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BOOK-BINDING 301 not suitable for binding books of different sizes; but the full Solving Machine (Tig. 3).—American patent book-sewing machines advantage of them can only be taken in the case of a large edition appear to be largely of German manufacture. They are of two of one book. kinds ; one sews the books on bands, either flat or round, and the

Fig. 3.—Stitching Machine. other supplies the place of bands by a kind of chain stitch. The time this weakening can be to some extent neutralized by careful band-working machines bring the return thread back by pulling it headbanding. The other system, where the band is replaced by a through the upper and lower edges of the back of each section, chain stitch, brings back the return thread inside each section ; the thereby to some extent weakening each section, but at the same objection to this is that there is a flattening out of the back of the

Fig. 4.—Case-making Machine. book, which becomes a difficulty when the subsequent operation of to a certain distance ; a shuttle like that used in an ordinary sewing covering the book begins. The sections are sewn continuously in a machine sews the inner thread backwards and forwards. Each long line, and are afterwards cut apart. The threads catch into section is placed upon a sort of metal saddle by the hand of the hooked needles and are drawn through holes made by piercers set operator, one after the other, the machine working continuously