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BOLKHOV — BOLOGNA 293 on the question of her seaboard, in which Chile and Peru are also l epoque Merovingienne. A very full Table Alphabetique Generate concerned, being definitely settled and, with it, the question of boundary. In October 1901 Tacna and Arica had not yet been dcsc abamts, giving references to the volumes of the Bollandist f . Sanctorum so far as then published, is given in de Mas invited to declare by plebiscite their willingness to become Chilian :paGues Tresor de Chronologic, d'Histoire ct de Giographie, cols. territory. Chile still waited the final settlement of her frontier 665-862, Paris, 1889. (w.E. Co.) with Peru, and Bolivia was still without her seaport. The feeling of suspense, engendered by the uncertainty of the situation, had Bologna, capital of the province of Bologna, in the led to some show of impatience on the part of Chile, who seemed disposed to press for the legitimization of her position on what was compartment of Emilia, Italy, situated between the rivers formerly Bolivian territory before the way had been cleared towards Reno and Savena, 23 miles S.E. by E. of Modena by rail. providing Bolivia with a compensating access to the sea. Her It is the headquarters of the fifth Italian army corps. impatience was said to be due to the discovery of a secret treaty, ►Since 1880 the city has undergone considerable transmade between Bolivia and the Argentine Republic in 1891, constituting an offensive and defensive alliance between these two formation. New streets have been opened, new public countries. At the close of 1901 there was no apparent obstacle to and private buildings constructed, and new public gardens a final and peaceful settlement of the claims of Bolivia on the terms laid out both in the interior and the suburbs. In 1885 originally proposed. /w H t ie municipal council sanctioned a scheme for the regularization and enlargement of the city, of which the cast to Bolkhov, a district town of Russia, government and 35 miles N. of Orel, on the Oka river. It has important the commune alone was estimated at thirty million lire, trade with Moscow, St Petersburg, and Little Russia, in bbi a i'Aoi ni was necessitated when Bologna became in hemp, ropes, hemp-seed oil, hemp goods, and cattle, ’and 1880 the centre of the railway communications of midthere are several hemp mills and important tanneries. The ta y. The new streets with their colonnades retain the much-venerated monastery, Optina Pustyn, is close by. characteristic type of Bolognese buildings. The Giardino Bolkhov probably existed at the beginning of the 13th Marco Minghetti, near the palatial savings bank, and the monumental stairway in the Piazza Venti Settembre have century. Population, including suburbs, 26,570. been completed. In the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele the Bollandists. The publication of the Bollandist 1 alazzo del Podesta and other ancient buildings have been Acta Sanctorum was suspended in 1794 during the in- restored. Near Porta Lame a large public slaughterhouse vasion of the Netherlands by the French (see Ency. Brit. and cattle-market have been constructed at a cost of more ninth ed. vol. iv. p. 18). The continuation of the work was than 1,000,000 lire, while the Commercial Exchange, the undertaken in 1837, on behalf of the Society of Jesus, by public baths, and the customs warehouses have been Jo. Bapt. Boone, Joseph, van der Moere, Prosper Coppens, added to the number of public edifices. Monuments to II., Garibaldi, Minghetti, Cavour, and Joseph, van Hecke, of the Jesuit College of St ictor . Emmanuel T Michael at Brussels. The programme “ I)e prosecutione Galvani, and L go Bassi have been erected in the various operis Bollandiani, quod Acta Sanctorum inscribitur ” was public squares. Side by side with the work of reconpublished on 25th March 1838; and the first volume of struction has proceeded the development of industry, both the new series (vol. Iv. of the whole work) appeared in private and official. Electric engineering works, beet1845. It contained the lives of the saints for two days sugar factories, breweries, ice - works, machine - works, 15th and 16th October, and even these only in part. and flax-mills have been established by private enterprise, Since then additional volumes, which on the whole fully while the railway companies have installed railway workmaintain the standard of scholarship of the earlier series, shops and a pyrotechnical laboratory, and the State a have appeared at intervals, the latest being vol. Ixiv! tobacco factory.. The gasworks have been municipalized, This was published in 1894; and a considerable part of and the octrois upon necessaries of life abolished. its bulk is taken up by a critical edition of the Martyro- Charitable institutions have been extended by the establogmm Hieronymianum by Jo. Bapt. de Rossi and the lishment of a foundling hospital, an infant asylum, evening Abbe L. Duchesne. The scale has increased steadily with schools, and female educational institutes. The secondary the progress of the work : the month of October occupies education of the middle classes has been stimulated by thirteen volumes, followed by a supplementary volume the . new Philological Club and the Circolo Cavour. In edited by L. M. Rigollot, a secular priest of the diocese of addition to educatorii (designed to amuse and feed Langres; and November bids fair to attain to an even the children of poor parents after school hours), summer greater bulk. In addition to the writers above mentioned, school colonies have been ci'eated, which provide the many others have taken part in the work from time to poorer children with holidays on the mountains or at the time, including Benj. Bossue, Victor and Remigius de seaside. Further, soup kitchens, free hospitals, sanatoria Buck, Ant. Tinnebrock, Edu. Carpentier, Henr. Matagne, for children, an anti-rabies institute, an institute for the Carol, de Smedt, Gulielm. van Hooff, Joseph, de Backer, blind, deaf, and dumb, and above all, the Rizzoli Orthoranc. van Ortroy, Joseph, van den Gheyn, Hippolytus paedic Institute, are maintained for the afflicted and the Delehaye, and Alb. Poncelet. In 1882 de Smedt, the deformed. The famous University has been increased by present director, with van Hooff and Backer, began the the addition of a faculty of Agriculture, and Bologna has publication of the Analecta Bollandiana, in which were succeeded in retaining its engineering school, while to appear newly discovered lives, documents and frag- the. academic renown of the occupants of the various ments, or such as were unknown when the volumes were chairs has prevented decadence. The number of students issued to which they properly belonged : by this means, is at. present 1900. Provision has been made for the not only is there provided a means of communication erection of new educational buildings of experimental between the editors and the world at large, but a supple- science and for the enlargement of public museums and mentary collection is being formed which can be incor- libraries. Great attention has also been paid to the porated in any future revised and enlarged edition of the elementary schools, which were attended in 1880-81 by only xOOO children, but now are frequented by 12,500, or Acta Sanctorum. A senes of lives of the saints in French, known as Lcs PctiU 85 per cent, of the children who come within the scope of the compulsory educational law of 1877. Another 10 aS edited b M r Paul y S Surius,Guerin

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based upon me nolJandistY Acta Sanctorum, and other oi per cent, attend private schools and colleges. ►Small • a e md 7th ed tion i9K/ ^ ^arbe ( i in 17 volumes, 1882). In 1899 the museums and circulating libraries have been attached to r, 0 jttmen y °f Clichy published the first volume of his nearly all the schools. Similar progress has been made 7, ^ ' PI t aux Acta Sanctorum pour les Vies dcs Saints de in regard to the school of decorative art and the female