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BRADLAUG H — BRAHMAPUTRA ments and brasses. There is another Anglican church, and Baptist, Congregational, and Wesleyan chapels. Kingston House, built in the beginning of the 17th century, was long a seat of the dukes of Kingston. There are a town hall, free school (founded 1712), temperance hall, technical institute (containing the county day school), and public baths. Water-works have been constructed. Woollen manufactures, for which Bradford was long famous, have declined, and the principal industries now are the manufacture of india-rubber goods, iron-founding, brewing, and quarrying. Area of urban district, 1962 acres; population (1881), 4922; (1901), 4514. Bradlaugh, Charles (1833-1891), English politician and freethinker, was born at Hoxton, London, on 26th September 1833. After enlisting as a soldier, he found employment as a lawyer’s clerk, and by and by became widely known as a freethought lecturer, under the title of “Iconoclast.” He also conducted the National Reformer for several years. His Radicalism in religion and politics commended him to the electors of Northampton, by whom he was returned to parliament in 1880. He claimed to be allowed to affirm under the Parliamentary Oaths Act, and the rejection of this pretension, and the refusal to allow Mr Bradlaugh to take the oath on his professing his willingness to do so, involved the House in a series of most unedifying conflicts, terminating in the victory of Mr Bradlaugh, who was permitted to take the oath in 1886. The law was altered two years subsequently. Bradlaugh did not, like so many successful agitators, sink into obscurity upon being deprived of the immediate cause of his notoriety, but gained a very general respect by his transparent honesty and courageous contempt for mere popularity. Experience of public life in the House of Commons seemed to give him a more balanced view of things; and before he died, on 30th January 1891, it was beginning to be said of him that he was in a fair way to grow into something almost akin to a Conservative. Hard, arrogant, and dogmatic, he yet possessed many sterling qualities; his great defect was a lack of imagination. Bradley, George Granville (1821 ), dean of Westminster, was born 11th December 1821, being the son of the Rev. Charles Bradley, vicar of Glasbury, Brecon. He was educated at Rugby under Dr Arnold, and at University College, Oxford, of which he became a fellow in 1844. He was an assistant master at Rugby from 1846 to 1858, when he succeeded Dr Cotton as headmaster at Marlborough. He occupied this post with great success until December 1870, when he was elected master of his old college at Oxford. In August 1881 he was made dean of Westminster in succession to Dean Stanley, whose pupil and intimate friend he had been. He published his recollections of Dean Stanley, originally delivered in the form of lectures, in 1883 ; and afterwards took up the biography of Stanley left unfinished by the death of Mr Theodore Walrond, which was ultimately completed by Mr R. E. Prothero. His other publications include Aids to Latin Prose, and Lectures on Job and Ecclesiastes. One of his daughters, Mrs Margaret Louisa Woods, wife of the ex-president of Trinity College, Oxford, has achieved distinction as a poetess and novelist. Bradshaw, Henry (1831-1886), librarian of the University of Cambridge, was born on 2nd February 1831, and educated at Eton. He became a fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, then a close foundation for Etonians, and was largely instrumental in throwing it open to others. After a short scholastic career in Ireland, and some preliminary work in the Cambridge University Library, he was appointed to this institution as an extra assistant, and soon showed an unexampled faculty for in-


vestigations respecting rare books and curious MSS. In addition to his achievements in black-letter bibliography he threw great light on the life and works of Chaucer, and on ancient Celtic language and literature. Unfortunately he allowed his attention to be too much distracted among a multiplicity of subjects, and the strain upon him was increased by his election in 1867 to the post of university librarian, to which indeed no one else had equal pretensions, but which overwhelmed him with routine duties. He thus left little behind him except a number of brilliant isolated discoveries in bibliography and early literature, besides the fame of having given a marvellous impulse to the former pursuit and impressed it with a more scientific character than had previously belonged to it. As a man he was much respected and beloved. He died very suddenly on 10th February 1886. (r. g.) Braga, a city and archiepiscopal see of Portugal, in respect of population the third city of the kingdom, capital of the district of Braga, 3 miles S. of the river Cavado. Mount Sameiro is crowned by a colossal monument of the Virgin of the Conception. Population, 28,089. The district of Braga, with an area of 1057 sq. miles and population 338,308, giving 320 inhabitants to the sq. mile, is one of the best cultivated regions of Portugal. The principal production is wine, the yield for 1898 having been 7,589,063 gallons, valued at =£351,333. Cattle-* breeding is an important industry, as also is dairy-farming. The other chief industries are the manufacture of hats, cutlery, linen, and woollens. Braganca, a city and episcopal see of Portugal, formerly capital of the province of Traz-os-Montes, and now capital of the district of the same name, is situated near the north-east corner of the kingdom. Population, 5840. The district of Braganca has an area of 2574 sq. miles, and a population of 179,678, giving 70 inhabitants to the sq. mile. Large tracts are uncultivated, and the roads are defective. Silkworms are bred, the annual produce of cocoons amounting to 48,400 lb. Bragg, Braxton (1817-1876), American soldier, was born in Warren county, North Carolina, on 22nd March 1817. He graduated with high rank at the United States military academy in 1837, and as an artillery officer gained renown during the Mexican war at Fort Brown, Monterey, and Buena Vista. He resigned from the regular army on 3rd January 1856, with the rank of brevet lieutenant-colonel, and retired to his plantation in Louisiana. When in 1861 the Civil War began, he joined the Southern side as brigadier-general, and was sent to command at Pensacola, Florida. In February 1862 he went, as majorgeneral, to the Mississippi army, took part at Shiloh, and was promoted to general on the death of General Albert S. Johnston. In August of that year he led a formidable force into Kentucky, but was checked by Buell, and forced to retreat after the battle of Perryville on 8th October. He was worsted by General Rosecrans in the stubborn contest of Murfreesboro (31st December 18622nd January 1863); he defeated Rosecrans at Chickamauga on 19th and 20th September 1863, but was routed by Grant at Chattanooga on 23rd-25th November. Relieved from western command and called to Richmond, he acted there for a time as military adviser to President Davis. In the autumn of 1864 he unsuccessfully led an inferior force from North Carolina to Georgia to oppose Sherman’s march. After the war he became chief engineer to the state of Alabama, and supervised improvements in Mobile harbour. He died in Galveston, Texas, on 27th September 1876. Brahmaputra River, The, rises in 30° 30'