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BAUTZEN- -BAVARIA ischer Imperialismus was published in the year of his death. Other critical works are Kritik dev Evangelien und Geschichte ihres Ursprungs, 4 vols. (1850-52), Apostelgeschichte (1850), Kritik dev Paulinischen Briefe, 3 parts (1850-52). He died at Bixdorf, 13th April 1882. Bruno Bauer’s criticism of the New Testament was of a highly destructive type, going far beyond the most sceptical conclusions of the Tubingen school. Strauss in his Life of Jesus had accounted for the Gospel narratives as halfconscious products of the mythic instinct working in the early Christian communities. Bauer ridiculed Strauss’s notion that a community could produce a connected narrative. “A community has no hands for writing, no judgment for composing.” His own doctrine, embodying a theory of Wilke’s, was that the original narrative was the Gospel of St Mark; that this was composed in the reign of Hadrian ; and that after this, as a type, the other narratives were modelled by other writers. On the same principle the four principal Pauline epistles were regarded as forgeries of the second century. The other main point in Bauer’s criticism was his argument for the preponderance of the Greco-Roman element, as opposed to the Jewish, in the Christian writings. The writer of St Mark’s Gospel was “an Italian, at home both in Rome and Alexandria ” ; that of St Matthew’s Gospel “a Roman, nourished by the spirit of Seneca ” ; the Pauline epistles were written in the West in antagonism to the Paul of the Acts, and so on. Christianity is essentially “ Stoicism triumphant in a Jewish garb.” Needless to say, this line of criticism has not been generally accepted, though it has found occasional supporters, especially in the Netherlands. It certainly had its value in emphasizing the importance of studying the influence of environment in the formation of the Christian Scriptures. Bauer was a man of restless, impetuous activity and independent, though ill-balanced, judgment, one who, as he himself perceived, was more in place as a free-lance of criticism than as an official teacher. He came in the end to be kindly regarded even by opponents, and he was not afraid of taking a line displeasing to his Liberal friends on the Jewish question. (h. St.) Bautzen, a town of Germany, on the Spree, 32 miles E.N.E. of Dresden, capital of the circle of Bautzen, kingdom of Saxony, on the Dresden-Gorlitz and the Bautzen-Neustadt railways. The town has a clerical college, 2 normal schools (one for Protestant, the other for Catholic teachers), 2 higher, a Wendish, an agricultural, an industrial, a commercial, and other schools. A centre of industry, it has iron foundries, dyeworks, potteries, distilleries, and cigar factories. Population (1890), 21,515; (1895), 23,678; (1900), 26,025., a kingdom of Germany, ranking next after Prussia in both area (29,284 square miles) and population—5,420,199 (1885); 5,818,544 (1895), of whom 2,846,687 were males and 2,971,857 females, the density being 198"7 inhabitants to the square mile. Of the population bd'S per cent, were rural and 35'5 per cent, urban. The preliminary results of the 1900 census placed the total population at 6,175,153. During the years 1880 to 1893 the number of emigrants from Bavaria ranged from 8068 to 17,986 per annum; since 1893 it has averaged not more than 3256. Classified according to religion, the population in 1895 was thus distributed: — 4,112,623 Roman Catholics (70'7 per cent.), 1,640,133 Evangelical Protestants (28-2 per cent.), 53,750 Jews, and 10,964 of other Christian sects (of whom 3249 were Mennonites). Illegitimacy ranks high, being annually 13 to 14 per cent, of the total births. Agriculture.—Of the total area of Bavaria close upon 67 per cent, is arable and garden land, and of this again one-fourth is meadow land. Since about the middle of the 19th century con-


siderable attention has been given to the drainage of the bogs and moors of the upper districts of Bavaria. Since 1895 three experimental stations have been established for continuing the work of reclamation, but there still remain over 366,000 acres of unreclaimed bog. The farms in Bavaria, of which there were in all 663,785 in 1895, are mostly small:—23’6 per cent., or 156,971, were each less than 2^ acres ; 56T per cent., or 372,683, were each between 2^ and 25 acres ; 20 per cent., or 133,510, between 25 and 250 acres ; and 621 over 250 acres. The total number of persons employed in agricultural operations exceeded 1,437,000, or approximately 25 per cent, of the population. Hay is a long way the most important crop in respect of area and bulk of produce. Next come potatoes ; then follow oats, rye, barley, and wheat. But in respect of value, and economic and social importance, the wine, hops, and tobacco crops count amongst the most valuable in the kingdom. In 1899 some 51,000 acres were planted with vines, and the yield was 17,552,000 gallons of wine, valued at £1,360,000. Between 60,000 and 70,000 acres are planted with hops annually ; in 1899 the yield was about 11,000 tons, equivalent to nearly onehalf of the entire yield of hops in all Germany. Of this amount 35 to 40 per cent, is used in the Bavarian breweries, the rest being exported. The chief hop markets of Southern Germany are Nuremberg and Bamberg. The barley grown is very largely used for malting. Tobacco cultivation is decreasing: from 9500 acres planted in 1890 the area decreased to 4800 acres in 1899. Brewing, although carried on by several gigantic firms in Munich, Erlangen, and other large towns, is also to a very considerable extent a purely agricultural business. For instance, out of over 12,500 breweries in the country in 1898, some 5300 were in the hands of farmers. In 1897, 373,421,400 gallons of beer were brewed, and of these 56,823,300 gallons were exported, leaving a consumption per head of the population (estimated at 5,932,077 in 1897) of 53J gallons annually. In 1898 -99 the 6405 distilleries produced 3,502,620 gallons of pure alcohol. The live stock consisted in 1897 of 3,419,421 cattle, 1,412,579 pigs, 905,916 sheep, and 376,557 horses. Considerable attention is paid to the breeding of cattle, and their numbers have increased by upwards of 233,400 since 1863. On the other hand, the number of sheep decreased by more than 50 per cent, between 1863 and 1897, having in the former year numbered 2,058,638. Pigs, again, have increased from 926,522 in 1863 to the figure quoted above, an increase of 65J per cent. The State encourages the breeding of horses by the maintenance of stud-stock farms at Augsburg, Landshut, Zweibriicken, and Erding. Mining and Industry.—In 1897 the mines yielded 1,007,403 tons of coal, valued at £481,850 ; 41,098 tons of lignite, valued at £5200 ; and 175,305 tons of iron ore, valued at £36,350, or, in all, 1,223,806 tons of minerals of the value of £523,400. One of the chief sources of graphite in Germany are mines near Passau in Bavaria. This kingdom also exports over 6000 tons of lithographic stones (from Solnhofen, &c.) annually. The salt works and furnaces produced 41,533 tons of salt, valued at £77,600 ; 83,556 tons of iron, valued at £194,750 ; and 7041 tons of sulphuric acid, valued at £12,750. The foundries, forges, &c., turned out steel, iron wire, bars, Ac., to the weight of 251,989 tons and value of £1,695,600. About 20,000 men are employed in the forests and sawmills, of which last there are about 1400 in the kingdom. Nearly 6^ million acres are covered with forests, of which SO’S per cent, belong to the State. The total quantity of timber used at home and exported amounts to over £4,000,000 in value per annum. In 1895 some 520,000 persons over 16 years of age were employed in industry and handicraft, and of these 90,000 were females. The chief branches of industry are cotton-spinning (especially in Swabia), linen, hemp, worsted yarn, and other textiles (Augsburg, Bayreuth, &c.), thread and twist, chemicals and aniline dyes (Palatinate), plate glass, porcelain, matches, machinery (Palatinate, Nuremberg), lead pencils (Nuremberg), steel shot, toys (Nuremberg and Furth), wine and beer, lithographic and other printing (Munich), iron foundries, &c., bells, straw hats and baskets, leather, paper, gingerbread, &c. In 1897 the sugar factories and refineries produced 46,630 tons of sugar. Communications.—The railways extended over a length of 4150 miles in 1899, and of these 3522 miles belonged to the State. The total cost of the State lines up to the end of the year 1897 amounted to £57,915,760. The profits from the railways formed the largest item in the public revenue in 1899, namely, £7,184,734, as also the heaviest item in the public expenditure, namely, £4,956,093, the net profit being thus £2,228,641. Finances.—For each of the years 1900 and 1901 the public revenue and expenditure were balanced at £21,646,000, the principal sources of x-evenue being the railways, customs, and indirect taxes. In 1900 the public debt amounted to £72,931,800, of which over 75 per cent, was incurred for railways. The contribution to the imperial exchequer was fixed at £2,959,650 for each of the years 1900 and 1901. Army.—The peace footing of the Bavarian army in 1899-1900 numbered 66,356 officers and men. A third army corps was raised in 1900. (j. t. Be.)