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DUAL MONARCHY] AUSTRIA-HUNGARY 9 further, shipping traffic on the Dniester, and raft traffic on the dustrien, Handel und Verkchr, since 1872. Handels ministerium Styrian courses of the Ems, Drave, Mur, Salza, Save, and Sann. Statistisches Jahrbuch des Ackcrbau Minist., since 1873.—StatisThe Austrian railways in 1898 had a total length of 11,000 tische Nachrichten aus dem Gcsamtgebiete der Landwirthschaft, miles, more than half of which is under state management. The since 1899.—Annuario marittimo. Trieste. Annual.—Navigaprogress of railway communication is shown in the following zione e Gommercio. Trieste. Annual.—Statistiches Jahrbuch der figures :— autonomcn Vcrwaltung, I., 1900.—Oesterr. Stddtebuch 1-8, 1887 and subsequent years.—Sociale Rundschau d. arbeitsstat. Amtes 1. 1900. (In statute miles.) —Mittheilmigcn desFinanz ministeriums, since 1894. , . (k. T. I. s.) 1875. 1885. 1895. History.—1. The Whole Monarchy. 64,600 83,457 102,769 117,662 Total length of railway The war of 1866 began a new era in the history of the Amount belonging to the 1,207 22,994 45,975 47,728 Austrian empire. By the treaty of Prague the emperor state Amount worked by the state 719 32,219 54,981 67,400 surrendered the position in Germany which his ancestors For every 1000 sq. kilo- 21-5 27-8 34-3 39*2 had held for so many centuries; Austria and Tirol, metres Bohemia and Salzburg, ceased to be German, and eight For every 100,000 inhabit- 31-7 37-8 43-1 47-3 million Germans were cut off from all political union ants with their fellow-countrymen. At the same time the The work of the railways in 1899 comprised the carriage of persons surrender of Yenetia completed the work of 1859, and and goods over a distance, altogether, of 81 million miles. The the last remnant of the old-established Hapsburg dominainvested capital employed in the total railways amounted in 1898 tion in Italy ceased. The war was immediately followed to, in round numbers, 3 milliards of florins. The post office forwarded in 1899, 1194 million missives and by a reorganization of the Government. The BstabUsb. 4T2 milliard florins in money and articles of value, and post-office Magyar nation, as well as the Czechs, had meat of ' orders for 584 million florins were paid in and for 650 million florins refused to recognize the validity of the con- the dual paid out; 14,700,000 communications were sent by telegraph, and stitution of 1861 which had established a monarchy83,400,000 conversations negotiated by telephone. The strength of the commercial marine of Austria in 1900 was common parliament for the whole empire ) they demanded that the independence of the kingdom of Hungary should as follows be restored. After the defeats on the field of battle their Number claim could no longer be resisted, and in the negotiations of Tonnage, i Crews. Vessels. the Hungarian Diet was able to make its own terms. Sea-going vessels, steamers 103 178,649 3,130 They recognized no union between their country and the | ,, ,, sailing ships. 20 13,427 223 other parts of the monarchy except that which was based on | Large coasting vessels, steamers 20 5,300 262 the Pragmatic Sanction of 1722. All recent innovations, ,, ,, ,, sailing ships 11 946 50 all attempts made during the last hundred years to absorb | Small coasters, steamers . 72 6,649 517 Hungary in a greater Austria, were revoked. An agree,, ,, sailers 1,411 16,982 3,524 Fishing vessels, „ 3,673 8,606 13,401 ment was made by which the emperor was to be crowned Numbered barks, ,, 7,325 13,720 12,386 at Pest and take the ancient oath to the Golden Bull; Hungary (including Transylvania and Croatia) was to Total steamers .... 195 190,598 3,909 have its own parliament and its own ministry; Magyar ,, sailing vessels. 12,440 53,681 29,584 was to be the official language; the emperor was to rule Total steamers and sailing vessels 12,635 244,279 33,493 as king; there was to be complete separation of the 1878 7,381 257,652 26,297 finances; not even a common nationality was recognized The greatest navigation company is the Austrian Lloyd in Trieste, between the Hungarians and the other subjects of the which in 1900 employed 70 ships of 165,430 tons, covered a emperor; a Hungarian was to be a foreigner in Vienna, distance of 2,000,000 nautical miles, and carried 275,000 passengers an Austrian a foreigner in Budapest. A large party and 9,500,000 metric centners of goods. wished indeed that nothing should be left but a purely Banks. Austria there were in 1898, 61 banking establishments ; 44 of them joint-stock banks, and 17 banks without joint personal union similar to that between England and stock. The largest bank is the Austro-Hungarian Bank, common Hanover. Deak and the majority agreed, however, that to Austria and Hungary, which possesses the monopoly of the the arrangements of 1722 implied, and the older constituissue of bank notes for the whole monarchy. Its joint stock tional practice allowed, that there should be certain amounted in 1899 to 180,000,000 crowns; the reserve fund to institutions common to Hungary and the rest of the 36,500,000 crowns; the bank note circulation to 1,458,000,000 crowns; bullion to 1,018,000,000 crowns, of which 806,000,'000 monarchy; these were—(1) foreign affairs, including the crowns were in gold and bills payable in gold. The total banks in diplomatic and consular service ; (2) the army and navy; 1898 had a balance of 6294 million crowns, with a joint stock of (3) the control of the expenses required for these branches 671 million crowns. The Savings Banks, numbering 531, had in of the public service. 1898 over 3,000,000 depositors, with a balance in their 'avour of Becognizing in a declaratory act the legal existence of 3518 million crowns. For Hungary and Bosnia and Herzegovina see under those these common institutions, they also determined the heads. method by which they should be administered. In doing The following is a list of the most important publications relat- so they carried out with great exactitude the principle of ing to Austria-Hungary as a whole and to Austria proper:— dualism, establishing in form a complete parity between {a) Monarchy.—Czornig. Oesterreichs Neugestccltung, 1858. Hungary on one side and the other territories of the Statistisches Handbudi der ostcrreich-ungarischen Monarchic, 1891. king on the other. They made it a condition that there —Militdr-statistisches Jahrbuch, an annual publication.—Delegationcn- Vorlagcn und Protocolle.—Ulbrich. Das Staatsrecht der should be constitutional government in the rest of the bst.-ung. Monarchic, 1884.—Mischler and Ulbrich. Oesterreich- monarchy as well as in Hungary, and a parliament in which isches Staals IVorterbuch, 1895.—Ficker. Die Vdlkerstdmnne der all the other territories should be represented. From both 1 ost.-ung. Monarchic, 1869.—Sidney Whitman. The Realm of the Rabsburgs, 1893.—A. Beer. Die Finanzen Ocsterreichs im 19 the Hungarian and the Austrian parliament there was to be elected a Delegation, consisting of sixty members; laaoi —C°MPASS - Finanzielles Jahrbuch, von Heller since to these Delegations the common ministers were 1889. Umlauft. Die oster.-ung. Monarchic, 1896.—Matlecovitz. Die ost.-ung. Handelspolitik, 1899. to be responsible, and to them the budget was to (&) Austria Proper.—Oesterreichische Statistik, since 1882. be submitted. The annual meetings were to be held alter1 g^^^'^H^^^'Commission.—Oesterr. -Statistisches since nately in Vienna and in Pest. They were very careful that • Statist.-Central-Commission. — StatistischeHandbuch, Monatsschrift, 1 since 18/5. Statist-Central-Commission.—Nachrichten iiber InFor the use of this term, see section (2) on Austria below. S. II. — 2