the Eternal, the Everlasting, the Living One : I turn to Him for repentance, and beg His grace and forgiveness." This, or a similar form of repentance, is repeated several times. The Murid then repeats after the Murshid : " I beg for the favour of God and of the Prophet, and I take for my guide to (rod (here naming the Murshid) not to change or to separate. God is our witness. By the great God. There is no deity but God. Amin." The Murshid and the Murid then recite the first chapter of "the Quran, and the Murid con cludes the ceremony by kissing the Murshid s hand.
FAQIRS, OR DARWESHES. 241
After the initiatory rite, the Murid undergoes a series of instructions, including the ZiJcrs, which he is required to repeat daily. The Murid frequently visits his Murshid, and some times the Murshids proceed on a circuit of visitation to their disciples. The place where these " holy men " sit down to instruct the people is ever afterwards held sacred, a small flag is hoisted on a tree, and it is fenced in. Such places are called u Tctkiya" and are pro tected and kept free from pollution by some Faqir engaged for the purpose.
Those Faqirs who attain to a high degree of sanctity are called Walls, the highest rank of which is that of a Ghaus. Of such is the Akhund of Swat, on the north-west frontier of India. This celebrated religious leader at the age of eighteen became a member of the Qadiria order of Faqirs ; and shortly after his incor poration, he settled down on a small island in the river Indus near Attock, where he lived the life of a recluse for twelve years. During this time, it is said, his only diet was the wild-grass seed and buffalo s milk. He soon acquired a reputation for sanctity, and has gradually become the great religious leader of Central
24 .> FAQIRS, OR DARWESHES.
Asia. He now resides at the village of Seydu in Swat, where he entertains as many as a thousand visitors daily ; men from all parts of the Muslim world, who come to hear his wisdom and receive the benefit of his prayers. The Akhund has always been a great opponent of Wahhdbi doctrines ; and, although he is not well-read in Muslim divinity, hisfativds on re ligious ceremonies and secular observances are received and obeyed by all the Sunni Muhara- madans of the north-west frontier of British India.*
- An account of the Muhammadan darweshes has been
written by Mr. J. P. Brown, Secretary of the United States Legation at Constantinople. Triibner & Co., London.
LI. ZIKR, OR THE RELIGIOUS SERVICES OF THE DARWESHES.Edit
ZIKK is the religious ceremony, or act of devotion, which is practised by the various religious orders of Faqirs, or Darweshes. Almost every religious Muhammadan is a member of some order of Faqirs, and, con sequently, the performance of zikr is very common in all Muhammadan countries ; but it does not appear that any one method of per forming the religious service of zikr, is peculiar to any particular order.
ZikrS) are of two kinds, zikr-i-jali, that which is recited aloud, and - zikr-i-khafi, that which is performed either with a lo\v voice, or mentally.
The Naqshbandia order of Faqirs usually perform the latter, whilst the Chishtia and Qadiria orders celebrate the former. There are various ways of going through the exercise,
but the main features of each are similar in character. The following is a zikr-i-jali as given in the book Qual-ul- Jamil, by Maulavi Shah Wali Ullah, of Delhi :
1. The worshipper sits in the usual sitting posture and shouts the word Al-lah (God), drawing his voice from his left side and then from his throat.
2. Sitting as at prayers he repeats the word Al-lah still louder than before, first from his right knee, and then from his left side.
3. Folding his legs under him he repeats the word Al-lah first from his right knee and then from his left side, still louder !
4. Still remaining in the same position, he shouts the word Al-lah, first from the left knee, then from the right knee, then from the left side, and lastly in front, still louder !
5. Sitting as at prayer, with his face towards Mecca, he closes his eyes, says " La " drawing the sound as from his navel up to his left shoulder ; then he says i-ld-ha, drawing out the sound as from his brain ; and lastly " il-lal-ld-ho" repeated from his left side with great energy.
Each of these stages is called a Zarb. They
are, of course, recited many hundreds of times over, and the changes we have described account for the variations of sound and motion of the body described by Eastern travellers who have witnessed the performance of a zikr.
The following is a zikr-i-Tchafi^ or that which is performed in either a low voice, or mentally.
1. Closing his eyes and lips, he says, " with the tongue of the heart,"
Al-la-ho-sami un, " God the hearer." Al-la-ho-baswirun, " God the seer." Al-la-ho- 9 alimun, " God the knower." The first being drawn, as it were, from the navel to the breast ; the second, from the breast to the brain ; the third, from the brain up to the heavens ; and then again repeated stage by stage backwards and forwards.
2. He says in a low voice, "Allah," from the right knee, and then from the left side.
3. With each exhalation of his breath, he says, " Id-ildha" and with each inhalation, " il-lal-M-ho."
% This third zarl is a most exhausting act of devotion, performed, as it is, hundreds or even
thousands of times, and is, therefore, considered the most meritorious.
Tt is related that Maulavi JIabib Uilah, now living in the village of Gabasanri, in the Gadun country, on the Peshawur frontier, has become such an adept in the performance of this zirb, that he recites the first part of the zili-r-ld-ildha with the exhalation of his breath after the mid day prayer ; and the second part, il-lal-ld-ho, with the inhalation of his breath before the next time of prayer, thus sustaining his breath for the period of about three hours !
Another act of devotion, which usually ac companies the zikr, is that of Murdqaba, or meditation.
The worshipper first performs zikr of the following :
Allaho-hdzari, " God the present one." Allaho-ndzari, "God the seer." Allaho-shdhidi, " God who witnesses." Allaho-mai, "God who is with us." Having recited this zikr, either aloud or mentally, the worshipper proceeds to meditate upon some verse or verses of the Quran. Those* recommended for the Qadin a Faqirs by Maulavi
Shab Wali Ullali are the following, which we give as indicating the line of thought which is considered most devotional and spiritual by Muslim mystics:
1. Surat-ul-Hadid (Ivii.), 3.
"He (God) is first. He is last. The Manifest, and the Hidden, and who knoweth all things."
2. Surat-ul-Hadid (Ivii.), 4.
" He (God) is with you wheresoever ye be."
3. Surat-ul-Qaf (1.), 16.
" We (God) are closer to him (man) than his neck vein."
4. Surat-ul-Baqr (ii.), 109.
"Whichever way ye turn, there is the face of God."
5. Snrnt-un-Nisa (iv.), 125. " God encompasseth all things."
6. Surat-ur-Rahman (Iv.), 7.
" All on earth shall pass away, but the face of thy God shall abide resplendent with majesty and glory."
Some teachers tell their disciples that the heart has two doors, that which is fleshy, and that which is spiritual ; and that the zikr-i- jali has been established for the opening of the
- former, and ziJcr-i-khafi for the latter, in order
that they may both be enlightened.
There certainly must be something invigora-
ting in the exercise of a zikr-i-jali to a religious devotee, who seldom stirs out of his mosque ; and we have often been told by Maulavis, that they find the performance of a zikr keeps evil thoughts from the mind ; but as some of the most devoted zdJcirs (i.e. those who perform the zikr) are amongst the most immoral men, the religious exercise does not appear to have any lasting effect on the moral character.
As a curious instance of the superstitious character of this devotional exercise, the Chishtia order believe that if a man sits cross-legged and seizes the vein called Kaimds, which is under the leg, with his toes, that it will give peace to his heart, when accompanied by a zikr of the " nafi isbdt" which is a term used for the first part of the Kalimah, which forms the usual zikr, namely :
Ldrildha-il~lal-laho, " There is no deity but God."
The most common form of zikr is a recital of the ninety-nine names of God ; for Muham mad promised those of his followers who recited them, a sure entrance to Paradise.* *
- fckirat-un-Nisa (iv.), 169.
- Surat-us-SAf (ixi ), G.
- Vide Hadis-i-Sahfh-Bokharl, edition printed at the
- That Christians existed in India at a very early period
- Pal grave s Arabia, vol. i. p. 372.
- Land, or any property appropriated for religious or charitable purposes, is called waqaf.
- Only three Englishmen are known to have visited Mecca, and to have witnessed the ceremonies of the Pilgrimage - Joseph Pitts, of Exeter, A.D. 1678; John Lewis Burckhardt, A.D. 1814; Lieut. Richard Burton, of the Bombay Army, A.D. 1853. The narratives of each of these "pilgrims" have been published. The first account in English of the visit of a European to Mecca, is that of Lodovico Bartema, a gentleman of Rome, who visited Mecca in 1503. His narrative was published in Willes and Eden's Decades, A.D. 1555.
- vide Quran, Sura xxii. 28.
- These are six in number, and are situated about five or six miles from Mecca in different directions. They are called Miqdt.
- Some confusion exists in the minds of English authors with regard to the word Kaba. The Temple or Mosque at Mecca is called Musjid-ul-Haram (the sacred Mosque), or Bait-ullah (the house of God). The Kaba (lit. a cube) is the square stone building in the centre, containing the black stone. And the Hajr-ul-aswad is the black stone itself, which Muslims say was originally white, but became black by reason of men's sins.
- Sharastani informs us, that there was an opinion prevalent amongst the Arabs that the walking round the Kaba, and other ceremonies, were symbolic of the motion of the planets, and of other astronomical facts. (Itodwell.)
- The Id-i-Fitr and the Id-ul-Azha.
- The Mimbar is the pulpit of a mosque. It consists of three steps, and is sometimes a movable wooden struc ture, and sometimes a fixture of brick or stone built against the wall. Muhammad, in addressing the congre gation, stood on the uppermost step, Abu Bakr on the second, and Omar on the third or the lowest. Osman, being the most modest of the Khalifs, would have gla/lly descended lower if he could have done so ; but this being impossible, he fixed upon the second step, from which it is still the custom to preach.