Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/522

This page needs to be proofread.


474

BURMA

from India, who are mostly illiterate. The degree of Neither the superintendents nor the assistant - superintendents immigrants prevailing amongst every thousand persons of each sex have power to try civil suits, 'whether the parties are Shans or education profess one of the five chief religions of the province shows not. In the Myelat division of the southern Shan States, however, who the criminal law is practically the same as the law in force in Burma still more favourably. Literate. Upper Burma, and the Ngwekunhmus, or petty chiefs, have been Illiterate. Learning. appointed magistrates of the second class. The chiefs of the Shan Religion. Male. Fem Male. Pem Male. Fem States are of three classes 1. Sawbwas ; 2. Myosas ; 3. Ngwekunhmus. The last are found only in the Myelat, or border country 5 483 25 443 970 74 Buddhist. between the southern Shan States and Burma. There are fifteen 2 72 1 6 922 997 Spirit-worshippers Sawbwas, sixteen Myosas, and thirteen Ngwekunhmus in the Shan 8 230 32 757 960 13 Hindus . States proper. Two Sawbwas are under the supervision_ of the 9 229 30 746 961 25 Mussulmans commissioner Mandalay division, and two under the commissioner 471 723 79 51 450 226 Christians of the Sagaing division. The states vary enormously in size, from the 12,000 square miles of the Trans-Salween State of Keng Tun", to the 3-95 square miles of Nam Hkom in the Myelat. The fact that in Upper Burma the proportion of literates is The °latter contained only 41 houses with 210 inhabitants in nearly as high as, and the proportion of those under instruction 1897. There are five states, all Sawbwaships, under the super- even higher than, that of the corresponding classes m Lower vision of the superintendent northern Shan States, .besides an is a clear proof that in primary education, at least, the indeterminate number of Wa States and communities of other Burma, credit for the superiority of the Burman over the native ot Indians races beyond the Salween river. The superintendent, southern due to indigenous schools. If we take the numbers of those ot 2o Shan States, supervises thirty-nine, of which ten are Sawbwa- years and over, the proportion per thousand is more clear and ships. The headquarters of the northern Shan States are at iust The numbers for Lower Burma were: literates, male, 602 ; Lashio, of the southern Shan States at Taung-gyi. female, 34 ; illiterates, male, 398 ; female, 966. For Upper Burma: The states included in eastern and western Karen-ni are not literates, male, 627 ; female, 16; illiterates, male, 373 ; female, part of British India, and are not subject to any of the laws in 984. It was not till 1890 that the Education department took force in the Shan States, but they are under the supervision ot the action in Upper Burma. It was then ascertained that there were superintendent southern Shan States. _ _ _ . _ 684 public schools with 14,133 pupils, and 1664 private schools with The northern portion of the Karen Hills is at present dealt wiiii 8685 pupils. It is worthy of remark that of these schools 29 were on the principle of political as distinguished from administrative Mahommedan, and that there were 176 schools for girls m which control. The tribes are not interfered with as long as they keep upwards of 2000 pupils were taught. There are three circles— the peace. What is specifically known as the Kachm Hills, the Eastern, Central, and Upper Burma. For the special supervision country taken under administration in the Bhamo and Myit-Kyma and encouragement of indigenous primary education in monastic districts, is divided into forty tracts. Beyond these tracts there are and in lay schools, each circle of inspection is divided into submany Kachins in Katha, Mong Mit, and the northern Shan States, circles corresponding with one or more of the civil districts, and but though they are often the preponderating, they are not the each sub-circle is placed under a deputy-inspector or a sub-inspector exclusive population. The country within the forty tracts may >o of schools. There are nine standards of instruction, and the considered the Kachin Hills proper, and it lies between 23 30 and classes in schools correspond with these standards. In Upper 26° 30' N. lat., and 96° and 98° E. long. Within this area the Burma all educational grants are paid from Imperial funds ; there petty chiefs have appointment orders, the people are disarmed, and is no cess as in Lower Burma. Grants-in-aid are ^ven according the rate of tribute per household is fixed in each case. Govern- to results. There is only one college, which is aihhated to tfie ment is regulated by the Kachin Hills regulation Since 1894 the Calcutta University. The number of students at this Rangoon country lias been practically undisturbed, and large numbers ot college was 25 in 1890-91. There were /0 undergraduates m Kachins are enlisted, and ready to enlist in the military police, and 1897-98, and 95 in 1898-99. In the latter year the college proseem likely to form as good troops as the Gurkhas of N epal. duced seven B.A.’s (one with honours m English) out ot eight The Chin Hills were not declared an integral^ part ot Burma candidates. There are three normal schools and two surveyuntil 1895, but they now form a scheduled district. The chiefs, schools, one in Upper and one in Lower Burma. There are 44 however, are allowed to administer their own affairs, as far as may Government scholarships divided between the various school and be, in accordance with their own customs, subject to the super- university standards, besides special scholarships for students ot vision of the superintendent of the Chin Hills. medicine, open to both men and women, tenable m Madras or Religion. — Buddhists make up more than 90 per cent.; Calcutta. There are missionary schools amongst the Chins, Mussulmans, 3-125; spirit - worshippers and Hindus about 2-25; Kachins, and Shans, and a school for the sons ot Shan duels at and Christians, about 1-25 per cent, of the total population ot Taung-gyi in the southern Shan States. A examinaUpper and Lower Burma. The large nominal proportion ot tion for marks in the Pali language was first instituted m 1896 Buddhists is deceptive. The Burmese are really as devoted to and is held annually. The number of candidates has not hitherto demonolatry as the hill-tribes who are labelled plain spiritworshippers. The actual figures of the various religions, according Finance.—The gross revenue of Lower Burma from all sources in to the census of 1891, are as follows : 1871-72 was Rs.1,36,34,520, of which Rs.1,21,70,530 was from 3164 Sikhs 6,888,075 Imperial taxation, Rs.3,73,200 from provincial services, and Buddhists 351 168,449 Jews Spirit-worshippers Rs 10 90,790 from local funds. The land revenue of the province 96 Parsees 171,577 was Rs 34,45,230. In Burma the cultivators themselves continue Hindus 49 Not returned 253,031 to hold the land from Government, and the extent of their holdings Mussulmans 120,768 averages about five acres. The land tax is supplemented by a pollChristians on the male population from 18 to 60 years of age, with the An analysis shows that not quite two in every thousand Burmese tax of immigrants during the first five years of their residence, profess Christianity, and there are about the same numbei ot exception teachers, schoolmasters, Government servants, and those Mahommedans among them. It is admitted by the missionaries religious to obtain their own livelihood. In 1890-91 the revenue of themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among unable Burma had risen to Rs.2,08,38,872 from imperial taxation, the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst Lower 1 55 51 897 for provincial services, and Rs. 12,14,596 from inthe Karens. It is amongst the Sgaw Karens that the greatest Rs funds. The expnditure on the administration progress in Christianity has been made, and the number ot spirit- corporated’local Lower Burma in 1870-/1 was Rs.49,70,020. In 1890-91 it was worshippers among them is very much smaller. The number of of I 58 48 041 In 1897-98 the gross revenue had nsen to Burmese Christians is considerably increased by the inclusion Rq Rs.3,87,05,972; and in 1898-99 to Rs.4,26,05 080 In Upper among them of the Christian descendants of the Portuguese settlers Burma the chief source of revenue is the Thathameda, a tithe 01 of Syriam deported to the old Burmese Tabayin, a village now income tax which was instituted by King Mmdon, and was adopted included in the Ye-u subdivision of Shwebo. These Christians by the British very much as they found it For the purpose ot the returned themselves as Burmese. The forms of Christianity which assessment every district and town is classified according to ite make most converts in Burma are the Baptist and Roman Catholic general wealth and prosperity. As a rule the basis of calcuHtion 100 rupees from every ten houses, with a 10 per ce . ^Education. —Compared with other Indian provinces, and even -was deduction for those exempted by custom. When the total amount with some of the countries of Europe, Burma takes a very high navable bv the village was thus determined, the village itseit place in the returns of those able both to read and write. Taking settled the amount to be paid by each individual householder the sexes apart, though women fall far behind men m the matter This was done by Thamadis, assessors, usually appointed by t e of education, still women are better educated m Burma than m villagers themselves. Other important sources of revenue are the the rest of India. The average number of each sex m Burma per rents" from State lands, forests and lar X thousand is: literates, male, 450 ; female, 29 ; illiterates, male, fishery, revenue, and irrigation taxes. In 1886 87, y ^ 550 ; female, 971. The number of literates in Bengal is: male, the annexation, the amount collected m Upper Burma from 47 • female 1 The proportion is reduced by the number of