Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/326

This page needs to be proofread.


292

BOLIVIA

upon Pisagua surprised and routed the troops under the leiuvian General Buendia and opened the way into the southern tern tor j of Peru. General Daza, who should have co-operated with Buendia, turned back, on receiving news of the Peruvian defeat, and led the Bolivian troops to Tacna in a hasty and somewhat disoiderl) retreat The fall of San Francisco followed, and Iquique, which was evacuated by the allies without a struggle, was occupied Severe fighting took place before Tarapaca surrendered, but the end of 1879 saw the Chilians in complete possession of the province. Meanwhile a double revolution took place in Peru and Bolivia. In the former country General Prado was deposed and Colonel Pierola proclaimed dictator. The Bolivians followed the example of their allies. The troops at Tacna, indignant at the inglorious part they had been condemned to play by the incompetence or cowardice of their president, deprived him of their commaud and elected Colonel Camacho to lead them. At the same time a revolution in La Paz proclaimed General Narciso Campero president, and he was elected to that post in the following June by the ordinary procedure of the constitution. During 1880 the war was chiefly maintained at sea between Chile and Peru, Bolivia taking little or no part in the struggle. In January of 1881 were fought the battles of Chorillos and Miraflores, attended by heavy slaughter and savage excesses on the part of the Chilian troops. They were followed almost immediately by the surrender of Lima and Callao, which left the Chilians practically masters of Peru. In the interior, however, where the Peruvian Admiral Montero had formed a provisional government, the war still lingered, and in September 1882 a conference took place between the latter and President Recent History.—In January 1871 President Melgarejo was de- Campero, at which it was decided that they should hold out for posed and driven from the country by a revolution headed by Colonel Augustin Morales. The latter, becoming president, was better terms. But the Peruvians wearied of the useless struggle. himself murdered in November 1872 and was succeeded by Colonel On 20th October 1883 they concluded a treaty of peace with Chile ; Adolfo Ballivian, who died in 1874. Under this president, Bolivia the troops at Arequipa, under Admiral Montero, surrendered that entered upon a secret agreement with Peru which was destined town, and Montero himself, coldly received in Bolivia, whither he to have grave consequences for both countries. do understand had fled for refuge, withdrew from the country to Europe. On the the reasons that urged Bolivia to take this step it is necessary 9th of November the Chilian army of occupation was concentrated Arequipa, while what remained of the Bolivian army lay at to go back to the year 1866, when Chile and Bolivia were allied at agamst Spain. A treaty was then concluded between those two Oruro. Negotiations were opened, and on 11th December a peace republics, by which Bolivia conceded the 24th parallel as the was signed between Chile and Bolivia. By this treaty Bolivia ceded boundary of Chilian territory and agreed that Chile should have to Chile the whole of its sea-coast, including the port of Cobija. On 18th May 1895 a treaty was signed at Santiago between a half share of the customs and full facilities for trading on the and Bolivia, “with a view to strengthening the bonds ot coast that lay between the 23rd and 24th parallels, Chile at Chile that time being largely interested in the trade of that region. It friendship which unite the two countries,” and, “in accord with higher necessity that the future development and commercial was also agreed that Chile should be allowed to mine and export the the products of this district without tax or hindrance on the part of prosperity of Bolivia require her free access to the sea.” By this Bolivia. In 1870, in further consideration of the sum of $10,000, treaty Chile declared that if, in consequence of the plebiscite (to Bolivia granted to an Anglo-Chilian company the right of working take place under the treaty of Ancon with Peru), or by virtue of certain nitrate deposits north of the 24th parallel. The great direct arrangement, she should “ acquire dominion and permanent wealth which was passing into Chilian hands owing to these com- sovereignty over the territories of Tacna and Arica, she undertakes pacts created no little discontent in Bolivia, nor was Peru any to transfer them to Bolivia in the same form and to the same better pleased with the hold that Chilian capital was establishing extent as she may acquire them ” ; the republic of Bolivia paying in the rich district of Tarapaca. On 6th February 18/3 Bolivia as an indemnity for that transfer $5,000,000 silver. If this cession entered upon a secret agreement with Peru, the ostensible object of should be effected, Chile should advance her own frontier north ot to Yitor, from the sea up to the frontier which actually which was the preservation of their territorial integrity and their Camerones mutual defence against exterior aggression. There can be no doubt separates that district from Bolivia. Chile also pledged hersell to that the aggression contemplated as possible by both countries was use her utmost endeavour, either separately or jointly with Bolivia, to obtain possession of Tacna aud Arica. If she failed, she bourn a further encroachment on the part of Chile. Upon the death of Adolfo Ballivian, immediately after the con- herself to cede to Bolivia the roadstead {caleta) of Vitor, or another clusion of this treaty with Peru, Dr Tomas Frias succeeded to the analogous one, and $5,000,000 silver. Supplementary protocols: presidency. He signed yet another treaty with Chile, by which to this treaty stipulated that the port to be ceded must u y the latter agreed to withdraw her claim to half the duties levied in satisfy the present and future requirements” of the commerce ot „ , Bolivian ports on condition that all Chilian industries established Bolivia. On 23rd May 1895 further treaties of peace and commerce were in Bolivian territory should be free from duty for twenty-five years. This treaty was never ratified, and four years later General Hilarion signed with Chile, but the provisions with regard to the cession ot Daza, who had succeeded Dr Frias as president in 1876, demanded a seaport to Bolivia still remained unfulfilled. During those ten as the price of Bolivia’s consent that a tax of 10 cents per quintal years of recovery on the part of Bolivia from the effects of the war, should be paid on all nitrates exported from the country, further the presidency was held by Dr Pacheco, who succeeded Campero declaring that, unless this levy was paid, nitrates in the hands of and held office for the full term ; by Dr Amceto Arce, who held it the exporters would be seized by the Bolivian Government. As an until 1892, and by Dr Mariano Baptista, his successor. In 189b answer to these demands, and in order to protect the property oi Dr Severe Alonso became president, and during his tenure of office Chilian subjects, the Chilian fleet was sent to blockade the ports of diplomatic relations were resumed with Great Britain, Senor Antofagasta, Cobija, and Tocapilla. On 14th February 1879 the Aramayo being sent to London as minister plenipotentiary m July Chilian Colonel Sotomayor occupied Antofagasta, and on 1st March, 1897. As an outcome of his mission an extradition treaty was concluded with Great Britain in March 1898. a fortnight later, the Bolivian Government declared war. In December an attempt was made to pass a law creating bucre An offer on the part of Peru to act as mediator met with no favour from Chile. The existence of the secret treaty, well known the perpetual capital of the republic. Until this Sucre had taken its turn with La Paz, Cochabamba, and Oruro. La Paz rose in open to the Chilian Government, rendered the intervention of Peru more revolt. On 17th January of the following year a battle was fought than questionable, and the law passed by the latter in 1875, which some forty from La Paz between the insurgents and the practically created a monopoly of the Tarapaca nitrate beds to the Governmentmiles forces, in which the latter were defeated with the loss serious prejudice of Chilian enterprise, offered no guarantee of her a colonel and forty-three men. Colonel Pando, the insurgent good faith. Chile replied by curtly demanding the annulment of of having gained a strong following, marched upon Oruro, and the secret treaty and an assirrance of Peruvian neutrality. Both leader, entered that town on 11th April 1899 after completely defeating ' demands being refused, she declared war upon Peru. troops. Dr Severe Alonso took refuge im Chilian The superiority of the Chilians at sea, though checked for some the Government

and on 26th October Colonel Pando was elected con

time by the heroic gallantry of the Peruvians, soon enabled them territory president and formed a government. , to land a sufficient number of troops to meet the allied forces stitutional Peace and prosperity for Bolivia, as well as for the two republic ■ which had concentrated at Arica and other points in the south. with whose fortunes her own are so closely allied, depend mam The Bolivian ports were already in Chilian hands, and a sea attack

Immigration, &c. La Paz, 1898.—Ballivian, M. Aaud Idiaquez, Eduardo. Diccionario Gcogrdphico de la Bepublica de Bolivia. La Paz, 1890. 8vo.—Church, G. E. The Route to Bolivia via the River Amazon. London, 1877. 8vo. Cisneros, C. B. and Garcia, K. E. Geograjia Comercial de la America del Sur. Lima, 1898.—Conway, Sir W. M. Climbing and Exploration in the Bolivian Andes. London, 1900.—Dalence, M. Bosquejo estadistico de Bolivia. Chuquisaca, 1878. 8vo.—Moreno, J. L. Nociones de geograjia de Bolivia. Sucre, 1889. 4to.— Mathews, Edward D. Up the Amazon and Madeira Rivers, through Bolivia and Peru. London, 1879. 8vo.—Paz Soldan, M. F. Narration de guerra de Chile contra Peru y Bolivia. La Paz, 1884.—Ursel, Comte C. d’. Sud Amtrique: Sejours et voyages au Brisil, en Bolivie, &c. Paris, 18/9.—V iener, Charles. P6rou et Bolivie. Paris, 1880.—Handbook of Bolivia. Bureau of the American Republics. Washington, 1892. 8vo.—Informe que presentada al Sehor Ministro Colonization el Intendente de la Delegation national en el Noroeste Coronet Pastor Paldivieso. La Paz, 1390.—Boletin de la Oficina National de Immigration, Estadistica y Propaganda Geogrdfica. La Paz.—Bresson, Andre. Sept Annees d’Explorations, de Voyages et de Sejours dans L’Amerique A ustrale. Paris, 1886. 4to.—Matzenauer, Carlos. _ Bolivia m historischer, geograjischer und cultureller Hinsicht. Wien, 1897. —British Foreign Office Diplomatic and Consular Reports. Especially No. 1499 of 1895, and No. 1841 of 1897. London.— States Consular Reports. Washington.

x. M. C.)