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BISMARCK — BIWA 267 but he never took his seat. He died at Friedrichsruh, works of Moritz Busch, which contain graphic pictures of his daily life, see the article Busch. There are several periodical 31st July 1898. devoted to the collection of documents bearing on Bismarck was made a count in 1865 ; in 1871 he received the publications Bismarck’s life ; of these much the most valuable is the Bismarckrank of Fiirst (prince). On his retirement the emperor created Jahrbuch, by Horst Kohl. Herr v. Poschinger also him duke of Lauenhurg, but he never used the title, which is not brought outedited a BismarckPortfeuille. There are English biographies inherited by his son. In 1866 he received £60,000 as his share of by Charles Lowe, Bismarck, a Political Biography (2 vols. the donation voted by the Reichstag for the victorious generals. With this he purchased the estate of Yarzin in Pomerania, which Lond.); revised edition in 1 vol. 1895 ; and by James Headlam, (j. w. He.) henceforth he used as a country residence in preference to Schbn- (Putnam’s, 1899). hausen. In 1871 the emperor presented him with a large part Bismarck Archipelago. See New Guinea of the domains of the duchy of Lauenburg. On his seventieth birthday a large sum of money (£270,000) was raised by public and Melanesia. subscription, of which half was devoted to repurchasing the Bistritz (Hungarian, Besztercze), an ancient town estate of Schonhausen for him, and the rest was used by him to (now corporate) of Eastern Hungary, 48 miles N.E. by E. establish a fund for the assistance of schoolmasters. As a young man he was an officer in the landwehr and militia, and in addition of Kolosvar; capital of the county of Besztercze-Naszbd, to his civil honours he was eventually raised to the rank of with 12,081 inhabitants. It is surrounded with the general. Among the numerous orders he received we may men- ruins of ancient bastions and towers; but in 1857 a great tion that he was the first Protestant on whom the Pope bestowed portion of the old town was burnt down. There are a the order of Christ; this was done after the cessation of the Kulturkampf and the reference of the dispute with Spain con- Lutheran church, a gymnasium, religious houses of the cerning the Caroline Islands to the arbitration of the Pope. Minorite and Piarist orders, an agricultural school, and Bismarck’s wife died in 1894. He left one daughter and two hospitals. Its markets are much frequented, and an active sons. Herbert, the elder, was wounded at Mars-le-Tour, after- trade is carried on with Rumania. wards entered the Foreign office, acted as private secretary to his father, and then became secretary of state for Foreign affairs or Betlis. (1) A vilayet of Asiatic Turkey, and Prussian minister. He conducted many of the negotiations on BitliSj the Armenian plateau, situated to the W. and S.w! with Great Britain on colonial affairs. He retired at the same time as his father. The second son, William, who was president of Lake Van. It is a high-lying pastoral and agriof the province of Prussia, died in 1901. cultural country, with fertile, well-watered plains, rich Authoiuties.—The literature on Bismarck’s life is very exten- pastures, and high rugged mountains, completely dissive, and it is only possible to enumerate a few of the most important foiested. The climate is healthy, but the winter, which books. The first place belongs to his own works. These include lasts six to seven months, is severe. There are many mineral his own memoirs, published after his death, under the title Gedanken und Erinnerungen; there is an English translation, springs, and much unworked mineral wealth. Carpets Bismarck: his Reflections and Reminiscences, Smith, Elder, and Co., and cotton cloths are made, and gum, yellow-berries, furs 1898. They are incomplete, but contain very valuable discus- &c., are exported. Population, 400,000 (Moslems’ sions on particular points. The speeches are of the greatest 254,000; Christians, 142,000; Yezidis, 4000). (2) The importance both for his character and for political history; of the numerous editions that by Horst Kohl, in twelve volumes capital of the vilayet, Armenian Paghesh, altitude 4700 (Stuttgart, 1893-94), is the best; there is a cheap edition in f6et, picturesquely situated in the deep valley of the Reclam s Universal Bibliothek. Bismarck was an admirable letter- Bitlis Chai, on the principal road from the plateau to writer, and numbers of his private letters have been published ; a collected edition has been brought out by Horst Kohl. His letters Mesopotamia. It has chalybeate and sulphur springs, to his wife were published by Prince Herbert Bismarck in 1900. which are much used, and is the seat of an American A translation of a small selection of the private letters was pub- mission with schools for boys and girls. Bitlis has lished in 1876 by F. Maxse. Of great value for the years 1851- always been a turbulent city, peopled chiefly by Kurds 1858 is the correspondence with General L. v. Gerlach, which has been edited by Horst Kohl. A selection of the political letters, and Armenians, and until 1836 it was ruled by a semiin four volumes, has been published under the title Politische independent Kurd Bey. On the 25th October 1895 there Briefe (Berlin, 1889-93), but it is badly arranged. Of far greater was a massacre of Armenians which commenced and importance are the collections of despatches and state papers ended by bugle-call. Population, 38,000 (Moslems, edited by Herr v. Poschinger. These include four volumes en- 20,500; Christians, 17,500). titled Preussen im Bundestag, 1851-59 (1882-84), which contain his despatches during the time he was at Frankfort. Next in Bitterfeld, a town of Prussia, province of Saxony, importance are two works, Bismarck als Volkswirth and Aktenstiicke zur Wirthschaftspolitik des Furstcn Bismarck, which are 26 miles N. from Leipzig by rail, on the river Mulde. It part of the collection of state papers, Aktenstiicke zur Geschichte manufactures drain-pipes, paper-roofing, and machinery, der Wirthschaftspolitik in Preussen. They contain full informa- and has saw-mills. Several coal-mines are in the vicinity. tion on Bismarck’s commercial policy, including a number of The town, which dates from at least the 12th century, was important state papers. A useful general collection is that by built by Dutch immigrants. Population (1885), 7596 • Ludwig Hahn, in five volumes, which includes a selection from letters, speeches, and newspaper articles. These collections have (1895), 10,636; (1900), 11,839. only been possible owing to the extreme generosity which Bismarck Biwa, a lake in the province of Omi, Japan. It showed in permitting the publication of documents; he always professed to have no secrets. A full account of the diplomatic measures 36 miles in length by 12 in breadth, has an history from 1863 to 1866 is given by Sybel in Die Begriindung area of 180 square miles, is about 330 feet above sea-level, des deutschen Reichs (Munich, 1889-94), written with the help of and has an extreme depth of some 300 feet. There are the Prussian archives. The two last volumes, covering 1866-70, are of less value, as he was not able to use the archives for this only a few small islands in the lake, the principal of period. Poschinger has also edited a series of works in which them being Chikubu-shima at the northern end. anecdotes, records of interviews and conversations are recorded ; Tradition alleges that Lake Biwa and the mountain of Fuji they are, however, of very unequal value. They are Bismarck were produced simultaneously by an earthquake, in 286 b.c. On wid die Parliamentarier, Burst Bismarck und der Bundesrath, the west of the lake the mountains Hiei-zan and Hira-yama slojie D%e Ansprache des Fursten Bismarck, Neue Tischgesprdche, and down almost to its margin, and on the east a wide plain extends Bismarck und die Diplomaten. Selections from these have been towards the boundaries province of Mino. It is drained published in English by Charles Lowe, The Tabletalk of Prince by a river flowing out ofofitsthesouthern end, and taking its course Bismarck, and by Sidney Whitman, Conversations with Bismarck. into the sea at Osaka. This river bears succession the names there is no satisfactory biography in German; the most ambitious ol Seta-gawa, Uji-gawa, and Yodo-gawa. inThe lake abounds with is that by Hans Blum, Bismarck und seine Zeit (Munich, 1894). fish, and the beauty of its scenery is remarkable. steamHy far the fullest guide to his life is by Horst Kohl, Bismarck- boats ply constantly to the points of chief interest,Small and around Rcgesten (Leipzig, 1891-92), which contains a record of Bismarck’s its shores are to be viewed the Omi-no-hakkei, or “eight landactions on each day, with references to and extracts from his scapes of Omi ” ; namely, the lake silvering under an autumn letters and speeches. Hesekiel’s Das Buch des Grafen Bismarck moon as one looks down from Ishi-yama ; the snow at eve on is lueasantly written, but is now quite out of date. There is a Hira-yama ; the glow of sunset at Seta ; the groves and classic good translation by K. B. H. Mackenzie (London, 1870). For the temple of Mii-dera as the evening bell sounds ; boats sailing