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154

BARRACKS

service corps, or army ordnance corps, 3 acres and upwards, which might harbour dirt or vermin are avoided as far as according to the number of horses and waggons to be provided possible. With this object, during the last decade of the 19th for. In addition to these areas, space is required for recreation century, different kinds of water-proof and dirt-proof floors were ground and soldiers’ gardens, and for garrison accessories, such as used, so as to keep the space under them dry and clean. None of offices for the staff, garrison church, hospital and school establish- them were free from objections of one kind or another, and their ments, engineer workshops and yard, stores ot the army service use is abandoned for the present; but the sanitary importance ot corps and army ordnance corps, provost or military prisons, with providing such floors is so great that it is to be hoped that renewed the necessary quarters in each case, apart from any land required efforts will be made to devise a form suitable tor barracks.. As for sanitation, the recognized principles of good drainage are for riffe or gun practice, military training and manceuvring. The whole site, perhaps omitting the recreation ground and soldiers’ adhered to, viz., that well-ventilated air-tight and water-tight gardens, may be enclosed by a wall or iron railings, although such pipe drains should be laid in straight lines and with sanitaenclosure is often omitted in the open country, or where there are even inclinations from point to point, where there tloo a number of barracks together, as at Aldershot. Taking the case should be manholes for inspection and cleansing, in of an infantry barrack for a single battalion, on a site ot about 22 which changes of direction and inclination and junctions with acres, a suitable portion, about 450 feet by 300 feet, is set apart for other drains should take place. No drains are allowed to run a parade for forming-up purposes, it being assumed that, as is under buildings, and the sanitary apparatus therein is doubly cut generally the case, ground is available near at hand for battalion off from the drains by water-trap and air-disconnexion, the or brigade drill. Round the parade are arranged the several drains themselves being disconnected from the sewers in the same buildings, the men’s barracks with their immediate accessories and way. The water-supply is to cisterns containing sufficient for the canteen being probably on the upper side, the officers’ quarters two days at the rate of 20 gallons per head and per horse. Water on the opposite side or at one end of the parade, the guard-room, is laid on for all necessary services, that for sanitary purposes regimental offices, stores and shops, sergeants’ mess and recreation being always drawn from separate cisterns. Only cast or wrought establishment, at the other end, the drill shed facing the parade, iron is, as a rule, used for supply or service pipes. . The purity of where convenient, and the married soldiers’ quarters either behind the water, both as received and as delivered, is guarded by the single men’s barracks, or in one corner of the site near but not periodical testing and analysis. When pure water is scarce, there overlooked by them. If garrison accessories are to be provided for, is sometimes a separate supply-system of inferior water for sanitary the site would be larger, and they would probably be disposed and fire purposes. With regard to the supply of pure air, the sympathetically, as it were, i.e., with staff officers quarters near principle that holds the field is that of through-ventilation, partly the officers’ quarters, garrison offices, stores and shops near the by means of windows on opposite sides of every building and of regimental ones, schools convenient for access both for men and almost every room, and partly by a system ol inlet and outlet children, church and gymnasium facing the parade, married men’s ventilation that cannot be completely closed. Half of the air quarters with those for the battalion, the hospital establishment, admitted by inlets is brought directly to ventilating grates, which with quarters, in as isolated and airy a position as the site affords, in cold weather warm it before passing it into the rooms. The clear sectional area of fresh air inlets is approximately equal to and any prison buildings in an inconspicuous corner. Such would be a fairly typical arrangement of the buildings of that of the outlet shafts, and is at the rate of 10 square inches per an infantry barrack ; and it would be somewhat similar in other man in barrack rooms and 20 Square inches per patient in hospital With this as a guide it is easy to judge what special cases, except that with mounted troops the foot parade might be wards. smaller, in which case there might be a stable square or mounted ventilation should be provided in other rooms, according to their parade, probably behind or flanking the men’s barracks, the stables use and occupation, bearing in mind that no room that is slept in being on the side nearest the men, with forage stores, forges, shops, should be without a fresh air inlet and a chimney flue or extracting riding school, waggon or gun sheds round or abutting on the square, shaft. As for light, the allowance in open positions is 1 square infirmary stables isolated but not far from a forge, and exercising foot of glass to 100 cubic feet of air-space, but this proportion is ground and maneges farther in rear, the latter, however, near the exceeded in dark situations, in rooms that are thronged at times, riding school. In all cases the general of the district obtains the such as recreation- and tap-rooms, and also in lavatories and bathopinions of an engineer officer, of a medical officer, of the officer in rooms, kitchens and sculleries, which cannot be made too light. charge of the barracks, and of an officer of the branch of the service For the sake of both light and air, buildings facing each other are for which the building is intended, and he forwards these opinions placed at least as far apart as twice the height from ground floor with his own to the War Office for approval. In the more important to eaves, and the ends of the spaces or lanes between them are cases additional opinions and local information as to climatology kept open. With regard to sunshine, officers’ quarters are planned are obtained, the site is explored by excavation and boring, and so that no rooms intended for habitation should face north, while the water sources are tested. Frequently the site is also inspected all other blocks of inhabited buildings, especially the ward-blocks by officers of the headquarters staff, in order that they may have of hospitals, are arranged to run approximately north and south, personal local knowledge to assist them in dealing with the pro- so that the majority of windows may face east and west and posals put before them, which are then submitted to the Army receive sunshine at some time during the day. As also bearing on Sanitary Committee, who in all important cases inspect and consider the question of health it should be mentioned that, except a few them on the spot. Finally, on the buildings, when completed, the attic bedrooms in one type of married quarters, no rooms are less general calls for reports as in the case of sites, and they are only than 9 feet high, the great majority being from 9 feet 6 inches to 11 feet 6 inches high. taken into occupation if they satisfy the officers consulted. The amenity of a barrack is secured partly by planting trees, Scales of floor-space and air-space have been laid down for men in their barrack rooms, in hospital, in school and lecture rooms, in especially round the parade and recreation ground, and by prochapel and in confinement, the more important of these scales viding a certain amount of shrubbery and grass-plot in connexion embracing all climates. The provision of proper arrangements for with such buildings as the officers’ quarters and mess, sergeants ventilation is assumed, and the initial point, so to speak, is an mess, recreation establishment, hospitals, &e. ; and partly by such allowance of 57 feet of floor-space and 600 cubic feet of air-space attention to architecture as is fairly consistent with economy, the aimed at being to avoid a sordid or repellent appearance, per man in a permanent barrack room in England, the allowance result to emphasize the different buildings according to their occufor ordinary hospital patients being one and a half that amount of and floor-space and twice that amount of air-space. With these scales pation and importance. In some conspicuous situations, such as facing Southsea Common, and on some historic sites, such as the as a guide it is easy to ensure sufficient spaciousness in all other Tower of London and Edinburgh Castle, the attention paid to rooms. To secure dryness of site subsoil drainage is resorted to architecture rightly far exceeded this limit. Soundness of when necessary, and is always provided for unmetalled surfaces construction has is a matter of course, for barracks are built to last used by horses, such as exercising grounds and maneges. Parades, not to sell. The only points worth mentioning, besides those roads and paths are paved, metalled, or gravelled, according to use, and noticed, are that stairs are almost always ot stone or iron, and are provided with surface channels and storm-water drains. already Surfaces not exposed to much traffic are laid down in grass, as and that, in order to keep down repairs, few buildings have plaswalls except those used by officers and warrant officers, being generally less costly than gravel, less dusty, and more easily tered and hospitals. Barracks are generally lighted by gas, kept in order by the troops. To secure dryness of buildings school-rooms, internally and externally, or by mineral oil when gas is not asphalt damp-courses are provided, and the area of each building both At some stations, however,. electric light is is covered with an impervious coating of cement-concrete or paving, available. especially for hospitals, and it is doubtless the hgh to prevent ground-air and damp from rising and to keep out vermin. introduced, For habitation, buildings of two storeys are preHollow external walls were generally adopted for the sake of of the tofuture. those of one storey, as being warmer and more convenient, warmth and dryness during the last 30 years of the 19th century, ferred they occupy somewhat less space, and are a little less costly, and are still used in exposed positions. When well built these are while all things into consideration. It is only on restricted sites quite satisfactory for buildings not exceeding two storeys in height, taking buildings of more than two storeys are adopted. but their erection requires much care and supervision. The present that For the lieutenant-colonel commanding there is provided a tendency, therefore, is to have solid walls, which are unobjection- house, detached, of ten rooms of moderate size, besides able for most buildings and situations, if of sufficient thick- offices. generally Majors get two good-sized rooms and a servant s room ; ness to keep out damp. With a view to cleanliness, hollows