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EMPIRE, THE 19th Century—continued. For purposes of political administration the empire falls Method of Acquisition. Date. Name. into the three sections of the United Kingdom of Great Mauritius 1810 Capitulation. Britain and Ireland, with the dependencies of the Channel Ascension and Tristan 1815 Military occupation. d’Acunha Islands and the Isle of Man; the Indian empire, con1829 Settlement. sisting of British India and the feudatory native states; West Australia 1836 „ Australia and the Colonial empire comprising all other colonies and South 1840 Settlement and treaty. New Zealand. dependencies. _ . 1843-61 Treaties. Kowloon on the mainHong-Kong . land added in 1861. In the modern sense of extension beyond the limits of 1844 By separation from Cape. Natal the United Kingdom the growth of the empire is of com1846 Cession. Labuan . paratively recent date. The Channel Islands 1848 Separation from Bahamas. Growth. became British as a part of the Norman inherit- Turks and Caicos Is. 1851 Separation from N. S. Wales. Victoria 1858 Settlement under Hudson Bay ance of William the Conqueror. The Isle of Man, which B. Columbia . Coy. Transferred to Crown was for a short time held in conquest by Edward I. and 1869. Entered Canadian restored, was sold by its titular sovereign to Sir William Confederation 1871. Scroop, earl of Wiltshire, in the year 1393, and by his sub- Straits Settlements 1858 Vested in Crown by E. I. Coy. Transferred from Indian to sequent attainder for high treason and the confiscation of Colonial possessions, 1867. his estates, became a fief of the English Crown. It was Queensland . 1859 By separation fromN. S. Wales. granted by Henry IV. to the earls of Stanley, and held Lagos .... 1861 Cession. by them and their collateral descendants until the Manitoba 1870 By separation from N. - W. Territory. sovereignty and revenues of the island were finally sur. . . . 1874 Cession. rendered to the Crown in 1765. With these exceptions Fiji Pacific Islands, in- 1877 By international agreement. and the nominal possession taken of Newfoundland by W.cluding High commission created by Union, Ellice, Order inCouncil,giving jurisSir Humphrey Gilbert in 1583, all the territorial acquisiGilbert, Southern Solodiction over islands not inmon, and other groups tions of the empire have been made in the 17 th, 18th, cluded in other Colonial and 19th centuries. Governments, nor within The following list of British colonies and dependencies jurisdiction of other civilized powers. Tonga and shows the date and manner of their acquisition : Cook Islands annexed to Date. Method of Acquisition. Name. New Zealand 1900. 1583 Possession taken by Sir II. Newfoundland 1878 Occupied by treaty. Cyprus . Gilbert for the Crown. 1881 Treaty and settlement under North Borneo Royal Charter. th Century. Settled by East Niger Coast or S. Nigeria 1884 Protectorate declared. 1600 Captured St Helena 1884 India Coy. 1651. Govern- B. New Guinea 1885 ment vested in British Bechuanaland Nigeria . . . . 1886 Treaty, conquest, and settlement Crown, 1833. under Royal Charter. Trans1605 Settlement. Barbados ferred to Crown, incorporated 1609 Bermudas with Niger Coast Protectorate j Ceded to France 1626 Prince Edward Is. and divided into N. and S. l 1632; recovered 1626 Nova Scotia . Nigeria, 1900. 1626 J 1713New Brunswick 1887 Protectorate declared. ,, I Ceded to France ; Somaliland . 1623 St Christopher 1888 ,, / recovered 1713. Sarawak 1628 Nevis . 1888 JJ 77 Brunei . 1629 Bahamas 1888 Treaty, conquest, and settle,, A second time in British East Africa 1631 Gambia. ment under Royal Charter. 1817. Transferred to Crown 1895. 1632 Antigua Treaty, conquest, and settle1889 Rhodesia 1632 Leeward Is. . ment under Royal Charter. Conquered. 1655 Jamaica British Central Africa . 1891 Protectorate declared. 1661 Settlement. Gold Coast . Federated Malay States 1874-95 Treaty. Settlement under Royal Charter 1670 of N. - W. Territories declared. of Hudson Bay Coy. Pur- Uganda.... 1894-96 Protectorate Canada 1898 Annexed for purposes of prochased from Imp. Govt. 1869, Pacific Islands— jected Pacific cable. Christmas, Fanning, and transferred to Canada Penrhyn, Suwarrow 1870. Wei-hai-Wei. . . 1898 Lease from China. %th Century. Orange River Colony . 1900 Annexation. Method of Acquisition. Date. Transvaal . . . 1900 Annexation. Name. 1704 Capitulation. Gibraltar In the Pacific there are, in addition to the possessions 1759-90 Ontario. 1759-90 already mentioned, Bauman Islands, Bakir Island, Bell Quebec . 1763 Dominica Cay, Bird Island, Bramble Cay, Caroline Island, Cato 1763 St Vincent Island, Coral Island and Dudosa, Danger Island, Ducie 1763 Grenada Island, Flint Island, Howland Island, Humphrey Island, 1763 Windward Is 1763 Jarvis Island, Lihow Island, Little Scrub Island, Malden Tobago . 1765 Settlement. Falkland Is. Island, Manihiki Islands, Nassau Island, Palmerston 1783-86 Treaty. Honduras Island, Palmyra Island, Phoenix Group of Islands, 1787 Settlement. Sierra Leone Pitcairn Island, Purdy Group, Raine Island, Rierson 1788 N. S. Wales ' 1795 Capitulation. Island, Roggewein Island, Sophia Island, Starbuck Island, Ceylon . 1797 Trinidad Surprise Island, Teinhoven Island, Vestoc, Washington or New York Island, Willis Group, Wreck Reef, Macquarie 19th Century. Island, Rotuma Island, and islands adjacent to British 1800 Capitulation. Malta . New Guinea. Among the dependencies of New Zealand 1803 B. Guiana 1803 should be mentioned the Kermadec Islands. St Lucia 1803 Settlement. Tasmania In the Indian Ocean there are, besides the colonies 1806 Capitulation. Cape of Good Hope already mentioned, Seychelles, Rodrigues, the Chagos 1806 „ Seychelles 394

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