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74

BAGHDAD — BAHAMAS

himself, but as something that might be done. One was gates. Of this city no trace remains; walls and houses that there might be a history of recent politics with new have been destroyed by civil war and fire, or have been lights if some one were to do it who knew the family swept away by inundations. The exact position of Mansur’s palace is unknown, but it seems connexions and history of English politicians. This certain that the tomb,of Zobeide was near the river at Kazimm was apropos of the passage of a certain Bill through and not where now shown. Eastern Baghdad has no distinctive Parliament, when the head of the department in the architectural character. Little remains of the great buildings ot House of Commons failed and the management of the the khalifs, and there is nothing imposing in the barracks, bazars, measure was taken by the Chancellor of the Exchequer khans, and narrow winding streets. The old city walls of brick been demolished except in a few places; but the great fosse himself, a relative of the permanent head of the depart- have remains, and a line of mounds marks the position of the glacis. ment concerned, who was thus able to carry his own ideas Baghdad is unrivalled for position and fertility of soil, and under in legislation notwithstanding the failure of his political better government would regain its former prosperity. Many chief. Another book he wished to see written was an improvements were introduced by Midhat Pasha. Barracks schools were built, a tram-way was laid down to the bhia account of the differences in the administrative systems of and shrines at Kazimin, trade was encouraged, and the nomads were England and Scotland, by which he had been greatly brought under control. But no effort has been made to restore the impressed, the differences not being in detail, but in old system of canalization which made the country between the fundamental idea and in form, so that no judicial or other Euphrates and Tigris a continuous garden. A Turkish and an company run steamers from Baghdad to Basra, but the officers in the one were represented in the other, by English state of the Tigris has become a source of anxiety. No steps are corresponding functionaries. Many other illustrations taken to stop the outflow of water to the desert and the marahes, might be given of his fulness of ideas which helped to and the main channel becomes almost unnavigable during August September. Above Baghdad sailing vessels of about 30 tons are make him an ideal editor. Reference must also.be made and employed. The exports and imports pass chiefly through Basra. to the assistance which Bagehot gave as a journalist Population, according to Cuinet, 145,000, but this is probably an to the study of statistics. From the manipulation of exaggeration. Baghdad is the seat of a British consul-general. G. le Strange. ‘ ‘ Description of Mesopotamia and Baghdad figures he was most averse, and he rather boasted that he was unable to add up. But he was a most excellent about A.D. 900 ; and Greek Embassy to Baghdad in A.D. 917,” Journal Royal Asiatic Society, 1895, 1897 ; Baghdad under the mathematician, and no one could be so careful as he was in Abbasid Caliphate, 1901. (c. W. W.) about the logic of the figures got together for his articles, Baghelkhand, or Bhagelkhand, a tract of which he always most carefully scrutinized. He would country in Central India, lying between the North-West frequently point out that his figures were illustrative merely, and did not by themselves establish an argument. and the Central Provinces, east of Bundelkhand. It He was always anxious, again, to impress on those about takes its name from the Baghel clan of Rajputs, now him that a subject could not be studied with, the help represented by the Maharaja of Rewa. Politically, it conof figures and accounts alone. Whether it was insurance, sists of five native states under the Baghelkhand agency, or banking, or underwriting, or shipowning, he insisted.that of which Rewa is by far the most important. The total some one who knew the business should see the writing area is 11,324 square miles. Population (1891), 1,737,095, before it was published. Knowing so many departments being an average of 153 persons per square mile; (1901), of business from actual experience, he was a host in himself 1,554,577, showing a decrease of 11 per cent., due to the as referee, but when in doubt he would always consult effects of famine. The country is for the most part hilly, some one who knew the facts j and he used his gi eat and the soil is poor. influence so well that in subsequent years it inspired Bagheria, or Bagaeia, a decaying town of the indirectly not a few who were hardly aware of his claims province of Palermo, Sicily, 8 miles by rail E. by S. from to be a statistician at all. (R- GN-) Palermo. It contains palaces of Sicilian magnates, and has manufactures of macaroni, preserved food, olive oil, Baghdad, (1) a vil&yet of Asiatic Turkey, situated and casks. Under the Bourbon kings (first half of 19th between Persia and the Syrian desert, and including the century) it was a favourite seaside resort. Population, greater part of ancient Babylonia. The original vil&yet about 11,600. extended from Mardin on the north to Basra on the south, Bagirmi. See Chad, Lake. but in 1878 it was reduced in size by the creation of the Bagnara, a town of the province of Reggio, Mosul vildyet out of its northern sanjaks, and again in 1884 by that of the Basra vildyet out of its southern Calabria, Italy, 20 miles N. by E. from Reggio by rail. sanjaks. Baghdad is still one of the largest and most It was founded by Robert Guiscard in the 11th century, important provinces of the empire, and includes some of but suffered severely from the earthquake of 1783. It has the most fertile lands in the valleys of the Euphrates and tunny and swordfish fishing. Population, about 10,000. Tigris. The climate is very hot in summer, mean temperaBagnolet, a town in the arrondissement of Saintture 97° F., but generally healthy.. In November heavy Denis, department of Seine, France, | mile E. of the outer rains commence, and during the winter the thermometer circle of Paris. Market gardening is extensively carried falls to 46° F. There are springs of bitumen, locally on, and the manufacture of billiard balls, perfumery, fancy called kara sakiz, “ black mastic,” of naphtha, and of white soaps, and glue are the principal industries. Population, petroleum in the province. Population, 852,000 (Moslems, 7100. 790,000, including 481,000 Shfas; Christians, 8000; a town of 16,000 inhabitants on the eastern Jews, 54,000). (2) The capital of the vildyet, and head- coast of Cebu, Philippine Islands, near its northern quarters of the army corps which garrisons the Baghdad, extremity. The climate is hot, but healthful. ihe Mosul, and Basra vildyets, situated in a fertile but arid surrounding country is fertile, producing rice, cacao, and plain on both banks of the Tigris. Eastern Baghdad, on hemp in abundance. Sinamay and guinara cloths are the left bank, is the larger and more modern city, and woven and exported to a limited extent. The fisheries contains the principal buildings, bazdrs, <fcc. A bridge are of considerable local importance. The language is of boats connects it with “ Old Baghdad, a suburb chiefly Cebu-Yisayan. occupied by Shfas, on the right bank. Here stood the Bahamas, or Lucayos, an extensive archipelago of “Round City” founded by Mansur in a.d. 762, with its the British West Indies, which recent surveys (1870-yu; three concentric walls, enclosing as a central point the show to consist of 12 large islands, 661 islets or cays palace and mosque of the Khalff, and its four equi-distant