CONTENTS XI PAGE CHAPTER III Causes of the Concentration of Population I. Introductory 155 The evolution of industrial society , 158 II. The divorce of men from the soil: Primitive agriculture the all-embracing industry 160 Agriculture and ancient cities 163 Agricultural progress in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries . . 164 III. The growth of commercial centres: Authorities 169 The origin of towns 171 The location of towns 172 The differentiation of society into town and country 175 The town economy 176 The national economy .... 177 Commerce requires large cities 181 Biological analogy i S3 IV. The growth of industrial centres: Authorities 184 The evolution of industry 185 The factory system and the decay of villages 187 Connection of centralized industry with steam 192 The division of labor a permanent advantage of centralized industry . 195 Effect on the distribution of population 196 Relation of transportation methods to geographical specialization . . 197 Railway tariff policy in the United States and Europe 199 Recent decentralizing tendencies 202 Relative advantages of city and country for production 204 V. Secondary, or individual causes : 1. Economic 210 2. Political 213 3. Social 218 VI. Conclusions: Effect of the different industries upon the distribution of population . 223 The law of diminishing returns 225 Settlement of new lands 226 Changes in consumption 227 Forecast , 228
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