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BERWICK-UPON-TWEED —BESANgON 233 finger, (4) length of left foot, (5) length of left forearm had an average attendance of 3882 in 1898-99, and 2 voluntary to the tip of the middle finger—and recorded on a card. schools had 72. There is a high school, which is also a technical The whole of the cards are arranged in three classes school, at Duns, and Coldstream and Lauder public schools have according as the first measurement is long, medium, or secondary departments. Duns school is subsidized by the county short; each of these again into three, according to'the distance wlllck Pays tke exPenses of students attending it from a character of the second measurement, and so on. The The cultivated area was 647 of the whole in 1898. number of cards in each subdivision at the end of this -T 18 b a.nd j8 uiixed in the Merse, or borderland, and process is generally about a dozen, and identification is T Pastoral in the uplands. The following table *gives the rendered complete by certain other measurements and principal acreages at intervals of five years from 1880 observations, and by photographs of the full face and of under Corn Year. Area Green Crops. Clover. Permanent Crops. Crops. the profile (right side). On the recommendation of a Pasture Fallow 1880 194,562 64,044 35,074 58,645 committee appointed in 1893 by Mr. Asquith, the Bertillon 262 1885 197,290 63,321 32,830 60,488 36,517 system has been introduced into England, and is used in 40,373 278 1890 197,963 59,722 conjunction with the system of identification by Mr 61,338 44,321 162 1895 191,983 56,928 32,400 58,394 44,418 Francis Galton. (See Anthropometry.) M. Bertillon 47 1899 190,701 57,626 32,175 31,826 58,182 42,978 64 was officially appointed in 1894 to report on the handwilting of the bordereau in the Dreyfus case, and was a 18 articulars of the bve stock during the witness for the prosecution before the Cour de Cassation same years’-^ ^ ^ P on 18th January 1899. Cows or i Total Total Year. Horses. Heifers in I Sheep. Pigs. Cattle. Milk or Calf.! Berwick-upon-Tweed, a seaport and municipal borough in the Berwick parliamentary division of 1880 5412 16,571 3417 267,901 3873 Northumberland, England, on the northern bank of the 1885 5482 19,415 3782 287,544 4663 Tweed, 47 miles E.S.E. of Edinburgh by rail. In 1899 1890 5521 17,649 3256 311,440 4974 1895 5836 15,936 307 vessels entered with 28,949 tons, and 305 cleared 3100 307,365 4530 1899 5449 16,832 3119 with 28,949 tons. Population of municipal borough (area, 315,958 3796 ^07 ncres) (1881), 13,998; (1901), 13,437 (Berwick, Large farms predominate ; indeed, the average size of holding8277 ; Tweedmouth, 3086 ; Spittal, 2074). -.21 acres for 867 farms—is the highest in the kingdom. In 1895 8 5acr 3 41 60 79 Tve; over 50. Sixty-nme holdings between 100 f-.f ' were between 5 and50 50andacresi Berwickshire, a maritime county of Scotland, and 60^79 forming its S.E. extremity, is bounded on the N.E. by the acres, 218 between 100 and 300, 120 between 300 and 500 100 German Ocean, on the N. by Haddingtonshire, on the W. between 500 and 1000, and 20 over 1000 acres. The acreage by Mid-Lothian, on the S.W. by Roxburgh, on the S. by under wood m 1895 was 15,378. According to the census ofTSl the Tweed, which separates it from Northumberland, and agriculture. ^ 1498 W°men in the co™ty engaged in on the S.E. by Berwick-on-Tweed. indll84rial population in 1891is numbered 3279 men and 1075 women. The season for herring from Area and Population.—In 1891 the parish of Oldhamstocks was bereTSTpT^ placed wholly in Haddingtonshire, and the Berwick portion of the 6 f e temb r and for toThTeTd “f M ° ® P ? ’ white fish from October parishes of Lauder, Earlston, and Mertoun were transferred to foriTib! £-Ta^' .Eyem°ldh’ Pornmouth, and St. Abb’s Head h Scott 8 parishes in Roxburgh. According to the last official estimate the i b Vision of the Eyemouth fishery district, which area of the county (foreshore excluded) is 293,946 acres, or about fn!TJ IregiVeTlTlTv •-f N°rtbUmberland POrtS, and f°r which statistics Uare T he t)W ; in 1891, on the , Population in 1881, 35,38315,383

in 1891,

32,406 above area,was 32,290, of whom were Boats. Resident L , 1, 17 , Year, j Value of Fishermen e nCl 16 9 n the old area takin land onl Value ?9qi so^ acres ’or° 460'6 square°miles), the number > of persons g Gear. and Boys. ^ta No. (294,805 to they Tons. Value. °ta ^ ish. square mile in 1891 was 70, and the number of acres to the person 1890 | 485 j 4850 £23,236 £30,673 1214 £49,765 1898 i 165 ! 2269 £13,839 £19,289 i aa'i j i on^’1Stratl0n countCent y fb® decrease of population between 545 £29,075 In 1901 the 1899 , 159 ; 2359 £14,977 £22,602 ^ 189; the excess of births Population was 30,816 Between 1881 and over deaths 535 , £51,133 was d/n, and the decrease of the resident population 2970. The - Jf lejT0Ue °f the herring catch only in 1899 was £33,459. During in ISSCMSOQ 6! Particulars of births, deaths, and marriages 1899, 1252 persons were employed in the district in connexion with the various branches of the sea fisheries. The salmon fisheries of the Tweed are very valuable. A light railway (10.} miles) from the Year. Deaths. Marriages Births. Percentage of Waverley line to Lauder was built in 1900. Illegitimate. Proceedings of Berwickshire Naturalists' Club.-G. Henderson. 1880 ! 557 182 1020 10-o Ihe lopular Rhymes, Sayings, and Proverbs of the County of Ber1890 j 475 178 787 9-40 1899 | 440 NewcasHe,1856.—J. W. Brown. The Covenanters of the 178 685 9-6 Edinburgh 1893. — W. S. Crockett. Minstrelsy of the Merse. Paisley, 1893.—iA Praise of Tweed. Serkirk, 1899.—J. 68 th birtll rate d rate^Kr"^^ f ' a ’ series eath-rate, and marriagerate per thousand of1!^ the population for of years 0N 6 isTf T? Tt} Churches and Churchyards of Berwickshire. Kelso, 893. F. H. GpvOOmk. A Short Border History. Kelso, 1887.— 1880. 1881-90. 1890. 1891-98. 1899. T Ccntur s iir TT. £ r° ™ °f Border Life.1890.—Margaret Kelso, 1889.— Sir Dick Lauder. Scottish Rivers.Church Glasgow, Birth-rate . 28-85 26-60 24T9 23-14 22-89 archmont a7uithe Death-rate . 15-75 15-62 14-60 13-98 14-70 1---- M Humes of Polwarth. Edinburgh, Marriage-rate 5-15 4-80 5-47 5-49 5-94 Edinb„)gh, fssf-? MuSS "ft B flZLf Edinburgh^ 1892 and 1897 'riS °f 1 milnber f 89 aruf of^ °, Gaelic-speaking persons in the county was r B®San<JOn, chief town of department Doubs, 1900, £310 720 Vacation in 1889-90, £328,457 ; 1899Trance, -41 miles S.E. of Paris, on the railway from Dijon Th C coun t ret rn La±78Sft>;r , n s a member to parliament, to Belfort. It is the headquarters of the 7th army corps. 1 y. representation r °nn ayWroSyaltheburgh, and it has now no separate b ancient C0Unty town library contains nearly 140,000 volumes and taken To tran^f Tre adi - • trat1 > but steP8 are being { ^A manuscripts, besides 10,000 medals, and there is which TToP1 TbUr h “ ^ machinery to Duns (2206), The cml arisb number f Pa Per3 an(? de j es number 32. The a popular library with 10,000 volumes. A statue of in P BeTdel h-P rforms a sheriffdom ? Pendants September wasshires 646 Cardinal Granvelle (16th cent.) was erected in 1897. The Berwickshire with Roxburgh and1899 Selkirk 6 dent SiS" at Dum, who sits al» at watch-making industry employs about one-fifth of the reeniaw, rjS Coldstream, Ayton, and Lauder. Education. Thirty-two school boards manage 64 schools, which population, and is said to supply four-fifths of the watches sold in France. The actual number made in 1896 was S. II. — 30