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BAY — BAYONNE

Bay City, capital of Bay county, Michigan, U.S.A., town Pakovan. In the Busso-Turkish war of 187 /-i 8, it situated in 43° SG' N. lat. and 83 53 W. long., in the was taken by the Bussians, but was restored to Turkey by eastern part of the state, on the east bank of Saginaw the Treaty of Berlin. During the war the Christians were river, 4 miles from its mouth and at the head of naviga- massacred, and the town has since lost any commercial tion,’at an altitude of 592 feet. It has four railways, the importance it once possessed. Detroit and Mackinaw, the Flint and Pere Marquette, the Baynes, Thomas Spencer (1823-1887), Grand Trunk, and the Michigan Central. Besides these English editor and man of letters, was born at Wellington, facilities, it has large commerce on the lakes. It is a Somerset, 24th March 1823, and was the son of the manufacturing city of prominence, its leading industries minister of the Baptist congregation there. He gradubeing lumber and salt. It contains many lumber, shingle, ated at the University of London, but received his and planing mills. Salt is made by evaporating the water most important instruction at Edinburgh University under of salt springs, the waste from lumber mills being used Sir William Hamilton, whom he assisted in the conduct as fuel. Population (1880), 20,693; (1900), 27,628. of his class, and of whose views on logic he became the The death-rate in 1900 was only 12'7. authorized exponent. He was assistant editor of the Bay am O, an old interior city on the north slope Daily News from 1858 to 1864, when he was appointed of the Sierra Maestro in Santiago province, Cuba. It professor of logic, metaphysics, and English literature at was the second of the seven cities of . Cuba estab- the University of St Andrews. In 1873 he undertook lished by Diego Velasquez, and has been conspicuous the editorship of the ninth edition of the Encydopasdia in all the wars. It was in 1512 the site of the first Britannica, and conducted it singly until 1880, when the Spanish battle in the war in which the Indians were decline of his health rendered it necessary to provide reduced. During the ten years’ insurrection it was the him with a coadjutor in the person of Professor W. scene of a desperate conflict between the Spaniards and Bobertson Smith. Baynes, however, continued to be Cubans. In the insurrection which resulted in independ- engaged upon the' work until his death on 31st May ence, Bayamo was nearly destroyed by the opposing 1887, shortly before its completion. His remarkable article on Shakespeare was republished in 1894, along with parties. Population, 3022. other essays on Shakespearean topics and a memoir by Bayard, Thomas Francis (1828-1898), Professor Lewis Campbell. He was a man of great and American diplomatist, was born in Wilmington, Dela- versatile ability, and made valuable contributions to the ware, on 29th October 1828, and died on 28th subjects of logic, grammar, politics, and general literature, September 1898, in Dedham, Massachusetts. His great- which occupied his attention by turns. (b. g.) grandfather, Governor Bassett; his grandfather, James Bayonet.—The first known mention of the bayonet Asheton Bayard; his uncle, Bichard H. Bayard; and occurs in the Memoirs of the elder Puysegur, published his father, James A. Bayard, all represented Delaware in the United States Senate. Intending to go into posthumously in Paris, 1747. He says that when combusiness, he did not receive a college education; but in manding the troops at Ypres in 1647 his musketeers 1848 he decided to study law, and was admitted to the used bayonets consisting of a steel dagger fixed in a bar in 1851. Except from 1855-57, when he was a wooden haft, which fitted into the muzzle of the musket partner of William Shippen in Philadelphia, he practised —in fact, plug-bayonets. Courts-martial were held on chiefly in Wilmington. He was a senator from Delaware some English soldiers at Tangier in 1663-64 for using from 1869 to 1885. His abilities made him leader. of the their daggers on their comrades. As bayonets were at Democrats in the Senate, and his views on financial and first called daggers, and as there were few or no pikemen legal questions gave him a permanent reputation for states- in Tangier until 1675, the probable conclusion is that the manship. He was member of the Electoral Commission troops in Tangier used plug-bayonets. In 1671 plugappointed to decide the dispute as to whether Hayes or bayonets were issued to the French regiment of fusiliers Tilden had been elected President of the United States. In then raised. They were issued to part of an Englbh the Democratic national conventions of 18 <2, 1876, 1880, dragoon regiment raised in 1672 and disbanded in 1674, and 1884 he received votes for nomination as the party and to the Boyal Fusiliers when raised in 1685. The candidate for the Presidency. He was secretary of state, danger incurred by the use of this bayonet (which put 1885-89, and pursued a conservative policy in foreign a stop to all fire) was felt so early that the younger affairs. When ambassador to England, 1893-97, he Puysegur saw a ring-bayonet in 1678 which could be fixed became exceedingly popular, his tall dignified person, un- without stopping the fire. The English defeat at Killiefailing courtesy, and polished, if somewhat deliberate, crankie in 1689 was due (among other things) to the eloquence making him a man of mark in all the best plug-bayonet; and shortly afterwards the defeated leadei, circles. He was considered by many Americans to General Mackay, introduced a ring-bayonet of his own have become too partial to English ways; and, for the invention. A trial with badly-fitting socket or zigzag"expression of some criticisms regarded as unfavourable to bayonets was made after the battle of Fleurus, 1690, in his own countrymen, the House of Kepresentatives went the presence of Louis XIV., who refused to adopt them. so far as' to pass a vote of censure on him. The value of Shortly after the peace of Byswick was signed, 20th SepMr Bayard’s diplomacy was, however, fully recognized tember 1697, the English and Germans abolished the in the United Kingdom, where he worthily upheld the pike and introduced these bayonets, and plates of them are given in Surirey de St Bemy’s Memoives d Avtidevie, traditions of a famous line of American ministers. published in Paris in that year; but owing to a military Bay bay, a town of 17,000 inhabitants, in the Philippine Islands, near the centre of the western coast cabal they were not issued to the French infantry until of Leyte, of which it is one of the important ports. It 1703. This bayonet remained in the British service until 1805, when the present spring-bayonet was introduced by exports hemp in large quantities. Other products are Sir John Moore. sulphur, wax, brea, sugar, coffee, cacao, cattle, and horses. Bayonne, chief town of arrondissement in the The language is Visayan. Bayezid, a border fortress of Asiatic Turkey, chief department of Basses-Pyrenees, France, 66 miles W.N.W. town of a sanjak of the Erzenim vilayet, situated on a of Pau, on the railway to Bordeaux and Toulouse. Great 'tributary of the Aras, on the site of the old Armenian improvements have been effected, and the port now extends