[history BRA Z I L In the meantime the ships bought by President Peixoto Maciel, known as “ Conselheiro,” against the constituted arrived off Pio de Janeiro and prevented da Gama from authorities of Brazil. The story of Conselheiro is a remarkable one.. A native escaping. On 15th March 1894 the rebel forces evacuated of Pernambuco, when a young man he married against their positions on the islands of Villegaignon, Cobras, and Enxadas, abandoned their vessels, and were received on the wishes of his mother, who took a violent dislike to board two Portuguese warships then in the harbour, whence the bride. Shortly after the marriage the mother assured they were conveyed to Montevideo. The action of the her son that his wife held clandestine meetings with a Portuguese commander was prompted by a desire to save lover, and stated that if he would go to a certain spot not life, for, had the rebels fallen into the hands of Peixoto, far from the house that evening he would himself see that her assertion was true. The mother invented some plea they would assuredly have been executed. When the news of the surrender of Saldanha da Gama to send the wife to the trysting-place, and then, dressing reached Gumercindo Sara'iva, then at Curitiba in Parani, herself in male clothing, prepared to come suddenly on he proceeded to retire to Rio Grande do Sul. Govern- the scene as the lover, trusting to be able to make her ment troops were despatched to intercept his retreat, and escape before she was recognized. The three met almost in one of the skirmishes which followed Saraiva was killed. simultaneously. Conselheiro, deeming his worst suspicions shot and killed his wife and his mother before The rebel army then dispersed. Admiral Mello made an confirmed, unsuccessful attack on the town of Rio Grande, and then explanations could be offered. He was tried and allowed sailed to Buenos Ayres, there surrendering the. rebel to go at liberty after some detention in prison. From squadron to the Argentine authorities,, by whom it was that time Conselheiro was a victim of remorse, and to immediately delivered to the Brazilian Government. expiate his sin became a missionary in the sertao or interior After six months of civil war peace was once more estab- of Brazil among the wild Jagungo people. He built places lished, but there still remained some small rebel groups in of worship in many different districts, and at length beRio Grande do Sul. These were joined by Admiral da came the recognized chief of the people among whom he thus strangely cast his lot. Some few years ago Gama and a number of the naval officers, who had escaped had Conselheiro formed a settlement near Canudos, situated from Rio de Janeiro; but in June 1895 the admiral was killed in a fight with the Government troops. After the about 400 miles inland from Bahia. Difficulty arose becessation of hostilities, the greatest barbarities were prac- tween the governor of Bahia and this fanatical missionary, the result that Conselheiro was ordered to leave the tised upon those who, although they had taken no part m with settlement and take away his people. This order was met the insurrection, were known to have desired the overthrow with a sturdy refusal to move. Early in 1897 a police of President Peixoto. The Baron Cerro Azul was shot force was sent to eject the settlers, but encountered strong down without trial; Marshal de Gama Eza, an old im- resistance, and suffered heavy loss without being able to perial soldier of eighty years of age, was murdered in cold blood, and numerous executions of men of lesser note took effect the purpose intended. In March 1897 a body of 1500 troops, with four guns, was despatched to bring the place, among these being two Frenchmen for whose death Jagungoes to reason, but was totally defeated. An arm} the Brazilian Government was subsequently called upon comprising some 5000 officers and men was then sent to to pay heavy compensation. General Peixoto was succeeded as president on loth crush Conselheiro and his people at all costs. Little November 1894 by Dr Prudente de Moraes Barros. It progress was made, the country being difficult of access was a moot question whether Peixoto, after the revolt and the Jagungoes laying ambuscades at every available was crushed, would not declare himself dictator; certainly place. Finally strong reinforcements were sent forward, many of his friends were anxious that he should follow this the minister of war himself proceeding to take command course, but he was broken down by the strain which had of the army, now numbering nearly 13,000 men. Canudos been imposed upon him, and was glad to surrender his duties. was besieged and captured in September 1897, Conselheiio killed in the final assault. The expense of these He did not recover his health, and died shortly afterwards. being expeditions was very heavy, and prevented President From the first day that he assumed office, President Moraes from carrying out many of the retrenchments he Moraes showed that he intended to suppress praetorian systems and reduce militarism to a minimum. This policy had planned. Soon after the Canudos affair a conspiracy was hatched received the approval and sympathy of the majority of Brazilians, but naturally met with bitter opposition from to assassinate the president. He was watching the disembarkation of some troops when a shot was fired which the military element. The president gradually drew to narrowly missed him, and killed General Bitencourt, the him some members of the better Conservative class to minister of war. The actual perpetrator of the deed, a assist in his administration, and felt confident that he had soldier, was tried and executed, but he was. apparently the support of public opinion. Early in 189o. murmurings ignorant of the persons who procured his services. Three and disorderly conduct against the authorities began . to men implicated in the conspiracy were subsequently take place in the military school at Rio de Janeiro, which other to imprisonment for a term of thirty years. The had always been a hotbed of intrigue. Some of the sentenced remainder of the presidency of Dr Moraes was uneventful; officers and students were promptly expelled, and the president closed the school for several months. This and on 15th November 1898 he was succeeded by Dr salutary lesson had due effect, and no more discontent Campos Salles, who had previously been governor of the of Sao Paulo. President Salles publicly promised was fomented from that quarter. Two great difficulties state political reform, economy in the administration, and stood in the way of steering the country to prosperity. absolute respect for civil rights, and speedily made efforts The first was the chaotic confusion of the finances resulting fulfil these pledges. from the maladministration of the national resources since to Brazil lacks to-day the first principles of Republican the deposition of Dorn Pedro II., and the corruption that government. The people have no real voice in the elechad crept into every branch of the public service. Much tion of congress or president. Political representation is was done by President Moraes to correct abuses, but the governed by groups forming miniature oligarchies in the task was of too herculean a nature to allow of accomplish- different states, and these autocratically determine how ment within the four years during which he was at the the elections shall result. Only a small proportion of the head of affairs. The second difficulty was the war waged population entitled to vote can be induced to attend the by religious fanatics under the leadership of Antonio 354
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