Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/481

This page needs to be proofread.



against him having been made at Washington, which were later investigated but not published, Buell was now superseded by General Rosecrans. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in May 1864, and on 1st June resigned from the regular army. He was president of Kentucky ironworks (1865-70), and subsequently engaged in various mining enterprises; he served (1885-90) as pension agent at Louisville. He died near Rockport, Kentucky, on 19th November 1898. Buell was a good organizer of troops and disciplinarian, but somewhat tardy of movement and indisposed to take risks, and his haughty bearing often caused offence. As McClellan’s friend, holding similar views, adverse politically to the administration, he suffered by McClellan’s displacement. BuenOS Aires, a maritime province of the Argentine Republic. The official area at the census of 1895 was 117,777 square miles: the population in 1869 (exclusive of that of the Federal District) was 307,761 ; in 1895 it was 921,168. The capital is La Plata. In 1895 there were 36,777 farms, 2,774,875 acres planted in cereals, 7,745,896 head of cattle, 1,685,658 horses, and 11,545,018 sheep in the province. BuenOS Aires, capital of the Argentine Republic, situated in 34° 36' 29" S. lat. and 58° 22' 14" W. long.; its mean altitude above sea-level, 10 feet. It now forms part of the Federal District (area, 7 2 square miles ; greatest breadth from N. to S., 11 miles; greatest length from E. to W., 16 miles), which was separated from the rest of the province in 1880, and constituted an administrative entity, when the city was made the federal capital and its duties as provincial capital were transferred to La Plata. All the most characteristic features of the old city have changed completely. The ancient one-storeyed buildings have been replaced by handsome structures of modern design; the streets have been paved with asphalt and wood; electric light has been introduced; water and drainage works have been constructed. In short, European civilization is now firmly implanted. The once outlying parts of the capital either have already become real suburbs or will shortly do so. Amongst later important public buildings and institutions are the Congress House, the Archbishop’s Palace, the National Library (60,000 volumes), the National Museum of Fine Arts (1895), the Natural History Museum, the National Historical Museum, the Zoological Gardens, and the Municipal Botanical Gardens. The population in 1880 was estimated to be under 400,000; in 1895 it was 663,854, and in 1899, 795,323. The number of foreigners in 1895 was 345,493, as against 63,115 in 1869. The proportion of males to females per thousand at the same date was 537 males to 463 females. The number of marriages in 1895 was 5492, or 8T per thousand; of births in 1898, 40-9 per thousand; of deaths, 17‘67 per thousand. At the same date the number of property owners was 45,848. As regards public instruction, the census of 1895 showed that of children from six to fourteen years of age 93,560 were attending school or knew how to read and write, out of a total of 117,388, or 719 to each 1000. Most of the immigration to the republic enters through Buenos Aires. In 1896, 102,000 entered; in 1898, 95,190; in 1899, 88,000, of whom 13,000 were agricultural families with 40,000 members. Buenos Aires is the head of six railway lines—-the Southern, Pacific, Rosario, La Ensenada, Argentine Central, and Western. In 1898 these lines took, at the various stations within the municipality, 10,962,240 passengers and 2,346,946 tons of merchandise. The tramways at the end of 1898 extended over 246 miles, and carried 105,964,631 passengers. The post office received in 1887, 10,752,284


pieces of mail matter; in 1898, 53,175,579. In 1887, 11,243,017 pieces were despatched; in 1898, 61,374,446 pieces. The telegraphic bureau in 1898 received 707,812 telegrams and despatched 479,793. The commercial community is for the most part comprised of foreigners:— British and Germans in the higher branches of banking and finance; British, Spaniards, Germans, and Italians in the import and export trade; Italians, French, and Spaniards in the retail business. The value of the imports and exports of Buenos Aires from 1880 to 1898 is shown in the following table, the value being given in gold pesos:— Year. Imports. Exports. 1880 $37,095,243 $39,887,302 1885 69,787,044 51,996,527 1890 103,175,961 57,742,342 1895 82,048,177 62,531,492 1898 92,206,491 70,956,559 The movement of shipping in 1887 and 1898 is .shown in the subjoined table 1887.

Entered Cleared


Sailing. Steam. Sailing. Steam. No. Tonnage. Tonnage. No. Tonnage. No. I Tonnage. 3358 704,030 1542 1,278,668 2204 457,836 2307 2,564,298 1325 398,744 1769 1,226,671 1987 352,401 2311 2,383,675

Buffalo, the second city in size in the state of New York and the eighth in the United States of America, situated at the foot of Lake Erie where the Niagara River begins its connecting course to Lake Ontario, and the Erie Canal, by its artificial channel, continues the water route to the sea - board. It is practically the midway point between Chicago and New York or Boston; the journey by rail from New York being somewhat over 400 miles, from Boston a little less than 500, and from Chicago a little more than 500 miles. Its position, practically in the centre of the thickly populated portion of the United States, and at the transfer point between the east and the west, accounts for the development of this city during the last twenty years of the 19th century. Shortly after 1880 the rapid growth began. In that year the population was 155,134; in 1890 it had attained to 255,664, and in 1900 it reached 352,387. The assessed valuation of real and personal property grew from $38,000,000 in 1873 to nearly $246,000,000 in 1900. The net debt in 1900 was $15,753,582, and the tax rate $23.48 per $1000. It was in the decade^from 1880 to 1890 that most of the great railway building was done which has made Buffalo a transportation centre of almost unrivalled facilities. There are thirty different railway divisions meeting in the city, and the railways own 6 of the city’s total area of 42 square miles, and have over 500 miles of track within the city’s limits. The trunk lines entering the city from the east are the New York Central, West Shore, Erie, Lackawanna, Lehigh, and Pennsylvania; from the west and south, the Lake Shore, Michigan Central, Nickel Plate, Grand Trunk, Wabash, and Canadian Pacific. In short, all the trunk lines of what may be called the northern route between the east and the west have made Buffalo a central distributing point. The commerce of the lakes has increased as rapidly as that of the railways. The vessels which arrived at the port of Buffalo in 1899 numbered over 5000, with a tonnage of over 5,000,000. The average annual receipts of grain and flour by the lakes in 1875 was 50,000,000 bushels; now it is over 200,000,000 bushels. The elevators, which even then were a famous and picturesque feature of Buffalo, now