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BAHAWALPUR—BAHRAICH 75 (keys) as they are called, and 2387 banks, reefs, and bordered on the other side by the desert of Bajputana. rocks above the surface of the water, all but thirty unin- The area covers 17,285 square miles; in 1881 the popuhabited. They all rise on the margin of large coral banks, lation was 573,494; in 1891 it was 650,042 (average and are themselves exclusively of coralline formation, with density, 38 persons per square mile); in 1901, 720,662, a mean elevation of 100 feet, but rising here and there to showing a further increase of 11 per cent. The estimated 300 or even 400 feet above the sea. They are disposed gross revenue is Bs. 16,00,000 ; the military force (includin the direction from north-west to south-east, extending ing police) is 1607 men. There is no tribute. The chief, from Florida along the Great Bahama Bank for a dis- whose title is Nawab, is a Mahommedan of the Daudputra tance of about 780 miles to Turks islets north of San family from Sind. The dynasty established its independDomingo. They have a collective area of 5450 square ence of the Afghans towards the end of the* 18th century, miles, with a population which was returned in 1891 at and made a treaty with the British in 1838, to which it 47,564 (about 12,000 white, the rest coloured), and was has always been loyal. The benefits of canal irrigation were estimated in 1900 at about 60,000. The largest and most introduced during the minority of the late Nawab, and the important members of the group, following in the normal revenue thus doubled. The territory is traversed throughdirection from north-west to south-east, are :—Bahama, out its length by the North-Western and Southern Puniab which gives its name to the archipelago; Great Abaco, railways. In 1896-97 the total number of schools was Eleuthera, New Providence, Andros, Cat Island, Watling’ 487, with 5828 pupils, of whom 721 were girls; the proYuma, Aclin, Mariguana, The Caicos (North, Grand, and portion of boys at school to the total male population was East), Inagua (Great and Little), and Turks. Cat 1 in every 61. There are an arts college, and 7 Anglo(Guanahani), the highest land in the group (400 feet), was vernacular schools, with 856 pupils. long supposed to be the island which was first reached by The town of Bahawalpur is situated near the left bank Columbus (12th October 1492), and was named by him of the Sutlej; railway station 63 miles from Mooltan. fean Salvador. Then the distinction was successively It has a magnificent palace. Population, 13,635. transferred to the neighbouring Watling, Great Turk, and Mariguana; but in 1880 the American marine surveyor, Bah ia, an Atlantic state of Brazil between 9° 55' and Gb V. Fox, identified San Salvador, on seemingly good 18 15 S. lat. and 37 40 and 39° 40' W. long. Its area grounds, with Samana (Atwood Cay), which lies about covers 164,640 square miles. Its population in 1890 was midway between Watling and Mariguana. The chief 1,919,800, and in 1897 was estimated at 1,822,000. The difficulty is its size, for if Samana is the true San Salvador, chief towns are Bahia or S. Salvador, the capital and it must have been considerably larger 400 years ago than Alagoinhas (12,000), Bom-Fim (14,000), Feira de’Sant it now is. The Bahamas are unaffected by the depressed Anna (ie,GOO), Marogogipe (13,000), Santo Amaro state of the sugar market in so many other West Indian (11,000), Jacobma (9000), Uheos (6000), Cachoeira groups, the chief produce being fruits (principally oranges), (9200), Barra do Bio Grande. There are over 70 towns hemp fibre, sponges, salt, and some cotton. The salt and in the state. Bailways run from Bahia to Joazeiro on sponge latterly seem to be dying out, while fruit cultiva- the northern border of the state and thence to other tion is on the increase. The imports rose from £195 000 localities beyond; from Nazareth to Maragogipe; from in 1896 to £238,000 in 1898, and the exports from Amaro to near the port of Abbadia; from Caravellas to £139,000 to £175,000 in the same period. The revenue Serra dos Aymores. Others are in construction. The in 1896, £65,000, and 1898, £87,000 ; expenditure (1896) capital, Bahia or San Salvador, is a seaport with a £60,000; (1898), £64,000; debt (1900) £118,400. The population estimated at between 180,000 and 200,000 total trade with America is nearly four times that with The port was visited in 1896 by 1045 ships of 1,538 881 1897 b Great Britain. Trade with British Colonies or with other J 1028 ships of 1,533,078 tons, and in countries than America and the United Kingdom is quite 1898 by 881 ships of 1,504,797 tons. The value of the insignificant. A number of visitors from America and exports in 1897 was £1,519,930. The principal articles Canada come every year to winter in the Bahamas. The of export were coffee, tobacco, cacao, sugar, rosewood, logtotal tonnage of vessels, inwards and outwards, was 741,522 wood, and hides. in 1898. There has been rapid increase of late years Bahraich, a town and district of British India, in owing to steamers calling on their way to and from the ports of the Gulf of Mexico to engage and to re-land the Faizabad division of Oudh. The town is on the river Sarju. Since the opening of the railway the place has labourers. There is regular fortnightly mail communica- begun to flourish. It contains the most popular place of tion with New York and Cuba, and frequent sailing vessels to and from Cuba and Key West. The extent of Crown pilgrimage in Oudh, the tomb of Masaud, a champion of lands is estimated at 500,000 acres, lying chiefly in the Islam, slain in battle by the confederate Bajputs in 1033, is resorted to by Mahommedans and Hindus alike! islands of Inagua, Andros, Grand Bahama, and Abaco, which but little of this is serviceable for cultivation. There are There is also a Mussulman monastery, and the ruined palace of a nawab of Oudh. The American Methodists 44 Government schools, with 5998 pupils on the register and 4050 in average attendance in 1898. There are 11 have a mission here. Population, about 24,000. The district of Bahraich lies between the Tarai of schools which receive grants-in-aid, besides others, indeNepal and the river Gogra. It contains an area of 2680 pendent of such aid, belonging chiefly to the Anglican square miles. The population in 1891 was 1,000,432, v/hurch body. There are no railways or telegraphs, and but tew_ roads, except in New Providence. Cable com- being 373 persons per square mile; classified according to religion, Hindus numbered 830,459, Mahommedans “r Wlth the United States was established in 169,798, Christians 124, including 28Europeans, “others” I here are no regular forces, militia, or volunteers, 7n 1901 the population was 1,051,856, showing an ine constabulary is a semi-military force, originally pi* increase of 5 per cent. Land revenue and rates are enlisted in Barbados, but recruited at times in the returned as Bs.10,93,737, the incidence of assessment per Bahamas (A. H. K.) acre being Bs.0:9 :4 on the temporarily settled, and vs.0.15:7 on the permanently settled area; the number of Bahawalpur, a native state of India, within the runjab, stretches for more than 300 miles along the left police was 2820. In 1896-97, out of a total cultivated area ank of the Sutlej, the Punjnud, and the Indus, and is of 919,844 acres, 60,975 were irrigated from tanks, wells, &c. A considerable trade is conducted with Nepal, chiefly