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here given must not be accepted in any way as a token of part of the Civil War, occurred on 21st July 1861, on the approval or admiration. Bulls for the purposes of the south-west bank near Manassas Junction, between the ring are bred in various parts of Spain, chiefly in the newly organized army of the Potomac under General plains of Las Cabezas, Lebrija, and Utrera. Sometimes M‘Dowell and the hardly more experienced forces of the during the first two years of their lives they are tormented Confederate General Beauregard. It resulted in the total with red cloths in order to teach them to charge, though defeat and hasty retreat to Washington of the Federals, many persons consider this not only unnecessary but a and brought the North to a realization of the magnitude mistake. At the age of four they are considered ready for of the struggle upon which it was entering. A second the ring, and are purchased by agents, at prices of from battle took place in almost the same position about a year £30 to more than double that amount. The arena is some later, on 29th August 1862. General Lee, with a portion 70 yards in diameter, and the bulls destined for the of the combined armies of himself and Jackson, moved day’s work, usually some half-dozen in numbei, are on Pope, who was established west of Manassas Junction, confined in an enclosure from which they are driven for the purpose of holding back Lee until M‘Clellan’s one by one along a divided passage which leads to the army could be withdrawn from the peninsula. One of ring. Two matadors or espardos are engaged in each day’s the severest battles of the war ensued, in which the fight, each of them having his own troop of six assistants, Federals were driven back. The main purpose, howwhich make up what is described as a cuadrilla. Two of ever, that of delaying Lee’s advance on Washington, was these subordinates are known as picadores, their business achieved. being to ride the wretched horses to slaughter ; the others Billow, Bernhard Heinrich Karl are called banderilleros, and conduct their operations on Martin von, Count (1849 ), German statesman, foot. The bull-ring at Madrid affords accommodation for was born 3rd May 1849, at Kleinflottbech, in Holstein. His over 12,000 people; elsewhere the rings are usually family is one very widely extended in North Germany, and smaller. The spectacle is opened with a procession, and many members have attained distinction in the civil and certain formalities also take place, the president at length military service of Prussia, Denmark, and Mecklenburg. throwing into the ring the key of the enclosure where the His great-uncle, Heinrich v. Billow, was Prussian ambulls are confined. When the victim is let into the arena bassador in England from 18“27-40, and married a his first instinct is usually to charge one of the picadores, daughter of Wilhelm v. Humboldt. (See the letters of who is armed with a lance which rarely proves of much Gabrielle v. Billow.) His father, Bernhard Ernst v. service, the result being that the horse is cruelly wounded, Billow (1815-73), during his early years, held office under

  • and the man not seldom thrown to the ground. If he is the Danish Government for Holstein ; in 1862 he entered

unhurt and the horse has sufficient strength to stand, the service of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and was representati've the man remounts to await another charge. It should of Mecklenburg in the Federal Council at Berlin; in here be said that in Portugal and also in South America 1873 he was invited by Bismarck, who had formed a high this cruelty is not practised; expert riders, provided with opinion of his abilities, to enter the imperial service as good horses, do duty as picadores, and it is considered a secretary of state for Foreign Affairs, and he was one of the disgrace if they do not save their horses from injury. In German representatives at the Congress of Berlin. Bernthis latter species of fight the bull’s horns are topped with hard, the son, after serving in the Franco-Prussian war, wooden knobs, so that bloodshed is avoided. In Spam entered the Prussian civil service, and was then transferred usually a dozen horses are killed during a day s fight; to the diplomatic service. From 1884 he was first secretary sometimes twice as many suffer. The banderilleros known to the embassy at St Petersburg, and acted as charge also as chulos, then proceed to make play, darting barbs, to d'affaires, in 1888 was appointed envoy at Bucharest, which sometimes fireworks are attached, into the bulls and in 1893 to the post of German ambassador at Borne. body • and when the animal has reached a certain stage of In 1897, on the retirement of Baron Marshall v. Bieberstein, exhaustion the matador makes ready to give the coup de he was appointed secretary of state for Foreign Affairs (the qrdce, after having delivered a brief speech, prefaced by same office which his father had held) under Prince v. trumpet calls, to the president, who is provided with a Hohenlohe, with a seat in the Prussian ministry. He ras white aiid a red handkerchief, the exhibition of the former chiefly responsible for carrying out the policy of colonial signifying approval and of the latter disapproval. I he expansion with which the emperor had identified himmatador holds in his left hand a small red cloak known as self, and in 1899, on bringing to a successful conclusion a muleta, and in his right a sword. After inducing the the’ negotiations by which Samoa was acquired by Gerbull to charge several times he endeavours to kill the many he was raised to the rank of Count. On the animal with one thrust aimed at a vital spot in fiont of resignation of Hohenlohe in 1900, he was chosen to the withers. He may, of course, succeed or fail; some succeed him as chancellor of the empire and president thrusts are recognized as good, some as passable, and of the Prussian ministry; and in the autumn of others as bad. If the matador remains without moving, or the year after the meeting of the Beichstag disrather moving only his body to avoid the stroke of the tinguished himself by the skill and ability with which horns, the thrust is known as redbiendo ; when bull and he defended the policy of the Government and the matador are approaching each other the thrust is called emperor in China. a un tiempo; if the matador advances and kills the From him must be distinguished Otto y. Biilow (b. 1827), an bull when it is motionless the lunge is distinguished as official in the Prussian Foreign Office, who in 1882 was appointed volapi'e or vuelapies. These are all considered good German envoy at Bern, and from 1892 to 1898 was Prussian envoy strokes. The matador is very highly paid, as niuch as to the Vatican. £50 being given to the most prominent men for killing Billow, Hans Guido von (1830 1894), a bull. (A.E.T.W., German pianist and conductor, was born of noble parents at Dresden, 8th January 1830. At the age of nine he Bull Run, a small stream in North-Eastern Virginia, becan to study music under Friedrich Wieckand Eberwein, U S A, a branch of Occoquan Creek, which flows into as part of a genteel education. It was only after an illness Potomac river, 23 miles S. of Washington The sur- while studying law at Leipzig University in 1848 that he rounding country is undulating, and dissected by sharp determined upon music as a career. At this time he was stream gorges. The first battle of Bull Bun, in the early