Page:1899 The Growth of Cities in the Nineteenth Century.djvu/25

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CONTENTS xiii PACK II. Age — middle-age classes predominate in city populations 300 Immigration the cause 301 Results of age grouping 302 III. Race and Nationality: Foreigners not increasing in American cities 304 Negroes in American cities — Influx and mortality 310 IV. Occupation and Social Rank 314 CHAPTER VI The Natural Movement of Population in City and in Country I. Marriages: Higher marriage-rate in the cities 318 How explained? By age-distribution? By employment of young women ? . > 320 Conjugal condition ; cities contain the more unmarried 322 Contradictory statistics in Massachusetts 324 Result of late marriages 326 Influence of migration 328 Immigrants to cities marry early 328 Divorces : More numerous in cities 329 Reasons 329 II. Fecundity : Crude birth-rates 330 Refined birth-rates 332 Prussia, Massachusetts, Saxony, Denmark, etc t^t^t, Conflicting results 335 Average size of families 336 The theory of population 338 Occupation and social rank influence marriage and fecundity 341 III. Deaths: Crude and refined rates favor the rural districts 343 Relation of mortality to density of population 344 Mortality at various ages 345 Duration of life in city and country 346 Causes of the high urban mortality 348 Sanitary improvements needed 349 The question of model tenements 353 Other suggested remedies 354 Progress as indicated in reduced death-rates 355