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BERTANI — BERTILLON ,£4000 for breach of contract. Immediately after the j tionary activity. Up to 1870 he remained an agitator, rupture she gave a series of performances in London, | but, after the liberation of Rome, seceded from the historic relying chiefly upon Adrienne Lecouvreur and Frou Left, and became leader of the extreme Left, a position Frou. These were followed by tours in Denmark, held until his death on 30th April 1886. His chief work America, and Russia, during 1880 and 1881, with La as deputy was an inquiry into the sanitary conditions of Dame aux Camelias as the principal attraction. In April the peasantry, and the preparation of the sanitary code, 1882 she married M. Jacques Damala, a Greek, in adopted by the Crispi Administration. (h. w. s.) London, but separated from him at the end of the folBerthelot, Pierre Eugene Marcellin lowing year. After a fresh triumph in Paris with Fedora ), French chemist and politician, was born at at the Vaudeville, she became proprietress of the Porte I (1827 Paris on the 29th of October 1827, being the son of a St. Martin theatre. Nana Sahib (1883), Theodora (1884), La Tosca (1887), Jeanne d’Arc (1890), and Cleopatre doctor. After distinguishing himself at school in history (1890), were among her most conspicuous successes at and philosophy, he turned to the study of science. In the Porte St. Martin, where she remained till she became 1851 he became a member of the staff of the College de proprietress of the Renaissance Theatre in 1893. During France as assistant to Balard, his former master, and in those ten years she made several extended tours, including 1854 he made his reputation by his doctoral thesis, Sur visits to America in 1886-87 and 1888-89. Between 1891 les combinaisons de la glycerine avec les acides, which and 1893 she again visited America (North and South), described a series of beautiful researches in continuation Australia, and the chief European capitals. In November and amplification of Chevreul’s classical work. In 1859 1893 she opened the Renaissance Theatre with Les Rois, he was appointed professor of organic chemistry at the which was followed by Izeyl (1894), Gismonda (1894), Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie, and in 1865 he accepted Jm Princesse Lointaine (1895). For the next few years the new chair of organic chemistry, which was specially she visited London almost annually, and America in 1896. erected for his benefit at the College de France. He In the autumn of 1896 she made a success with Lorenzaccio; became a member of the Academy of Medicine in 1863, and in Easter week of 1897 furnished her audiences with and ten years afterwards entered the Academy of Sciences, a new sensation by giving performances of a religious of which he became perpetual secretary in 1889 in succesdrama, La Samaritaine, by M. Rostand. In December sion to Pasteur. During the siege of Paris he was presi1896 an elaborate fete was organized in Paris in her dent of the scientific defence committee, and the experience honour • and the value of this public recognition of her he gained in that capacity in the manufacture of gunposition at the head of her profession was enhanced by powder and other munitions of war especially turned his cordially appreciative greetings from all parts of the world. attention to the study of thermo-chemistry as applied to Early in 1899 she removed from the Renaissance to the explosives. The results of his researches were published Theatre des Nations, a larger house, which she opened in in his book Sur la force de la poudre et des matieres January with a revival of La Tosca. In May of the same explosives (1872), which was subsequently followed by the year she made the bold experiment of a production of more general treatises, each in two volumes, on Mecanique Hamlet, in which she played the part of the prince of chimique fondee sur la thermochimie (1879), and ThermoDenmark. She repeated the impersonation in London chimie (1897). In the domain of organic chemistry his not long afterwards, where she also appeared (in 1901) in name is associated with many important discoveries, and M. Rostand’s L'Aiglon, which had been produced in Paris in particular he is remarkable for the wide application of synthetic methods in his investigations. Among the the year before. books he published on this branch of chemistry may be Bertani, Agostino (1812-1886), Italian revolu- mentioned Chimie organique fondee sur la synthese (1860), tionist, was born at Milan, 19th October 1812. He took Ijecons sur les principes sucres (1862), Lecons sur les 4), and Lemons sur V isomeric part in the insurrection of 1848, though opposed to the methodes generates de synthese fusion of Lombardy with Piedmont. During the Roman (1865). Students of chemical history are also greatly inrepublic of 1849, he, as medical officer, organized the debted to M. Berthelot for his book on Les ot'igines de ambulance service, and, after the fall of Rome, withdrew Valchimie (1885), and his Introduction d Vetude de la chimie to Genoa, where he worked with Sir James Hudson for des anciens et du moyen-dge, as well as for editing various the liberation of the political prisoners of Naples, but held old treatises on alchemy and chemistry. His scientific aloof from the Mazzinian conspiracies. In 1859 he jubilee was celebrated in Paris in 1901. As to his official founded a revolutionary journal at Genoa, but, shortly life, he was appointed inspector-general of higher education afterwards, joined as surgeon the Garibaldian corps in the in 1876, and after his election as life senator in 1881 he war of 1859. After Villafranca he became the organizer- continued to take an active interest in educational quesin-chief of the expeditions to Sicily, remaining at Genoa j tions, especially as affected by compulsory military service. after Garibaldi’s departure for Marsala, and organizing four | In M. Goblet’s short-lived ministry of 1886-87 he was of public instruction, and in the Bourgeois cabinet separate volunteer corps, two of which were intended for minister of 1895-96 he held the portfolio for foreign affairs. Sicily and two for the Papal States. Cavour, however, obliged all to sail for Sicily. Upon the arrival of Garibaldi Bertillon, Alphonse (1853 ), French crimiat Naples, Bertani was appointed secretary-general of the nologist, was born in Paris in 1853. He was the son of Dictator, in which capacity he re-organized the police, Louis Adolphe Bertillon, a distinguished anthropologist abolished the secret service fund, founded twelve infant (1821-83), and brother to Jacques Bertillon, a statistician asylums, suppressed the duties upon Sicilian products, (born 1851), and is sometimes confounded with one or other prepared for the suppression of the religious orders, and of these. He published in 1882 a work on Les races planned the sanitary reconstruction of the city. Entering sauvages, but his chief claim to distinction lies in the Parliament in 1861, he opposed the Garibaldian expedi- system invented by him for the identification of criminals, tion, which ended at Aspromonte, but nevertheless tended which is described in an appendix to his Photographic Garibaldi’s wound with affectionate devotion. In 1866 he judiciaire (Paris, 1890), and has been in use since 1883. organized the medical service for the 40,000 Garibaldians, Whenever a person passes through the hands of the police^ and, in 1867, fought at Montana. His parliamentary career, exact measurements are taken—comprising (1) length oi though marked by zeal, was less brilliant than his revolu- head, (2) breadth of head, (3) length of left middle