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BOLIVIA 289 mostly white. The capital, Cartagena, has 11,000 inhabit- Inambary to its confluence with the Madre de Dios, whence ants, and the principal towns include Mompox, Chinu, it runs in a straight line to the sources of the Yavary Sabanalarga, Barranquilla, at the mouth of the Magdalena, in 7 P 17" S. lat., there uniting with the Brazilian Soledad, Magangue, Corozal. frontier, decided by treaty of 1867. The frontier towards I araguay is still under dispute. An unratified treaty of Bolivia, a country of South America extending from 23rd November 1894 places the boundary in a straight 10 to 2o S. lat., and from 58° to 70° W. long., bounded line drawn due west across the Gran Chaco from a point on the N. by Brazil, on the E. by Brazil and on the Paraguay river, three leagues north of Puerto Bound Paraguay, on the S. by the Argentine Republic, Olimpo, to a point where the principal channel of the aries. and on the W. by Chile and Peru. In the course Pilcomayo is intersected by the meridian of 61° 28" of the war of 1879-83 with Chile, Bolivia lost her maritime W. long. provinces, and by the treaty of 4th April 1884 agreed Mountains.-^nxe mountains of Bolivia maybe boldly grouped into two main divisions, the western and the eastern Cordilleras. The western Cordillera consists of two or more parallel and associated ranges, whereot the lowest or Coast Cordillera does not exceed 5000 feet in altitude. Farther inland the mountains are higher till the main western Cordillera, to which some would confine the name Andes, is reached. This is a volcanic range, averaging about 15,000 feet in height, and contains some volcanoes not yet extinct. Mount Sajama is its highest measured peak (21,044 feet, Pissis; 21,559 feet, Keck). The eastern Cordillera or Cordillera Real branches from the western or Cordillera de los Andes about 24° S. lat. and making a bend to the east reunites with that range in 14" 40' S. lat. Its three chief peaks are Mount Sorata, culminating in two peaks, Ancohuma or Hankuma (21,286feet, Pentland j 21,710 feet, Conway), and Illampu (200 feet lower than Ancohuma) • Caca - aca, wrongly called Huaina Potosi (20,170 feet, Minchin; 20,560 feet, Conway); and Illimani (21,355 feet, Pissis ; 21,015, Conway). Between Mount Sorata in the north and Illimani in the south, a distance of about 64 miles, this range is almost continuously snow-clad and bears a number of large glaciers, though south of Caca - aca are several broad depressions below the snow“i*" Oxford /go/ level. The mean summer snow-line lies at about 17,000 Sketch Map or Bolivia. feet. The range is cut through south of Illimani by the provisionally to a new boundary. According to this valley of the La Paz, and north of Mount Sorata by the Mapiri, both treaty, the western frontier of Bolivia, starting from rivers draining portions of the west slope of the range. Across the Sapalegm, the point where the Chilian, Argentine, and high part of the range between these valleys are several passes Bolivian boundaries meet, runs in a straight line to the traversed by mule-paths or over which mule-paths could be easily Between the two main ranges lies the high plateau, a plain Licancaur volcano, and thence straight to the southern made. at an average altitude of about 12,500 feet. Various minor hills, source of the waters of Lake Ascotan, whence in another called Serrama, rise out of this plain. It also includes Lakes straight line it passes lengthwise over the lake and litioaca and Poopo, and the Rio Desaguadero which connects them. is continued to Ollagua volcano, from which it goes Lastwards the Cordillera Real falls rapidly to a mean level direct to Tua volcano, and joins the recognized eastern of about 3000 feet, which slopes away to the great central conplain. The rapidly falling eastern slope is cut up into boundary of the department of Tarapaca. A prelimi- tinental deep valleys or quebradas, called las Yungas, which are richly nary treaty of 10th April 1886 provides rules for the iorested and include areas of great fertility. In the south the demarcation of the frontier towards Peru. The de facto extension of the Argentine railway system to Jujuy has opened up country, but the Beni district is still shut out from easy eastward boundary runs from Tacora mountain across the sources the cornmunication by the rapids of the Madeira. But an almost level o the Maure to Lake Titicaca; crosses the lake from the road might easily be cut through the forest from the navigable point of outflow of the Desaguadero to Huaicho on the L1'1^

  • ie Madre de Dios to the Rio Aquiry, in about

|J northern side, runs to the sources of the valley of the San W. long., whereby the cataracts would be avoided. The rivers </uan del Oro, passes down the valley and down the could also be united by a canal. Climate. The high plateau is subject to a rainy season which S. II. — 37