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barracks 153 were a critical period. Apart from the violence of strikes of almost every barrack inspected by them, laid down the general and anti-machinery riots, and the excitement of parlia- sanitary principles applicable to the arrangement and construction mentary elections, there was the tension caused by the ol military barracks and hospitals, and in spite of the lapse of time they may be still regarded as text-books of sanitary science as Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill, the great Reform Bill, applied to the construction and improvement of such buildings. and the abolition of the Corn Laws, besides the catastrophe Hie labours of many contributed to that result, but beyond all of the Irish famine, and the Chartist upheaval of 1848, others should be remembered the names of Sidney Herbert while the effect of the fundamental alteration in the matter (afterwards Lord Herbert of Lea), Captain (afterwards Sir Douglas) Galton, R.E., F.R.S., and John Sutherland, M.D. The of communication had not as yet been fully realized. Barrack and Hospital Improvement Committee was constituted as The Crimean war and the adoption of rifled guns and a standing body in 1862 to continue the work of the commission, small arms brought about a great change. It was recog- changed its name to that of the Army Sanitary Committee in 1865, nized that, after the necessary garrisons of fortresses had was reconstituted in 1890, and remains to this day the principal adviser oi the Secretary of State for War on sanitary matters. In been provided for, the leading principle of barrack policy accordance with the recommendations of these bodies great changes must in the future be to facilitate in peace time the train- have been made from time to time in those old barracks which ing of the army for war; and that this could only be were required for constant occupation, while under the same indone by barracking troops in large bodies, including all spiration a high standard for new work was established by the 0f Iu erous branches of the service, in positions where they would the Military iT regimental depots otherLater barracks under lorces Localization Act ofand 1872. a further have space for training, gun and rifle practice, and manceuv- advance was made when the Barracks Act (1890) was passed, in ring. The camps at Aldershot, Colchester, Shorncliffe, and mder to deal with barracks generally, and especially to replace Curragh were accordingly started between 1856 and 1860, with permanent buildings the worn-out wooden huts at Aldershot Shorncliffe, and Curragh ; and under the Military and the same policy has been since pursued by the acquisi- Colchester, Works Acts of 1897, 1899, and 1901 still further improvements have tion of Strensall Common, near York, Kilworth domain, been introduced. This raising of the standard of barrack accomnear Fermoy, the lease of a portion of Dartmoor and a modation is doubtless bound to continue ; for in a country where a large area at Glen Imaal, county Wicklow, for the Horse short-service army is kept up by a large annual number of voluntary enlistments, in order to encourage recruiting it is necessary to and Field Artillery, and finally the purchase of a great provide ior the soldier such advantages as will compare favourably part of Salisbury Plain. It is not at all these places that with what he might expect in civil life, and thus make up for the there are or will be regular barracks. In some cases the smaller pay and restricted liberty to which he will have to reconcile troops are encamped while training; but the principle himself. Hence in dealing with this question there are three great remains that, when permanent barracks are built, they objects to keep in view, viz., the training, the health, and the comfort of the soldier, while in addition financial considerations should as a rule be for a force of all arms in a locality ordain due regard to economy. where they can be trained. With the present means of _A description of a modern barrack for a battalion of infantry will show how at present these objects are sought to be attained. communication support to the civil power in case of disturbances can always be afforded in time, without per- The general locality for the barrack having been deter- Infantr by military considerations, especially with regard y manently stationing troops in the actual locality where mined to proper facilities for rifle practice, training and man- barrackstheir assistance may be needed. ceuvring, the selection of a suitable site becomes a matter of the first importance. Unfortunately, however, the old barracks, such as those of the In the United Kingdom an ideal site should be airy, open, and beginning of the 19th century, exist in many towns, and for dry in itself, should slope gently towards the south, and be proeconom s sak Old = type )arrac y’ e must for the present be utilized. These tected from cold, winds by trees or rising ground. It should be free from local mists, and from smells from gas or chemical works, barracks.‘ science l kswere were built before truehealth principles of sanitary known, andthethe of the troops brickfields, sewage farms, etc. The levels and situation should be stationed in them was very bad, while the accommodation they such as to afford ample falls for sewers and subsoil drains, and to afforded was insufficient in many respects. Hardly any provision prevent flooding or waterlogging by surface or subsoil water from was made for married men, who were generally placed with then- adjacent areas. The surface soil should be light but fairly fertile, wives and families in ordinary barrack rooms, the space allowed uucontaminated sew-age, heavy manuring, or previous occupation. for four single soldiers being allotted to each family, with no The subsoil, if by not rock, should be porous, such as gravel, or privacy beyond that afforded by screens of blankets erected by the absorbent, such as chalk, and it is desirable that the level of the occupants. Even for single men the accommodation was inade- subsoil water should be low and fairly constant throughout the quate, the space allowed per man being seldom over 450 cubic feet, Clay, whether as surface or subsoil, should be avoided if and sometimes as low as 258 feet, while most of the rooms had year. possible, especially in the case of barracks for mounted troops, for windows only on one side, and there were no special means of which sand or gravel are the best soils, as being the least muddy. ventilation. The latrines were often mere privies; the ablution I inally,. there should be a good and ample wTater supply, facilities arrangements were very rough, and baths there were none, while for obtaining gas and electricity, means of disposing of sewage in a the only means of cooking provided for the soldiers was by boiling. manner, preferably into public sewers, and easy access There was no sergeants’ mess or recreation establishment, while satisfactory by road and rail. It cannot be expected that any site would the accessories that were provided were far short of the modern possess all these characteristics, which are not all of equal importstandard. The buildings were often arranged so as to interfere ance, while the absence of some of them can be remedied. For with the proper circulation of air, and the drainage was almost instance, trees can be planted to give shelter ; insufficient drainageinvariably bad. fall can be made up for by pumping ; flooding can be prevented by The result of this state of affairs was disastrous. As late as 1857 the intercepting drains ; contaminated surface soil can be purified by annual rate of mortality in the army at home per 1000 men was 17-5, burning ; and if there are no public sewers or natural sewragewhile the rate among the civil male population of corresponding ages outfalls available, no companies for the supply of v-ater, gas or was only 9 '2. Contrast with this the rate of mortality in the army at electricity, insufficient roads or railways, in that case sew-age works home forty years later, in 1897, which was only 3‘42 per 1000. It can be established, wells can be sunk and pumping machinery is not contended that improvement in barracks was the only factor erected, gas or electricity can be manufactured, roads and railways m thus reducing mortality. There have been other causes at work, can be constructed

but the general airiness and salubrity of such as better clothing, better food and cooking, greater temper- position, satisfactory subsoil, freedom from noxious and insanitary ance, education, amusements, careful supervision of health, and the surroundings, and purity and sufficiency of w-ater sources, are introduction of short service ; but still, the most effectual cause essentials, defects in wdiich cannot be remedied by mere expendihas probably been the improvement in barrack accommodation, ture. These essentials generally indicate a country site, although < sasters the proximity of a small town is advantageous for supply, and for l^i the Crimean war directed attention ofto the healthT of the army, and resulted in thepublic appointment the residences and lodgings for married officers and soldiers, and also Reforms. Army,” “ ^^khalpresided Committee Accommodation the for the sake of the sewers, water and lighting companies, and overonbyBarrack Viscount Monk, M.P., for which railway communication that would probably become available. 1855. This was followed by a Royal Commission in The barrack, however, should not be too near the town, but loo/, resulting, in October 1857, in the appointment of the Barrack should be isolated from it if necessary by the purchase of interand Hospital Improvement Commission to go into the matter in vening land. The area required for the regimental buildings and detail as regards the United Kingdom and the Mediterranean of an infantry battalion is about 22 acres. A cavalry stations. The reports of this commission, presented in 1863, parade or a brigade division of horse or field artillery requires besides containing valuable recommendations for the improvement regiment, about 30 acres, and a company of garrison artillery, engineers, army S. II. — 20