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BATAVIA—BATES

situated on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Batangas, and is the most important port of a province noted for the fertility of its soil and the industry of its inhabitants. Its exports, which are large, include rice, coffee of excellent quality, cacao, sugar, Indian corn, horses, and cattle. The horses of Batangas are unusually strong and active. Good cotton is also produced, and is woven into fabrics by the women. The language is Tagalog. Batavia, a residency on the north coast of West Java consisting of the districts of Batavia (town and suburbs), Meester Cornelis, Tangerang, and Buitenzorg. It is bounded on the S. by the mountains and volcanoes of the residency of Preanger, in which the rivers (which, with the sea, have formed the broad band of alluvium in the north of the residency) Jidani, Jilivong, Jitarum, take their rise. In this fertile region are situated the private estates of Europeans and Chinese, and the orchards and fruit gardens near the capital. On the higher lands of the residency coffee, tea, cloves, and cinnamon are cultivated. Area, 2595 square miles. Population in 1898, 1,313,383, including 12,434 Europeans, 82,510 Chinese, 3,279 Arabs, 147 other Asiatic foreigners. The capital, of the same name, is the chief town of all the Dutch East Indian Colonies, and lies in 106° 50' E., 6° 8' S. Since 1874 the progress of the commerce and shipping of the town must be mainly attributed to the improvement in its communication with other residencies and its harbour improvements. Since 1873 the old and new towns have been connected by steam tramways. The Batavia-Buitenzorg railway passes the new town, thus connecting it with the main railway which crosses the island from west to east. But the construction of the new harbour at Tanjong Priok, to the east of the old one, is of the first importance. The works, commenced in 1877 and completed in 1886, connect the town with Tanjong (“cape”) Priok by a canal and include an outer port formed by two breakwaters 607 2 feet long, with a width at entrance of 408 feet and a depth of 27 feet throughout. The inner port has 3282 feet of quayage; its length is 3609 feet, breadth 573 feet, and depth 24 feet. There is also a coal dock, and the port has railway and roadway connexion with Batavia. The total cost of these works has been £2,250,000. The tonnage of vessels clearing from Batavia to countries beyond the archipelago has increased from 879,000 tons in 1887 to 1,224,000 tons in 1898. The population of the town in 1880 was 96,957; in 1898, 115,567; including 9423 Europeans, 26,433 Chinese, 2828 Arabs, and 132 other Asiatic foreigners. Literature.—Van Rees. Batavia. Leiden, 1881.—Buys. Batavia, Buitenzorgcn dc Preanger. Batavia, 1892. Batavia., capital of Genesee county, New York, U.S.A., situated in 43° 00' N. lat., and 78° IP W. long., in the western part of the state, 36 miles east of Buffalo, on Tonawanda Creek, at an altitude of 890 feet. It is on three railways, the New York Central, the Lehigh Valley, and the New York, Lake Erie, and Western. Its manufactures consist largely of agricultural tools and machines. Population (1880), 4845; (1890), 7221 ; (1900), 9180. Bates, Harry (1850-1899), English sculptor, was born at Stevenage, Herts, on 26th April 1850. Before beginning the regular study of plastic art he passed through a long apprenticeship in architectural decoration. In 1879 he came to London and entered the Lambeth School of Art, studying under Jules Dalou, and winning a silver medal in the national competition at South Kensington. In 1881 he was admitted to the Royal Academy schools, where in 1883 he won the gold medal and the travelling scholarship of £200 with his relief of Socrates

teaching,” which showed the qualities of grace of line and harmony of composition which always distinguished his work. He then went to Paris and studied under Rodin. A head and three small bronze panels (the “ Odyssey ”) executed by Bates in Paris were exhibited at the Royal Academy, and selected for purchase by the Chantrey Trustees; but the selection had to be cancelled because they had not been modelled in England. His “./Eneas (1885), “Homer” (1886), three “Psyche” panels, and “Rhodope” (1887), all showed marked advance in form and dignity ; and in 1892, after the exhibition of his vigorously designed “Hounds in Leash,” Bateswas elected A.R.A. His “ Pandora ” in the same year was bought for the Chantrey Bequest, and is now in the Tate Gallery. Among his later work was the colossal equestrian statue of Lord Roberts (1896), cast in bronze and set up in Calcutta ; and a statue of Queen Victoria for Dundee. But perhaps his masterpiece, showing the sculptor’s delicate fancy and skill in composition, was an allegorical presentment of “ Love and Life ”—a winged male figure in bronze, with a female figure in ivory being crowned by the male. Bates died in London 30th January 1899, his premature death robbing English plastic art of its most promising representative at the time. Bates, Henry Walter (1825-1892), English naturalist and explorer, was born at Leicester on 8th February 1825. His father, a manufacturing hosier, intended him for business, and for a time the son yielded to his wishes, escaping as often as he could into the neighbouring country to gratify his love of botany and entomology. This determined his future, and in 1844, meeting a congenial spirit in Alfred Russel Wallace, the result was discussion and execution of a plan to explore some then little known region of the globe. The banks of the Amazons was the district chosen, and in April 1848 the two friends sailed in a trader for Par&, which was reached in a month. They had little or no money, and, as the expenses were to be met by the sale of duplicates of specimens, work was begun on arrival. After two years Bates and Wallace agreed to collect independently, Wallace taking the Rio Negro and the upper waters of the Orinoco, while Bates continued his route up the great river for 1400 miles. He remained in the country eleven years, during which time he collected no fewer than 8000 species of insects new to science. His long residence in the tropics, with the privations which it entailed, undermined his health, and he returned to England the victim of chronic dyspepsia. Nor had the exile from home the compensation of freeing him from financial cares, which hung heavy on him till he had the good fortune to be appointed in 1864 assistant secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, a post which, to the inestimable gain of the Society, and the advantage of a succession of explorers, to whom he was alike Nestor and Mentor, he retained till his death on 16th February 1892. So far as an authoritative position in the scientific world was concerned, Bates had secured this by two publications the importance and interest of which are abiding. He is best known as the author of one of the most delightful books of travel in the English language, The Naturalist on the River Amazons (1863), the writing of which, as the correspondence between the two has shown, was due to Darwin’s persistent urgency. “Bates,” wrote Darwin to Lyell, “is second only to Humboldt in describing a tropical forest.” But his most memorable contribution to biological science, and more especially to that branch of it which deals with the agencies of modification of organisms, was his paper on the “ Insect Fauna of the Amazon Valley,” published in vol. xxiii. of the Linnean Society's Transactions. He therein, as Darwin