Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/176

This page needs to be proofread.


148

BARMEN—BARNES

By 1895 this had declined to a total of only £137,000, but since then it has increased again (£276,600 in 1899). The port is cleared by an average of 440 vessels of 294,500 tons annually. The chief industry is the manufacture of tartaric acid. Population (1881), 31,994 ; (1900), 44,891. Barmen, a town in the Rhine province, Prussia, immediately E. of Elberfeld, 35 miles E. from Diisseldorf by rail. Its industries are identical with those of Elberfeld, with which it virtually makes one town. A pantheon or hall of glory (1900) is destined to contain statues of the Emperors William I. and Frederick III., the municipal library, the collections of the Berg Historical Society, and those of the Barmen Art Association. There are also a new concert hall and a monument of the 1870-71 war. Population (1890), 116,144; (1900), 141,947. Barnard Castle, a market town and railway station, in the Barnard Castle parliamentary division of Durham, England, on the Tees, 15 miles W. of Darlington. Recent erections are a large county school, two Methodist chapels, and a fever hospital. The Bowes Museum has been extended and endowed. Area of township, 7790 acres; population (1881), 4269; (1891), 4725. Area of urban district, 533 acres; population (1881), 4096; (1901), 4421. Barnby, Sir Joseph (1838-1896), English musical composer and conductor, was born at York on 12th August 1838. He was a chorister at York Minster from the age of seven, was educated at the Royal Academy of Music under Cipriani Potter and Charles Lucas, and was appointed in 1862 organist of St Andrew’s, Yells Street, London, where he raised the services to a high degree of excellence. He was conductor of “ Barnby’s Choir” from 1864, and in 1871 was appointed, in succession to Gounod, conductor of the Albert Hall Choral Society, a post he held till his death. In 1 b / 5 he was precentor and director of music at Eton, and in 1892 became principal of the Guildhall School of Music, receiving the honour of knighthood in July of that year. His works include an oratorio, Rebekdh, Ps. xcvii., many services and anthems and hymn-tunes, as well as some part-songs (among them the popular “Sweet and Low”), and some pieces for the organ. As a conductor he possessed the qualities as well as the defects of the typical north - countryman; if he was wanting in the higher kind of imagination or ideality, he infused into those who sang under him something of his own straightforward rectitude and uncompromising precision. He was largely instrumental in stimulating the love for Gounod’s sacred music among the less educated part of the London public, although he displayed little practical sympathy with opera, the branch of art in which Gounod’s best powers were manifested. On the other hand, he organized a remarkable concert performance of Parsifal at the Albert Hall in London in 1884. He conducted the Cardiff Festivals of 1892 and 1895. He died in London on the 28th of January 1896. (j. a. f. m.) Barnes, William (1800-1886), the Dorsetshire poet, was born 22nd February 1800, at Rushay, near Pentridge in Dorset, the son of John Barnes and Grace Scott, of ■kpg farmer class. He was a delicate child, in diiect contrast to a strong race of forebears, and inherited from his mother a refined, retiring disposition and a love for books. He went to school at Sturminster Newton, where he was considered the clever boy of the school, and, when a solicitor named Dashwood applied to the master for a quick-witted boy to join him as pupil, Barnes was selected for the post. He was therefore apprenticed to the law,

and worked with the village parson in his spare hours at classics, and studied music under the organist. In 1818 he left Sturminster for the office of one Coombs. at Dorchester, where he continued his evening education with another kindly clergyman. He also made great progress in the art of wood-engraving, and with the money he received for a series of blocks for a work called Walks about Dorchester, he printed and published his first book, Orra, a Lapland Tale, in 1822. In the same year he became engaged to Julia Miles, the daughter of an excise officer. In 1823 he took a school at Mere in Wiltshire, and four years later married and settled in Chantry House, a fine old Tudor mansion in that town. The school grew in numbers, and Barnes occupied all his spare time in assiduous study, reading during these years authors so diverse in character as Herodotus, Sallust, Ovid, Petrarch, Buffon, and Burns. He also began to write poetry, and printed many of his verses in the Dorset County Chronicle. His chief studies, however, were philological; and in 1829 he published An Etymological Glossary of English Words of Foreign Derivation. In 1832 a strolling company of actors visited Mere, and Barnes was so pleased by their performance that he wrote a farce, The Honest Thief, which they produced, and also a comedy which was played at Wincanton. Barnes also wrote a number of educational books, such as Elements of Perspective, Outlines of Geography, An Essay on the Advantages of the Study of Mathematics, and in 1833 first began his poems in the Dorsetshire dialect in the pages of the local paper. In 1835 he left Mere and returned to Dorchester, where he started another school, which, after its removal in 1837 into more commodious quarters, flourished satisfactorily. The year 1844 is a landmark in Barnes’s life, for it was then that he published his first series of Dorsetshire poems. They made considerable literary success, the Hon. Mrs Norton busying herself with the advocacy of their claims. Three years later Barnes took holy orders, and was appointed to the care of Whitcombe, three miles from Dorchester. He had been for some years upon the books of St John’s College, Cambridge, and took the degree of B.D. in 1850. He resigned Whitcombe in 1852, finding the work too hard in connexion with his mastership; and in June of that year he lost his wife, whom he never ceased to mourn with an intensity of devotion. Continuing his studies in the science of language, he published his Philological Grammar in 1854, a remarkable compilation, drawing examples from more than seventy languages. For the copyright of this erudite work he received £5. The second series of dialect poems, Ilwomely Rhymes, appeared in 185.7, and the third in 1863. Hwomely Rhymes contained some of his best-known pieces, and in the year of its publication he first began to give readings from his works, which were extremely successful. As their reputation grew he travelled all over the country, delighting large audiences with his quaint humour and natural pathos. In 1861 he was awarded a civil list pension of £70 a year, and at the close of the same year published Tiw, the most striking of his philological studies, in which an attempt is made to trace the English language to a Teutonic origin. In the next year he broke up his school, and removed to the rectory of Winterborne Came, to which he was presented by his old friend, Captain Darner. Here he worked continuously at verse and prose, contributing largely to the magazines. He was persuaded in 1868 to publish a series of Poems of Rural. Life in ordinary English, but he was less successful in verse which abandoned dialect. His poems were collected into a single volume in 1879, and on 11th October 1886 he died at Winterborne Came. Barnes’s poetry is