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170

BATTICALOA — BAUER

border on the east coast residency) the Karo Battas form a special group which, by its dialects and ethnological character, appears to be allied to the Gajus and Allas occupying the interior of Achin. The Battas are engaged in agriculture (rice, kapas, indigo), in horse and pig breeding, and in gathering the products of the forests. Literature.—Reiscn nach dcm Toba See. Petermann's Mitteil. 1883.—Modigliani. Fra i Batacchi indipendenti. Rome, 1892. —Neumann, Het Pane-en Bilastroomgebied, Tydschr. Aardr. Gen. 1885-87.—Yan Dijk in the same periodical, 1890-95.— Wing Easton in the Jaarboek voor het Mynwezen, 1894. — Niemann in the Encydopcedie van Nederlandsch-Indie, under the heading Bataks, with very detailed bibliography. Batticaloa, the provincial capital of the eastern province of Ceylon, on the E. coast, 69 miles S.S.E. of Trincomalee. The population of the town in 1901 was about 8000; of the district (2872 square miles), 145,155. The old Dutch “Fort” is a mere name. Batticaloa is the seat of a government agent and district judge; criminal sessions of the supreme court are also held. Bice and cocoanuts are the two staples of the district, and a steamer trading round the island calls once a week at the port. The lagoon is famous for its “singing fish”; the district has a remnant of Yeddahs or wildmen of the wood. The average annual rainfall is 55| inches; the average temperature 80-4°. Battle Creek, a city of Calhoun county, Michigan, U.S.A., situated on Kalamazoo river, at the mouth of Battle Creek, in the southern part of the lower peninsula, at an altitude of 820 feet. It has three railways, which give communication in all directions. It is the seat of Battle Creek College, contains a sanatorium, and has extensive manufactures, largely of agricultural implements. Population (1880), 7063 ; (1900), 18,563. BatU (Dutch Batoe), a group of three greater and forty-eight lesser islands between 0° 10' N. to 0° 45' S. and 97° 50'-98° 35' E., belonging to the Ayerbangi district of the lowlands of Padang (Sumatra). They are separated by the strait of Sibirut from the Mentavei group. Only twenty of the smaller islands are inhabited. The natives are of Malay-Buginese origin. Bat IIITI, a seaport of Kussia, Transcaucasia, province and 85 miles by rail S.E. of Kutais, on the south-east shore of the Black Sea, in 41° 39' N. and 41 38' E., near the mouth of the Chorokh; annexed from Turkey in 1878. The bay of Batum is being continually filled up by the sand that is carried into it by several small rivers. It is protected by strong forts, and the anchorage has been greatly improved by artificial works. The town is built on the steep slopes of the hills on its western shore. The climate is very warm, lemon and orange trees, magnolias and palms growing in the open air, but it is extremely wet and changeable. The yearly amount of rain (90 inches) is higher than anywhere in Caucasia, but is very unequally distributed (23 inches in August and September, sometimes 16 inches in a couple of days), and the town is still most unhealthy. Only bridle-paths connect Batum with the interior. Batum has grown rapidly in recent years. It is now connected by rail with the main line of Transcaucasia, and is the chief port of the whole country for the export of naphtha, paraffin oil, liquorice, wheat, Indian corn, and timber (about £4,000,000 a year). Some 800 vessels are engaged in foreign trade, and 500 coasting vessels visit it every year. Population (1875), 2000 ; (1897), 28,500, very mixed. The district of Batum (85,576 inhabitants, with Batum town, in 1897), with the districts of Artvin and Ajar (56,456), formerly made a separate province of Batum. They are now two military districts of the province of Kutais. Bauan, a town of 30,000 inhabitants, in Luzon, Philippine Islands, situated near the head of the Gulf of

Batangas. It is noted for having an unusually fine church. The surrounding country is very fertile, and cacao, pepper, cotton, hemp, coffee, and rice are produced in abundance. Cattle and horses are raised for the Manila market. The women weave and dye cotton, and hempen fabrics. The language is Tagalog. Bauchi. See Nigeria. Baudry, Paul Jacques Aim6 (18281886), French painter, was born at La Koche-sur-Yonne (Vendee). He studied under Drolling, a sound but second-rate artist, and carried off the Prix de Borne in 1850 by his picture of “ Zenobia found on the banks of the Araxes.” His talent from the first revealed itself as strictly academical, full of elegance and grace, but somewhat lacking originality. In the course of his residence in Italy Baudry derived strong inspiration from Italian art with the mannerism of Correggio, as was very evident in the two works he exhibited in the Salon of 1857, which were purchased for the Luxembourg: “The Martyrdom of a Vestal Virgin ” and “ The Child.” His “ Leda,” “St John the Baptist,” and a “ Portrait of Beule,” exhibited at the same time, took a first prize that year. Throughout this early period Baudry commonly selected mythological or fanciful subjects, one of the most noteworthy being “The Pearl and the Wave.” Once only did he attempt a historical picture, “ Charlotte Corday after the murder of Marat” (1861), and returned by preference to the former class of subjects or to painting portraits of illustrious men of his day—Guizot, Charles Garnier, Edmond About. The works that crowned Baudry’s reputation were his mural decorations, which show much imagination and a high artistic gift for colour, as may be seen in the frescoes in the Paris Cour de Cassation, at the Chateau of Chantilly, and some private residences—the Hotel Fould and H6tel Paiva—but, above all, in the decorations of the/oyer of the Paris Opera House. These, more than thirty paintings in all, and among them compositions figurative of dancing and music, occupied the painter for ten years. Baudry died in Paris in 1886. He was a member of the Institut de France, succeeding Schnetz. Two of his colleagues, Dubois and Mercie, co-operating with his brother, Baudry the architect, erected a monument to him in Paris (1890). The statue of Baudry at La Boche-sur-Yonne (1897) is by Gerome. See H. Delaborde. Notice sur la vie et les ouvrages de Baudry. 1886.—Ch. Ephrussi. Baudry, sa vie etson oeuvre. 1887. (h. Fr.) Bauer, Bruno (1809-1882), German theological and historical critic, was born 6th September 1809, the son of a painter in a porcelain factory at Eisenberg in Saxe-Altenburg. He was educated at Berlin, where he fell under the then all-powerful influence of Hegel, attaching himself to the “right” of the Hegelian school under Marheineke. In 1834 he began to teach in Berlin as a licentiate of theology, and in 1839 was transferred to Bonn. Meanwhile his opinions had been changing, and in two works, Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte des Johannes (1840) and Kritik der evangelischen Geschichte der Synoptiker (1841), he announced his complete rejection of his earlier orthodoxy. In 1842 the Government, having taken the opinions of the various Prussian faculties of theology, revoked his license to teach, and he retired for the rest of his life to Bixdorf, near Berlin. Henceforward he took a deep interest in modern history and politics, as well as in theology. Among the fruits of his new studies were Geschichte der Politik, Kultur und Aufkldrung des 18. Jahrhunderts, in 4 vols. (1843-45), and Geschichte der Franzdsischen Revolution, in 3 vols. (1847). He kept up this line of interest till the end, and Disraelis romantischer und Bisniarcks socialist-