circles, even in Europe, on restrictions of a more or less whelmed also in its fall; and modern Hinduism arose on defined kind, both as to marriage and as to eating together. the ruins of both. The attention of the few scholars at work on the subject being And in India the problem still remains to trace, in the to the necessary first step of publishing the ancient literature, the gradual growth of the system—the gradual directed authorities, the work of exploring them, of analysing and classifyformation of new sections among the people, the gradual iny the data they contain, has as yet been very imperfectly done. extension of the institution to the families of people engaged But the following works have appeared, and are to be preferred in certain trades, belonging to the same group, or sect, or to those given at the end of the article in the ninth edition. Only most important are here mentioned. tribe, tracing their ancestry, whether rightly or wrongly, theTexts.—Pali Text Society, 50 vols.—Jataka, 7 vols., ed. Fatjsto the same source. All these factors, and others besides, boll, 1877-97. —Vinaya, 5 vols., ed. Oldenberg, 1879-83.— Dhammapada, ed. Fausboll, 2nd ed. 1900.—Divydvaddna, ed. are real factors. But they are phases of the extension Cowell and Neil, 1882.—Mahdvastu, ed. Senart, 3 vols. 1882and growth, not explanations of the origin of the system. 97.—Buddha Carita, ed. Cowell, 1892.—Milinda-pahho, ed. There is no evidence to show that at the time of the Trenckner, 1880. rise of Buddhism there was any substantial difference, as Translations.—Vinaya Texts, by Rhys Davids and Oldenregards the barriers in question, between the peoples berg, 3 vols., 1881-85.—Dhammapada, by Max Muller, and dwelling in the valley of the Ganges and their contem- Sutta Nipata, by Fausboll, 1881.—Questions of King Milinda, Rhys Davids, 2 vols., 1890-94.—Buddhist Suttas, by Rhys poraries, Greek or Roman, dwelling on the shores of the by Davids, 1881.—Saddharma Pundarika, by Kern, 1884.-— Mediterranean Sea. The point of greatest weight in the Buddhist Mahdydna Texts, by Cowell and Max Muller, 1894 all the above in the “ Sacred Books of the East.”—Jato&a, vol. establishment of the subsequent development, the supremacy in India of the priests, was still being hotly debated. i., by Rhys Davids, under the title Buddhist Birth Stories, 1880 ; i.-iv., by Chalmers, Neil, Francis, and Rouse, 1895-97. All the new evidence tends to show that the struggle was vols. Buddhism in Translations, by Warren, 1896. Buddhistische being decided rather against than for the Brahmins. Anthologie, by Neumann, 1892. Lieder der Mdnche und Nonnen, What we find in the Buddha’s time is caste in the making. 1899, by the same.—Dialogues of the Buddha, by Rhys Davids, The great mass of the people were distinguished quite 1899_—p)ie Reden Gotamo Buddha's, by Neumann, 2 vols., 1899roughly into four classes, social strata, of which the bound- 1900. Manuals, Monographs, &c.—Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, ary lines were vague and uncertain. At one end of the 12mo, 18th thousand, 1899.—Buddha, seine Leben seine Lehre scale were certain outlying tribes and certain hereditary und seine ffememrfe, by Oldenberg, 3rd ed., 1898.—Der Buddhiscrafts of a dirty or despised kind. At the other end the mus und seine Geschichte in Indien, by Kern, 1882. Der by Edmund Hardy, 1899.—American Lectures, nobles claimed the superiority. But Brahmins by birth Buddhismus, Buddhism, by Rhys Davids, 1896.—Inscriptions de Piyadasi, by (not necessarily sacrificial priests, for they followed all Senary, 2 vols., 1881-86.—Mara und Buddha, by Windisch, sorts of occupations) were trying to oust the nobles from 1895. (T. W. R. D.) the highest grade. They only succeeded, long afterwards, BlldweiS (Czech, Budejovice), the chief town of a when the power of Buddhism had declined. government - district in Bohemia, Austria. Population 4. It had been supposed on the authority of late priestly (1890), 28,491 ; (1900), 39,328 (estimated to have 59 per texts, where boasts of persecution are put forth, that the cent. Czech, 41 per cent. German, 95-5 per cent. Catholic, cause of the decline of Buddhism in India had been 4 per cent. Jewish, and per cent. Protestant). It has a Brahmin persecution. The now accessible older authorities, garrison of 2155 men. It is the principal commercial with one doubtful exception,1 make no mention of persecu- centre of South Bohemia, and has a large, varied, and tion. On the other hand, the comparison we are now able growing industry, which now comprises the manufacture of to make between the canonical books of the older Buddhism chemicals, matches, paper, machinery, bricks and tiles, boatand the later texts of the following centuries, shows a con- building, bell-founding, corn and sawmills, &c. The trade tinual decline from the old standpoint, a continual approxi- is chiefly in corn, timber, coal, lignite, and salt, as well as mation of the Buddhist views to those of the other philo- in industrial products, including beer exported to^America. sophies and religions of India. We can see now that the Budweis is the centre of a German enclave in Czech very event which seemed, in the eyes of the world, to be Bohemia, the rural population for a considerable distance the most striking proof of the success of the new move- round the town being German-speaking. ment, the conversion and strenuous support, in the 3rd cenBuell, Don Carlos (1818-1898), American tury b.c., of Asoka, the most powerful ruler India had had, only hastened the decline. The adhesion of large numbers soldier, was born near Marietta, Ohio, on 23rd March of nominal converts, more especially from the newly in- 1818. He graduated at West Point in 1841,_ and during corporated and less advanced provinces, produced weakness the Mexican war won brevet promotion, being severely rather than strength in the movement for reform. The wounded at Cherubusco. From 1848 to 1861 he performed day of compromise had come. Every relaxation of the various staff duties, chiefly as assistant-adjutant-general. old thoroughgoing position was welcomed and supported Appointed lieutenant-colonel of staff on 11th May 1861, by converts only half converted. And so the margin of and brigadier-general of volunteers on 17th May 1861, he difference between the Buddhists and their opponents aided efficiently in organizing the army of the Potomac, gradually faded almost entirely away. The soul theory, and, at the instance of General McClellan, was sent in step by step, gained again the upper hand. The popular November to Kentucky to succeed General William T. gods and the popular superstitions are once more favoured Sherman in the reorganized department of the Ohio. Aided by Buddhists themselves. The philosophical basis of the by Grant’s famous river operations, he occupied Bowling old ethics is overshadowed by new speculations. And Green in February 1862, and thence marched to Nasheven the old ideal of life, the salvation of the Arahat to be ville. He was promoted major-general of volunteers on won in this world and in this world only, by self-cultuie 21st March 1862, and placed at once under the orders of and self-mastery, is forgotten, or mentioned only to be con- General Halleck, then at the zenith of his fame. _ Near demned. The end was inevitable. The need of a separate the critical close of Grant’s first day’s battle at Shiloh he organization became less and less apparent. The whole arrived with reinforcements, and co-operated in dri ing pantheon of the Yedic gods, with the ceremonies and back the foe on the following day. Detached with his the sacrifices associated with them, passed indeed away. army by Halleck after the capture of Corinth, he met the But the ancient Buddhism, the party of reform, was over- rapid advance of the Confederate General Bragg into Kentucky, rescued Louisville, and, on 8th October, fought at Perryville, compelling Bragg to retreat. Complaints 1 See Journal of the Pali Text Society, 1896, pp. 87-92.