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tributions of the two states (at present 66|-|- per cent, being paid by the kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrath, 33T3¥ per cent, by the lands of the Hungarian crown), 2 per cent, of the remainder being, however, previously debited to Hungary on account of the incorporation of the former military frontier. The budget for the common administration for the year 1900 was as follows :— Ordinary.



Expenditure. £8,422 £436,358 £427,936 1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs 585,867 12,145,274 11,559,407 2. Ministry of War {^v'y 579,119 1,660,970 1,081,851 178,423 799 177,624 3. Ministry of Finance 12,955 12,955 4. Board of Control . Total £13,259,773 £1,174,207 '£14,433,980 Revenue. £15,075 1. Ministry of Foreign Affairs £15,075 2. Ministry of War . 370,557 370,557 3,377 3,377 3. Ministry of Finance &OQ 529 4. Board of Control . 5,201,919 5,201,919 5. The Customs 176,855 176,855 6. Payment by Hungary on account of Incorporation of Military Frontier 5,754,002 7. Austria’s Contribution (66|| per ,754,002 cent.) 2,911,666 8. Hungary’s Contribution (33^ per ,911,666 cent.) Total . £14,433,980 £14,433,980 Commerce.—On the basis of the customs and commercial agreement between Austria and Hungary, concluded in 1867 and renewable every ten years, the following affairs, in addition to the common affairs of the monarchy, are in both states treated according to the same principles:— Commercial affairs, including customs legislation; legislation on the duties closely connected with industrial production—on beer, brandy, sugar, and mineral oils; determination of legal tender and coinage, as also of the principles regulating the Austro-Hungarian Bank; ordinances in respect of such railways as affect the interests of both states. In respect, also, of the principles of the military system and of the yearly vote of the contingent of recruits, the laws passed in both states must always be in accord. In conformity with the customs and commercial compact between the two states, renewed last in 1899, the monarchy constitutes one identical customs and commercial territory, inclusive of the occupied provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the principality of Liechtenstein. Outside of this customs and commercial territory, there are only the two free ports of Trieste and Fiume, and the two small communities of Tirol and Vorarlberg, which are consigned to the German customs territory. The foreign trade of the monarchy, in the scope defined by the inclusions and exclusions above specified, amounted in the three years 1889, 1898, and 1899, to the following respective values in millions sterling :— 1889. 1898. 1899. Total Imports. . . . 47’4 68’3 65'8 Total Exports. . . . 63'8 67’2 77'3 In 1889 and 1899 there was accordingly an excess of exports to the values of £16,400,000 and £11,500,000, whereas in 1898 the imports exceeded the exports by £1,100,000. Of the total imports in 1899, wool and woollen yarns and goods composed 11’35 per cent.; cotton and cotton yarns and goods, 8’63per cent.; wood, coal, and turf, 5’68 per cent.; silk and silk goods, 5’50 per cent. ; animal products, 5’42 per cent. ; base metals and wares, 4’15 per cent. ; vegetables and fruit, 4'll per cent.; corn, pulse, and meal, 3‘50 per cent.; colonial goods, 2‘97 per cent.; leather and leather goods, 2’93 per cent.; machinery and apparatus, 2’90 per cent. ; literary and artistic objects, 2-90 per cent.; instruments, watches, and hardware, 2 ’82 per cent.; flax, hemp, jute, and wares, 2’73 per cent.; drinks, 2’57 per cent. Of


exports, wood, coal, and turf composed 17’08 percent.; sugar, 9'33 per cent.; corn, pulse, fruit, and meal, 7’94 per cent.; animal products, 7’80 per cent.; animals for slaughter and beasts of burden, 5‘94 per cent.; vegetables and fruit, 5’38 per cent.; wool, yarns, and textiles, 4’42 per cent.; precious metals and coins, 3’82 per cent.; leather and leather goods,. 3 ‘25 per cent.; instruments, watches, and hardware, 3’13 per cent.; glass and glass wares, 2’65 per cent.;- iron and iron wares, 2‘43 per cent. ; wooden and bone articles, 2 43 per cent.; drinks, 2’39 per cent.; clothes, linen, finery, 2’31 per cent. Of agricultural, forest, and fishery produce in the year 1899, the value of imports amounted to £31,300,000; of exports, £28,900,000. Of the products of the mining and smelting industries, the imports (1899) were £8,000,000; the exports, £5,500,000. The imports of the other industries valued £26,600,000; the exports, £42,900,000. Of the total imports about 10 per cent, came, of the total exports about 6 per cent, went, by sea ; the rest by land. The most important place of derivation and of destination for the Austro-Hungarian trade is the German empire, with 35 per cent, of the imports and 54 per cent, of the exports. Great Britain’s share is 12 per cent, of the imports and 9 per cent, exports; Italy, 7 per cent, imports, 7 per cent, exports ; Russia, 7 per cent, imports, 3 per cent, exports ; France, 3 per cent, imports, 3 per cent, exports ; the United States of America, 8 per cent, imports, 2 per cent, exports; India, 6 per cent, imports, 2 per cent, exports. Important is the trade also with the Netherlands, Rumania, Servia, Turkey, and Switzerland. The Austro-Hungarian Bank.—Common to the two states of the monarchy is the “Austro-Hungarian Bank,” which possesses a legal exclusive right to the issue of bank notes. In virtue of thn new bank statute of the year 1899 the bank is a joint-stock company, with a stock of 210,000,000 crowns (£8,780,000). The bank’s notes of issue must be covered to the extent of two-fifths by legal specie (gold and current silver) in reserve ; the rest of the paper circulation, according to bank usage. When the amount of bank notes in circulation exceeds the specie in reserve by more than 400,000,000 crowns, the bank has to pay both states a tax of 5 per cent, on the surplus. The management of the bank and the supervision exercised over it by the state are established on a footing of equality, both states having each the same influence. 2. Austria Proper. Austria proper comprises the “kingdoms and lands represented in the Reichsrath,” covering an area altogether of 115,533 English square miles, with a population at the census of 31st December 1890 of 23,895,413, or 208 inhabitants per square mile. Of this population over 6,000,000 are distributed among 772 towns, and over 17,000,000 are scattered in 58,479 rural communities. In 1900 the largest towns were :—Vienna, with 1,639,811 inhabitants; Prague, 197,000; Trieste, 167,000; Lemberg, 142,000; Graz, 125,000; Briinn, 105,000. For every 1000 men there are 1044 women. Of the population 60*5 per cent, are single; 33’3 per cent, are married; the rest are widowers, widows, or divorced. For every 1000 inhabitants, again, there are 129 under 6 years of age; 110, from 6 to 10 years old; 103, from 10 to 15 years old; 609, from 16 to 65 years old; and 49 above 65 years of age. Further, for every 1000 inhabitants 16 marry per year; 37 to 39 are born; and 25 to 28 die. Of persons marrying, 88 per cent, are single, and 12 per cent, widowers or widows. For every 1000 children born, 514 are males, 148 illegitimate, and 28 still-born. For every 1000 males that have died, 354 died in their first year and 507 at an age between 1 and 5 years; for every 1000 females that have died, 299 died in their first year and 455 at an age between 1 and 5 years. The proportion of marriages, living births, and deaths for the years 1875, 1885, 1895, and 1898 is shown in the following table:— Year. 1875 1885 1895 1898

For every 1000 Inhabitants the number of Marriages. Born alive. Deaths. 17-26 30-33 40-29 1530-15 37-63 1627-53 37-94 15-66 24-90 37-20