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BOWLS neutrality.” On most London greens this rule is more honoured in the breach than in the observance. All clubs look to the Scottish Bowling Association, the headquarters of which are in Glasgow, as the leading legislative authority. Other important bodies are the London and Southern Counties Bowling Association, the South London Association of Bowling Clubs, and the Imperial Bowling Association, besides numerous county associations, which are nearly all affiliated to one or other of the main bodies. The first-named body was founded in October 1895 at the instigation of Mr Ernest C. Price, the then president of the Brownswood Bowling Club of Finsbury, an enthusiast who thought the time had come for codifying and fixing the laws which should govern the game, at least in the South of England, and already most of the strongest and most representative Southern clubs have joined the Association. Another body which aimed at drawing up common rules for match play was the South London Association of Bowling Clubs, started in 1898 on the suggestion of Mr Joseph Hay, captain of the Temple Bowling Club of Camberwell. The chief question with

F Fig. 1.—Drawing.

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which this association was confronted was the important point whether or not the Scottish rules should be adopted en bloc. It was felt that, in view of the comparatively rough condition of many of the South London greens and the small dimensions of some of them, it was not possible to accept several of the Scottish details of play, and accordingly a separate body was needed to legislate for these special circumstances. Under the rules of this Association, therefore, matches with affiliated clubs are played in rinks of two a-side, 21 points up. The Imperial Association was founded in 1899 with the twofold object, first, of promoting intercolonial matches and tournaments, home and away, and secondly, of codifying the laws of the game, which should be binding on the players in all such matches and tournaments, and which, the hope was cherished, might also become recognized by every club in the British empire and elsewhere as the final laws of Bowls. The earl of Jersey, who had been governor-general of New South Wales from 1890 to 1893, and was himself an expert player, accepted the post of president, and lent the Association efficient support. Laws, mainly based

Fig. 2.—Guarding. f . 3.—Trailing. Fig. 4.—Driving. (In every ease F is the Footer, B,iothe Bowl, J, the Jack.) upon the Scottish code, were drawn up and submitted to laid at the far end of the green twelve feet apart in a vertical line. the leading colonial clubs. But the principal difficulty was A thread is then pinned down between them, and on each side of a practical one, namely, the means of defraying the expenses this thread three others are pinned down parallel with it and six of visiting teams. Fortunately for the game, gate-money inches apart from each other. A bowl that comes to rest on the central line, or within six inches of it, counts three points, a bowl contests have never come into vogue, and consequently twelve inches away two points, and a bowl eighteen inches off one funds from this source were not available. Though the point. In trailing (Fig. 3), two bowls are laid on the turf three question had to be left unsettled, and mainly to be dealt feet apart, and straight lines are chalked from bowl to bowl with by the respective clubs, there appeared to be no across their back and front faces, and a jack is then deposited from each bowl and immediately before the front line. substantial reason against holding periodically matches of equidistant A semicircle is then drawn behind the bowls with a radius of nine an exceptionally interesting character, in which the best feet from the jack. Three points are given to the bowl that trails talent of the Colonies and the Mother Country should be the jack over both lines into the semicircle and goes over them pitted against each other. The visit of Bowlers from the itself. If a bowl trail the jack over both lines, but only itself the first; or if it pass both lines, but the jack cross only the States of Australia and New Zealand in 1901, already cross first, two points are awarded. A bowl passing between the jack alluded to, was one outcome of the energies of the Imperial and either of the stationary bowls, and passing over the back line ; Bowling Association. On broader grounds, the visit was or touching the jack, yet not trailing it past the first line, but itself crossing the back line; or trailing the jack over the front nothing short of a landmark in the history of the game. line without crossing it itself, receives one point. In no case must On Scottish greens the game of Points is occasionally played, but the stationary bowls be touched, or the semicircle crossed by the it is rarely seen on English greens. Its main object seems to be to jack or played bowls. In driving (Fig. 4), two bowls are laid perlect the proficiency of players in certain departments of Bowls trailed down two feet apart, and then a jack is placed in front of them, proper. There are four sections in the game, namely, drawing, fifteen inches apart from each, and occupying the position of the apex gnat ding, trailing, and driving. In drawing (Fig. 1), the object of an inverted pyramid. The player who drives the jack into the is to draw as near as possible to the jack, the player’s bowl ditch between the two bowls scores three. If he moves the jack, passing outside of two other bowls placed rive feet apart in a hori- but does not carry it through to the ditch, he scores two. If he zontal line fifteen feet from the tee, without touching either of pass between the jack either bowl he scores one, although it ttiem. three points are scored if the bowl come to rest within is not easy to see whatand he has done. The played bowl one toot °t the jack, two points if within two feet, and one point if must itself run into thedriving ditch without touching either of the vi nn three feet. Circles of these radii are usually marked around stationary bowls. It is obvious that the Points game demands an e jack tor convenience’ sake. In guarding (Fig. 2), two jacks are ideally perfect green. S. II. — 42