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THE EDITORS ARTHUR T. HADLEY,

SIR DONALD MACKENZIE WALLACE,

PH.D.,

PRESIDENT OF YALE.

K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.

HUGH CHISHOLM, B.A. C.C.C. OXFORD)

(FORMERLY SCHOLAR OF

THE DEPARTMENTAL EDITORS FOR LAW AND GOVERNMENT : THE HON.

Deputy

SIR JOHN SCOTT, K.C.M.G.,

Judge-Advocate-General.

FOR GEOGRAPHY AND STATISTICS: J.

SCOTT LL.D.,

KELTIE,

F.S.S.,

FOR ZOOLOGY: G. H.

FOR NAVAL AFFAIRS :

F.S.A.SCOT.,

Sec. Roy. Geog. Soc.

FOWLER, PH.D.

JAS. RICHARD THURSFIELD, M.A.

FOR MILITARY AFFAIRS: F.R.S.

RICHARD GARNETT, C.B., LL.D.

SIMON NEWCOMB, PH.D., LL.D.

FOR LITERATURE:

FOR MEDICAL SCIENCE : D.

FOR BIOGRAPHY:

FOR ASTRONOMY:

SIR GEORGE SYDENHAM CLARKE, K.C.M.G.,

FOR MATHEMATICS :

EDMUND GOSSE, LL.D.

NOEL PATON, M.D., B.SC., F.R.C.P.ED. JOSEPH

FOR THEOLOGY: REV. W. E. COLLINS, M.A., Prof, of Ecclesiastical Hist, at King’s Coll., Lond. FOR MINING: HENRY M. HOWE, A.M., Prof, of Metallurgy at Columbia University.

LARMOR,

M.A.,

D.SC., SEC.R.S.,

University Lecturer in Mathematics, Cambridge. FOR ELECTRICITY :

WYNNARD HOOPER, M.A.

FOR RAILWAYS: G. PROUT, Editor of Railroad Gazette, N.Y.

MAJOR

J. A. FLEMING, M.A., D.SC., F.R.S., Prof, of Electrical Engineering, Univ. Coll., London.

HENRY

FOR MUSIC: J. A. FULLER MAITLAND, M.A., F.S.A.

FOR ART:

FOR BOTANY : D. H. SCOTT, M.A., PH.D., F.R.S., Hon. Keeper, Jodrell Laboratory, Kew.

FOR ECONOMICS :

M. H. SPIELMANN, Editor of the Magazine of Art.

FOR GAMES AND SPORTS: Editor of the Badminton Library.

ALFRED WATSON,

THE ASSOCIATE EDITORS PHILIP ASHWORTH, H. M. ROSS,

DR. JUR.

B.A.

]

FRANKLIN H. HOOPER,

I

K

H. WILLIAMS,

M.D.

THE SUB-EDITORS JAMES A. MANSON.

G. B. LYNES,

Copyright, 1903, by The Encydopsedia Britannica Company.

A.M.

A.B.