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statistics] BRAZIL 351 Year. Bags. Bags. Year. tobacco. The coffee shipments in 1898 were valued at £15,500,000, and the rubber at £4,600,000. The export of hides in the same 6,193,000 189293 3,172,000 1879-80 year amounted to £450,000, and of cocoa, to £400,000. As to the 4,307,000 3,006,000 189394 188788 distribution of the trade of the republic, there are no sufficient 18946,689,000 95 6,735,000 188889 data. At the port of96 Rio de Janeiro in 1899 the imports were 6,250,000 4,220,000 1895188990 stated to amount to the value of 229,207,000 milreis, which at 8d. 8,680,000 5,308,000 189697 189091 per milreis would be98 equivalent to £7,640,230. Of this amount 189711,110,000 7,376,000 189192 41 per cent, came from Great Britain, 11 from Germany, 10 from For 1898-99 the yield was estimated at 9,280,000, and for 1899- France, 9 from the Argentine Republic, 8 from the United States, 1900 at about 11,500,000 bags. and 5 from Portugal. According to British Next in importance to coffee culture is the production of 6 from Uruguay, the imports from Brazil into the United Kingdom in rubber. The trees from the milky juice of which rubber is manu- statistics, amounted to the value of £3,959,854, of which £3,089,499 factured are of several kinds. The Manihot Glaziovii, or manicoba, 1899for rubber. The exports from the United Kingdom to Brazil is worked in the state of Ceara, and its propagation is being tried was in the same amounted to £5,389,540. According to American also in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The Htmcornia speciosa, or statistics, theyear of the imports from Brazil into the United mangabeira, is the rubber plant of Maranhao, and it is also being States in 1899value amounted to $57,875,747 (£12,038,150), of which planted in Bahia. The tree which is most productive, however, $35,253,010 (£7,332,600) for coffee, and $16,999,345 (£3,535,860) is the Hevea brasiliensis, or seringueira, growing in the valley for rubber. The exports was from the United States to Brazil in the of the Amazon. It is found sparsely scattered over the forests same year amounted to $12,239,036 (£2,545,720). on the Amazon and its tributaries, the region of the Purus in The import customs receipts of the republic in 1898 amounted Bolivia being regarded as the richest. During five months of the 245,909,405 milreis; in 1899 to 271,203,228 milreis (or about year, August - December, ; the juice of this tree is gathered by to in 1898, and £9,040,100 in 1899). Export duties are labourers who, for the whole extent of the valley, are esti- £8,196,900 levied by the Federal Government, but by the governments of mated to number about 120,000, the number of trees annually not the separate states. In some states taxes on exports are the chief tapped being put at about 24,000,000. From the whole valley, source of revenue. The state of Para in 1897-98 had a revenue of including its upper portions in Peru and Bolivia, the rubber is sent £568,000, of which £476,000 was derived from export duties, down the river to Para, whence it is shipped under the name of £437,000 being from rubber exports alone. “ Para rubber ” to Europe and the United States. The quantity Foreigners take a large share in the commerce of Brazil, both in shipped to foreign countries in 1897 amounted to 22,180 tons ; in high finance and regular trading. The British and German banks 1898, to 21,880 tons; in 1899, to 25,030 tons. Of the shipments practically control the exchange market; and the Banco da Repubin 1899, 13,660 tons went to the United States of America, and the lica, the Brazilian state bank, in spite of many attempts, has not remainder to Europe. proved strong enough to change the existing condition of affairs. Apart from coffee and rubber, there has not been remarkable yet As merchants and importers the British element is well represented development in the agricultural and forest industries of Brazil. in most branches of trade, but numerically the Portuguese are Tobacco, cocoa, and cotton cultivation have slightly extended, but stronger. Sao Paulo the trade is mostly in the hands of sugar-growing has decreased. The centres of the sugar industry are Italians; inInBahia, Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande do Sul, the Bahia and Pernambuco. Food-stuffs, which might be grown abun- German influence is very strong. dantly in the country, are imported, the local production of maize, Manufactures.—Of the manufacturing industries the most imbeans, and many other articles of common use being insufficient for portant is the production of cotton goods, such as sheetings, ginglocal demands. and prints from cotton grown in the northern states, chiefly Cattle-breeding is carried on to a large extent in the states of hams, There were, in 1899, altogether 134 cotton factories Minas Geraes, Parana, Santa Catharina, and Rio Grande do Sul. Pernambuco. the republic. In or near Rio de Janeiro were 19, with a The southern states have been so greatly disturbed by revolutionary within total of 288,066 spindles and 10,100 looms, turning out 132,228,000 outbreaks that the number of cattle has decreased, in spite of the yards There are several woollen factories in South Brazil. natural advantages of the country. In Rio Grande do Sul the At Rioannually. de Janeiro (Petropolis) there are two silk-mills and two large saladero establishments prepare the meat into tasajo, or jerked beef. flour-mills. Other industries more or less prosperous are distilling, Minerals.—Mining enterprise may possibly offer attractions for the manufacture of boots and shoes, hats, cord and twine, the investment of capital on a large scale. The diamond fields, brewing, and coarse hempen cloth for coffee sacks. far from being exhausted, have hardly been prospected. Difficulties saddlery, Shipping.—In 1898 the merchant marine consisted of 229 of transport have proved a great obstacle ; but a French syndicate steamers, with an aggregate net tonnage of 94,262 tons; and 344 has undertaken a thorough investigation of the Diamantina dis- sailing vessels, a total tonnage of 88,000 tons. In recent trict, where the bulk of the stones hitherto exported from Brazil years the numberwith vessels engaged in the foreign trade entering have been found. Gold-mining is also becoming an important and clearing at theofport Rio de Janeiro has considerably declined. industry, especially in the state of Minas. The output is annually In 1896, 1535 vessels of 2,469,628 aggregate tonnage entered, increasing, and the required capital is slowly coming forward. Low and 1404 of 2,282,999 oftons cleared. In 1899, 1077 vessels of grade ores are to be found in many districts; but the machinery 1,916,949 tons entered, and 1019 1,859,707 tons cleared. Of necessary to work the mines is expensive, and investors are cautious. the vessels entered in 1899, 482 of 956,362 aggregate tonnage Iron ore exists in large quantities in several of the states, but no were British; 153 of 330,784 tonsofwere French, 136 of 242,774 attempt has hitherto been made to work it. Coal has been found were German; and 79 of 166,887 were Italian. The number of in different parts of Southern Brazil, and is regularly mined in Rio vessels engaged in the coasting trade that entered the port Grande do Sul. The output in 1895 was 11,012 tons, and in 1896 in 1899 was 1085, with a total tonnage of 395,498; and 18,300 tons. Difficulties of transport have stood in the way of any the number that cleared was 1085, with a tonnage of 370,447. rapid expansion in the coal-mining industry. 1896 the coasting and river trade has been exCommerce.—The commerce during recent years has suffered from Since December under the Brazilian flag. The principal steamship comthe effects of the inflation of prices and over-trading which took clusively engaged in the coastwise trade was, for ten years, the Lloyd place in 1890 and 1891; from fluctuation in the value of the cur- pany Brazillero with 22 steamers ; but the company was not financially rency ; from the fall in the price of coffee, the main article of successful, in April 1900 its property was sold for the benefit export, and from the additional taxation imposed by the Govern- of creditors.andThe pays an annual subsidy, amounting ment in the beginning of 1899. There are no complete or trust- to 1,476,240 milreis,Government to the Maranhao and the Pernambuco comworthy statistics of the trade of the republic, such general panies which run between Pernambuco, Ceara, and Sergipe and the statements as are published being merely estimates. In 1899 a island of Fernando de Noronha. river navigation, including Commercial Statistical Department was established, a journalist the Amazon, its tributaries, LakesFor Norte and Manguaba (state of statistician having offered gratuitous service ; and hereafter more Alagoas), the Rio das Velhas, and the San Francisco, the Governexact information, at least as regards imports, will probably be pays an annual subsidy of 13,334,000 milreis. supplied. The estimated value in sterling of the imports and ment Railways.—Railway enterprise has made some progress, but the exports from 1893 onwards are given as follows :— disordered financial condition of the country has acted as a bar Year. Imports. Exports. to the free investment of foreign capital. In 1899 the number of 1893 £17,789,570 £32,827,826 miles open to traffic and in construction was— 1894 27,547,944 Miles. 15,653,886 s ^ ^ 1895 29,015,000 15,420,292 Open. In Construction. 1896 17,023,012 26,027,137 Property of the Federal Government . 2004 1897 26,752,224 21,567,660 3720 Subsidized . . . . . 2445 1898 27,442,450 24,486,000 387 Without subsidy . . . . 995 1899 24,500,000 20,000,000 Worked or conceded by State GovernThe imports are mainly textiles, food-stuff's, coal, iron, machinery, 885 ments ...... 3279 and hardware; while the exports consist of coffee, rubber, hides and skins, cocoa, the precious metals, manganese ore, sugar, and 8723 4992 Total