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BURMA 475 sources was twenty-two lakhs of rupees. In the following year it treated by chemical processes. Work was begun in 1895, and the had risen to fifty lakhs. Much of Upper Burma, however, remained yield of gold in that year was 274 oz., which increased to 893 oz. disturbed until 1890. The figures for 1890-91, therefore, show in 1896-97, and to 1120 oz. in 1898-99. Coal is found in several the first really regular collection. The amount then collected w*as fields in the Shan States, on the Upper Chindwin, and at Mergui, Rs. 87,47,020. In 1893-94 the total collections were Rs.1,05,01,914. but it is of no very high quality. The principal seats of the In 1896-97 the gross receipts were Rs.1,31,26,451, and in 1898-99 petroleum industry are Yenangyaung in the Magwe, and Yenangyat Rs.1,39,43,991. The following statement exhibits the gross re- in the Pakokku districts. The yield of the former wells in 1898 ceipts and expenditure of the province during the years 1897-98 was 15,484,301 gallons, and of the Yenangyat field 6,036,088 and 1898-99, distributed between imperial, provincial, incorporated gallons. The latter field is extending rapidly. In the Akyab local, excluded local, and municipal funds. These include the district 58,025 gallons were produced, and in Kyaukpyu 106,549 transactions of the Rangoon municipality and the Rangoon Port gallons.. The wells have been worked for a little over a century by Trust, although these funds do not bank with Government. the natives of the country. The Burma Oil Company since 1889 has worked by .drilled wells on the American or cable system. 1898-99. The output continues steadily to increase, and there are no signs of Receipts. Expenditure. Receipts. Expenditure. exhaustion, but, on the other hand, there seems no prospect of the discovery of flowing wells. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Amber is extracted by Kachins in the Hukawng valley beyond Imperial 3,02,02,197 84,51,802 3,38,45,001 86,64,995 the administrative border, but the quality of the fossil resin is not Provincial . 3,16,02,179 2,99,07,823 3,41,28,971 3,00,14,084 very good. The amount exported varies considerably. In 1897 it Incorporated was valued at Rs.2,330, in 1898 at Rs.4,990, and in 1899 at Local 20,28,696 19,47,947 21,45,511 21,07,037 Rs.15,915. Tourmaline, or rubellite, is found on the borders of Excluded the Ruby Mines district and in the Shan State of Mbng Long. Local 23,59,059 20,54,133 26,31,022 27,16,160 Steatite to the amount of 19 tons, valued at Rs.7,995, was Municipal . 22,67,945 22,70,066 24,34,175 24,73,718 extracted in 1899 from the Arakan hill quarries. Salt is manufactured at various places in Upper Burma, notably in the lower 6,84,60,076 4,46,31,771 7,51,84,680 4,59,75,994 Chindwin, Sagaing, Shwebo, Myingyan, and Yamethin districts, as well as at Mawhkio in the Shan State of Thibaw. Iron is Defence.—In 1871, 5016 fighting men, Europeans and natives, found in many parts of the hills, but is so far only worked by were maintained at a total cost of Rs. 27,62,000, and the strength inhabitants of the country. A good deal is extracted and manuof the police in the same year was 5319. In 1898-99 the strength factured into native implements at Pang Long in the Legya of the troops in Burma was: Europeans 4234, and natives 6493—a (Laihka) Shan State. ' Lead is extracted by a Chinese lessee from total of 10,727 men. These were nearly equally divided between the mines at Bawzaing (Maw-son) in the Myelat, southern Shan the Rangoon and the Mandalay district commands, with 1262 States. The ore is rich in silver as well as in lead. natives in the southern Shan States command. Besides these Agriculture.—Rice continues to be the staple product of the there were 14,941 military police, whose cost was Rs.48,46,448. province both in Upper and Lower Burma. In 1871-72 there The civil police amounted to 15,558 civil constables. There were were 1,836,021 acres devoted to its cultivation in Lower Burma. besides 2530 volunteers, 366 of whom were cadets. They consisted In 1898-99 the area cropped in Lower Burma was 6,478,339 acres, of the Rangoon Port Defence volunteers, comprising artillery, naval, of which 6,098,956 acres were under paddy. Maize covered 11,707 and engineer corps, the Moulmein artillery, the Moulmein, Rangoon, acres, and other food-grains, including pulse, 34,781 acres. TilRailway, and Upper Burma rifies. Four Indian marine vessels seed covered 24,822 acres; sugar-cane, 10,020 acres; cotton, 12,078 ply on the Irrawaddy and the Chindwin rivers, and the provincial acres; tobacco, 29,328 acres; orchard and garden produce covered marine consists of 28 launches in Lower Burma and 30 in Upper 356,777. In all of these, except cotton, there was an increase. In Burma. These carry troops, specie, cattle, ammunition, and stores. Upper Burma rice is also the chief crop, but the proportion to other Their cost was Rs.1,48,485 in Lower Burma, and Rs.2,45,163 in crops is not nearly so overwhelming. The total area cropped was Upper Burma. There is a battery for the defence of the harbour 3,419,703 acres in 1899, and of this 1,502,736 acres were under at Monkey Point at the junction of the Sittang with the Rangoon rice; wheat, 12,638 acres; millet (cholum or jowar), 713,531 river. acres; millet (cumbu or bajra), 30,843 acres; maize, 75,926 acres; Minerals and Mining.—The tin mines in Lower Burma remain grain (pulse), 56,129; other food-grains, including pulse, 169,627; in much the same condition as they were in 1880. They are still tilseed, 404,884 acres; condiments and spices, 19,007 acres; sugar, worked by natives, but a company is being formed to work the 4847 acres; cotton, 134,243 acres; tea, 1221 acres; tobacco, 34,988 mines in the Maliwun township of Mergui by European methods. acres; fodder crops, 22,445 acres; orchai’ds and garden produce, The chief mines and minerals are in Upper Burma. The jade 44,943 acres; other crops were barley, sago or mandua, linseed and mines of Upper Burma are now practically the only source of other oil-seeds, various fibres, indigo and other dye crops, and supply of that mineral, which is in great demand over all China. miscellaneous food and non-food crops, the last covering 167,410 The mines are situated beyond Kamaing, north of Mogaung in the acres. The total area cultivated in Lower Burma by irrigation Myitkyina district. The miners are all Kachins, and the right to from canals, tanks, wells, and other sources in 1899 was 5005 acres. collect the jade duty of 33^ is farmed out by Government to a In Upper Burma in the same year it amounted to 684,189 acres, of lessee, who has hitherto always been a Chinaman. The amount which 126,773 acres were in the Kyaukse district, and 112,701 obtained has varied considerably. In 1887-88 the rent was acres in the Magwe district. Other districts largely dependent on Rs.50,000. Tins dwindled to Rs.36,000 in 1892-93, but the irrigation were Meiktila, Yamethin, Minbu, Mandalay, and Sagaing. system was then adopted of letting for a term of three years, The old national irrigation system has been largely repaired and and in 1898 Rs.41,100 was obtained. The amount extracted extended since the annexation. Of the total area of Lower Burma, varies from 2000 to 3000 cwts. The value varies enormously 53,476,480 acres, the area cropped in 1899 was 6,478,339 acres, according to colour, which should be a particular shade of dark the area not available for cultivation was 25,828,221 acres; 4,813,995 green. Semi-transparency, brilliancy, and hardness are, however, acres were covered with forests, and the cultivable area, other than also essentials. The old river mines produced the best quality. fallow, amounted to 15,765,976 acres. The total area of Upper The quarry mines on the top of the hill near Tawmaw produce Burma is 54,395,395 acres. Of this 3,901,140 acres are in feudatory enormous quantities, but the quality is not so good. and tributary states, and for 2,644,713 acres no returns exist. Of The most important ruby-bearing area is the Mogok stone tract, the remaining 47,849,642 acres the net area cropped in 1899 was in the hills about 60 miles east of the Irrawaddy and 90 miles 3,419,702 acres; forests covered 4,836,138 acres; 28,945,014 acres ILNIW. of Mandalay. The right to mine for rubies by European were not available for cultivation; the cultivable waste, other than methods and to levy royalties from persons working by native fallow, amounted to 9,197,905 acres. The current fallow was methods was leased to the Burma Ruby Mines Company, Limited, 1,703,452 acres. Of agricultural stock there were in 1898-99 in in 1889, and the lease was renewed in 1896 for 14 years at a rent Lower Burma 566,312 bulls and bullocks, 302,119 cows, 272,588 of Rs.3,15,000 a year plus a share of the profits. The rent was bull buffaloes, 228,383 cow buffaloes, 560,017 young stock, 2310 reduced permanently in 1898 to Rs.2,00,000 a year, but the share sheep, 35,672 goats, 12,144 horses and ponies, 463,122 ploughs, of the profits taken by Government was increased from 20 to 30 and 195,207 carts. In Upper Burma there were 639,175 bxdls and per cent. The value of the rubies found in 1898 was Rs. 8,69,252, bullocks, 611,203 cows, 78,404 bull buffaloes, 96,206 cow buffaloes, and a dividend of 5 per cent was then paid for the first time. 599,871 young stock, 4044 sheep, 27,817 goats, 21,076 horses and There are other mlw mines at bTanyaseik in the Myitkyina district ponies, 2104 mules and donkeys, 53 camels, 365,518 ploughs, and and. at Sagyin in the Mandalay district, where the mining is by 222,580 carts. native methods under license-fees of Rs.5 and Rs.10 a month. Forests.—In 1870-71 the State reserved forests covered only 133 They are, however, only moderately successful. Gold is found in square miles, all in the Rangoon division. The total receipts from most of the rivers in Upper Burma, but the gold-washing industry the forests then amounted to Rs.7,72,400. In 1889-90 the total is for the most part spasmodic in the intervals of agriculture. area of reserved forests in Lower Burma was 5574 square miles, and There is a gold mine at Kyaukpazat in the Mawnaing circle of the gross revenue was Rs.31,34,720, and the expenditure was the Kaltra district, where the quartz is crushed by machinery and Rs. 13,31,930. The work of the forest department did not begin in