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BERLIN

an overhead electric railway runs from the Zoologischer Garten to the Schlesisches Thor, with a branch from the Potsdamer Bahnhof terminating near the Friedrichstrasse Bahnhof. Industry, Trade, and Commerce.—It is in respect of its manufacture and trade that Berlin has attained its present high pitch of economic prosperity. More than 50 per cent, of its working population are engaged in industry, which embraces almost all branches, of which new ones have lately sprung into existence, whilst most of the older ones have taken a new lease of life. The old wool industry, for example, has become much extended, and now embraces products such as shawls, carpets, hosiery, &c. Its silk manufactures, formerly so important, have, however, gradually gone back. It is particularly in the working of iron, steel, and cloth, and in the by-products of these, that Berlin excels. The manufacture of machinery and steam-engines shows an enormous development. No fewer than 100 large firms, many of them of world-wide reputation, are engaged in this branch alone. Among the chief articles of manufacture and production are railway plant, sewing machines, bicycles, steel pens, chronometers, electric and electric-telegraph plant, bronze, chemicals, soap, lamps, linoleum, china, pianofortes, furniture, gloves, buttons, artificial flowers, and ladies’ mantles, the last of an annual value exceeding £5,000,000. The output of its 100 breweries, including those in the suburbs, reached in the year 1898-1899 the enormous total of about 80,000,000 gallons. Berlin is also the great centre and the chief market for speculation in corn and other cereals which reach it by water from Poland, Austria, and South Russia, while in commerce in spirits it rivals Hamburg. The Bbrse, where 4000 persons daily do business, is the chief market in Germany for stocks and shares, and its dealings are of great influence upon the gold market of the world. Numerous banks of world-wide reputation, doing an extensive international business, have their seats in Berlin, chief among them, in addition to the Reichsbank, being the Berliner Kassen Yerein, the Disconto Commandit, the Deutsche Bank, and the Boden-Credit Bank. Learning and A?’#.—-Berlin is rapidly becoming not only the centre of the imperial Government, but also of the intellectual life of the nation. The famous Friedrich Wilhelm University, although young in point of foundation (a.d. 1810), has long since outstripped its great rival 'Leipzig in point of numbers, and can point with pride to the fact that its teaching staff has yielded to none in the number of illustrious names. To its roll must now be added those of Helmholtz, van’t Hoff, Koch, E. Fischer, Waldeyer, and vonBergmann among scientists and surgeons; Mommsen, Treitschke, and Sybel among historians, Harnack among theologians, Brunner among j urists. Taking ordinary, honorary, extraordinary professors, and licensed lecturers (privat-docenten) together, its professorial strength consists of 21 teachers in the faculty of theology, 29 in that of law, 134 in that of medicine, and 207 in that of philosophy, altogether 391. The number of matriculated students in the winter term 1898-99 was 5873, as against 4648 in the preceding summer term; the reason of the disproportion being that in the summer term university towns having pleasant surroundings, such as Bonn, Heidelberg, Kiel, and Jena are more largely frequented, the larger towns showing an increased strength in the winter. Berlin is essentially a Prussian university, 4319 of the number above given hailing from the kingdom. Of students from non-German states, the United States of America, with 108 students, come next after Russia, while Great Britain is credited with but 21. It is, however, in the ugly palace of Prince

Henry of Prussia, which was given for the purpose in the days of Prussian poverty and distress, that the university is still housed, and although some internal rearrangement has been effected, no substantial alterations have been made to meet the ever-increasing demand for lectureroom accommodation. The garden towards Unter den Linden has been adorned by a bronze statue of Helmholtz, and by marble statues in sitting posture of Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt, the last a masterpiece by R. Begas. Technical education is provided in the magnificent buildings erected at a cost of £100,000 in Charlottenburg, which are equipped with all the apparatus for the teaching of science. This college was attended in the winter term 1898-99 by 2425 students. In view of the fact that Charlottenburg is rapidly replacing the Luisenstadt as a students’ quarter, the project has been seriously entertained of removing thither the Royal Library, which is in intimate touch with the university and largely used by students. Among other institutions of university rank and affiliated to it are the School of Mines, the Agricultural College, the Veterinary College, the new Seminary for Oriental Languages, and the High School for Music. The Geodetic Institute has been removed to Potsdam. The university is, moreover, rich in institutions for the promotion of medical and chemical science, for the most part housed in buildings belonging to the governing body. . Schools.—Berlin possesses 19 “gymnasia” (schools for the highest branches of a learned profession), of which 6 are under the direct supervision of the provincial authorities and have the prefix Koniglich (royal), while 11 are municipal and under the control of the civic authorities. These schools were attended in the winter term 1898-99 by 8387 scholars, of whom no less than 1989 were of the Jewish persuasion. There are also numerous Realschulen (schools in which special attention is given to instruction for the higher branches of commercial life), and these were attended by 5138 scholars. The 8 public high schools for girls showed for the same period an attendance of 5320, while the elementary parochial schools show 105,709 boys and 101,642 girls. Museums.—Many new museums have been erected. The National Gallery, a fine building surrounded by a Corinthian colonnade, and lying between the Royal Museum and the Spree, contains many interesting modern German paintings. The Kunstgewerbe Museum, at the corner of the Koniggriitzer and Albrecht Strassen, contains valuable specimens of applied art and the famous Schliemann treasures. The Royal Museum’s picture gallery has become, if not one of the largest, at least one of the best collections of pictures in existence, and there are few great painters of whom it does not contain one or two masterpieces, while the sculpture gallery has been enriched by an unique collection, the result of the excavations at Pergamon. Theatres.—In nothing has the importance of Berlin become more conspicuous than in theatrical affairs. In addition to the old-established Opernhaus and Schauspielhaus, which are supported by the State, numerous private playhouses have been erected, notably the “Lessing theatre and the “ Deutsches Theater,” and it is in these that the modern works by Wildenbruch, Sudermann, and Hauptmann have been produced, and it may be said that it is in Berlin that the modern school of German drama has its home. In art Munich still holds the first place, and though in music Berlin is not able to cope with Leipzig, Dresden, or Munich, yet it is well represented by the Conservatorium, with which the name of Joachim is connected, whilst the more modern school is represented by Xaver Scharwenka. Politics.—Ever since the revolution of 1848 and the