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BAYONNE — BAZAINE inwards to the confluence of the Nive with the Adour, forming an outer and an inner harbour, with areas respectively of 143 and 274 acres, having a total length of quayage of 8758 feet, and a depth at entrance (spring tides) of 19 feet. Including coasting trade, in 1899, 845 vessels of 307,937 tons entered, and 853 of 310,354 tons cleared; of which British vessels numbered 108 entered of 82,387 tons, and 106 cleared of 81,919 tons. Imports were valued at £600,000 and exports at £580,000 in 1899. The port is an entrepot for colonial produce and Spanish wool. The foreign trade is chiefly with Spain and England. The cathedral, begun in the 13th century, was completed in 1875. The Alices Marines, a series of fine promenades bordering the Adour for 1{- miles, form a special feature of the town. The legend which derives the word bayonet from the name of this town is supported by no sufficient evidence. Population (1881), 18,468; (1896), 22,278; (1901), 27,601. Bayonne, a city of Hudson county, New Jersey, U.S.A., occupying the peninsula between New York harbour and Newark Bay, immediately south of Jersey city. It is traversed by the Central Railway of New Jersey, and has large petroleum refineries and chemical works. Population (1885), 13,080; (1890), 19,033; (1900), 32,722. The death-rate in 1900 was 16'7. Bayreuth, or Baireuth, a town of Bavaria, Germany, district Upper Franconia, 58 miles by rail N.N.E. from Nuremberg. The town is best known in recent years for the performances of Wagner’s operas, which are performed in a theatre (1876) exclusively.constructed for the purpose, and situated outside the town on the north. In the town is Wagner’s house, with his grave in the garden. Franz Liszt (1811-86) is buried here, as well as Richter. Amongst the institutions of the town should also be mentioned the palace of Duke Alexander of Wurtemberg, the administrative offices, the statue of King Maximilian II. (1860), a lunatic asylum, an agricultural school, an art society, the collections of the historical society, a convict prison, and a military hospital. Population (1885), 23,559; (1895), 27,693. The Wagner Theatre.—As the centre of the Wagnerian cultus, Bayreuth has assumed an importance altogether new. Among the many advantages which Wagner gained from his intimacy with Ludwig II., king of Bavaria, not the least was the practical support given to his plan of erecting a theatre for the ideal performance of his own music-dramas. The first plan, of building a new theatre for the purpose in Munich itself, was rejected, because Wagner rightly felt that the appeal of his advanced works, like the Nibelungen trilogy, would be far stronger if the comparatively small number of people who wished to hear them were removed from the distractions of a large capital; Bayreuth possessed the desired seclusion, being on a line of railway that could not be approached from any quarter without changing. The municipality furthered Wagner’s scheme in every way, and in May 1872 the foundation stone of the Festspielhaus was laid, the event being commemorated by a notable performance of Beethoven’s Choral Symphony in the old opera house. The funds for the erection of the theatre were raised in part by the issue of 1000 certificates of patronage (“ Patronatsscheine ”), but the bulk of the sum was raised by founding “Wagner Societies” from St Petersburg to Cairo, from London to New York; these societies sprang up with such success that the theatre was opened in the summer of 1876 with the first complete performance of “ Der Ring des Nibelungen.” The theatre, which stands on a height a little under a mile from the town, is built from the plans of Gustav Semper, the idea of the design being Wagner’s own, an experiment indeed,


but one which succeeded beyond all expectation. Though external ornamentation was cut down to almost nothing, space was more generously granted, and the number of entrances would be ample for an audience of twice the size that can be accommodated; for 1750 seats are all that are available for the public. These are arranged on a kind of sloping wedge, in such a manner that every one has an almost equally good view of the stage, for there are no boxes, and the only galleries are quite at the back, one, the “ Fiirstenloge,” being reserved for distinguished guests, the other, above it, for the townspeople. Immediately in front of the foremost row of seats a hood, or sloping screen of wood, covers a part of the orchestra, and another hood of similar shape starts from the front of the stage at a slightly lower level. Thus there is left a space between the two hoods through which the sound of the orchestra ascends with wonderfully blended effect; the conductor, sitting at the highest point of the orchestra, though under the screen, has a complete view of the stage as well as of his instrumentalists, and the sound of the orchestra is sent most forcibly in the direction of the stage, so that the voices are always well supported. The stage itself has every modern appliance in the way of scenic device and machinery, the illusion presented in each picture being perfect. The pictorial effect, and the wonderful system of lighting, are greatly enhanced by the distance between the front of the stage and the foremost spectator, as well as by the disposition of all the spectators on the same plane, so that the scene has the same effect of perspective, &c. to every one in the audience. After the first set of performances, which were conducted by Hans Richter, and resulted in a loss of £7500, Wagner was compelled to allow performances of the trilogy to be given in the ordinary theatres of Germany; it was brought to England in 1882, the year which saw the production of the crowning work of Bayreuth, and Wagner’s masterpiece, “ Parsifal,” on 28th July. In this great work the master’s practical knowledge of the splendid acoustic properties of his theatre, and of its scenic possibilities, enabled him to create effects which could never be realized in the ordinary theatre, even if the character of the subject rendered it suitable for performance in the usual rotation with other operas. For Bayreuth and all that it means, this performance was of the greatest possible value; the impossibility of the work being given elsewhere, unless other theatres on a similar principle should be built for its reception in the future, gradually attracted a larger and larger number of spectators, and though from time to time at subsequent festivals the other works of Wagner have been produced, yet “ Parsifal ” has very seldom been out of the scheme. As an important addition to the work of the theatre, a permanent school has been established at Bayreuth for the sake of training young musicians to take part in the festival performances, which were at first exclusively, and then partially, undertaken by artists from other German and foreign theatres. The special feature upon which most stress has been laid, ever since Wagner’s death in 1883, has been not so much the musical as the dramatic significance of the works ; it is contended by the impost circle of Wagnerian adherents that none but they can fully realize the master’s intentions or hand down his traditions. What is called the “Bayreuth Idea” is set forth in much detail from this point of view by Mr Houston Stewart Chamberlain, in his Richard Wagner (1897 and 1900). (j. A. F. M.) Bazaine, Francois Achille (1811 1888), marshal of France and senator of the Empire, was born at Versailles, on 13th February 1811. He entered the army as a private soldier in 1831, and received a commission as sub-lieutenant in 1832. By his gallantry in Algeria he won the Cross of the Legion of Honour and was promoted lieutenant. He served two campaigns with the Foreign Legion against the Carlists in Spain in 1837-3^,