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BURMESEWAR 477 November, and an envoy from the king signified his submission. Great Britain ceased to be represented in Mandalay, and On 28th November the British occupied Mandalay, and next day King Thibaw was sent down the river to Rangoon, whence matters went from bad to worse. Thibaw lent himself he was afterwards transferred to Ratnagiri on the Bombay coast. more and more to foreign intrigues; and finally, in the Upper Burma was formally annexed on 1st January 1886, and the summer of 1885, matters came to a crisis over a dispute work of restoring the country to order and introducing settled that had arisen between the king and a large British government commenced. This was a more serious task than the mercantile firm, called the Bombay-Burma Trading Comoverthrow of the Burmese Government, and occupied four years. This was in part due to the character of the country, which was pany, which for years had been engaged in the export of characterized as one vast military obstacle, and in part to the timber from the great teak forests of the king’s dominions. disorganization which had been steadily growing during the six The imposition of an impossible fine on this company, years of King Thibaw’s reign. By the close of 1889 all the larger bands of marauders were broken up, and since 1890 the country coupled with the threat of confiscation of all their rights has enjoyed greater ireedom from violent crime than the province and property in case of non-payment, led to the British formerly known as British Burma. The boundary with Siam was ultimatum of 22nd October 1885 ; and by 9th November demarcated in 1893, and that with China was completed in 1900. a practical refusal of the terms having been received at Aitthokities. — Bangoon, the occupaOfficial: Spearman, tion of Mandalay and Col. Horace. British the dethronement of Burma Gazetteer, 2 vols. Rangoon, 1879.—Scott, the king were deterJ. George. Upper mined upon. Burma Gazetteer, 5 vols. At this time, beyond Rangoon, 1900-1. Nonthe fact that the country official : Bigandet, was one of dense jungle, Right Rev. Bishop. and therefore most unLife or Legend of favourable for military Gautama, 3rd ed. Lonoperations, little was don, 1881.— Bird, G. known of the interior W. Wanderings in of Upper Burma; but Burma. London, 1897. British steamers had for —Cuming, E. D. In years been running on the Shadow of the Pagoda. the great river highway London, 1893. With of the Irrawaddy, from the Jungle Folk. LonRangoon to Mandalay, don, 1897.—Ferrars, and it was obvious that Max and Bertha. the quickest and most Burma. London, 1900. satisfactory method of —Fielding, H. The carrying out the British Soul of a People {Budcampaign was an advance dhism in Burma). Lonby water direct on the don, 1898. Thibaiv’s capital. Fortunately a Queen. London, 1899. large number of light—Forbes, Capt. C. J. draught river steamers F. S. Burma. London, and barges (or “flats”), 1878. Comparative belonging to the IrraGrammar of the Lanwaddy Flotilla Comguages of Farther India. pany, were available at London, 1881. LegenRangoon, and the local dary History of Burma knowledge of the comand Arakan. Rangoon, pany’s officers of the 1882. — Gordon, J. difficult river navigation Btirma and its Inhabitwas at the disposal of ants. London, 1876.— the Government. MajorHart, Mrs E. PicturGeneral, afterwards Sir esque Burma. London, H. N. D. Prendergast, 1897. — M A CM AH ON, Y.C., K.C.B., R.E., was Gen. R. Far Cathay and placed in command of Farther India. London, the expedition. As was 1892.—Mason, Rev. F., only to be expected in D.D. Burma. Rangoon, an enterprise of this 1860.—Parker, E. H. description, the navy as Burma. Rangoon, 1892. well as the army was —Phayre, Sir Arthur. called in requisition ; History of Burma. Lonand as usual the services don, 1883.—Rigby, G. rendered by the seamen C. History of the Opera, and guns were most imtions in Northern Arakan and the Yawdwin Chin Hills. Rangoon, portant. It may be noticed here that strong opposition to the ad1897.—Scott, J. George. Burma, As it is, As it was, and As it vance of the flotilla was expected from the forts and guns known to will be. London, 1886.—Shway Yoe. The Burman, His Life and exist on the river banks, and some at least of the redoubts had been Notions, 2nd ed. London, 1896.—Smeaton, D. M. The Karens of constructed on scientific principles under European supervision. The Burma. London, 1887. (j. g. Sc.) following is an abstract of the force detailed:—3 brigades of infantry each of 1 British and 2 native battalions ; 6 batteries of artillery (1 Burmese War of 1885. —The causes which field, 2 garrison, 3 mountain); 1 pioneer regiment (native); 6 comled to this war, and the consequent annexation of Upper panies ot sappers and miners (native); 1 naval brigade with 26 guns Burma, may be briefly narrated. Kelations between the from H.M. ships on the station. The bulk of the native troops were British and Burmese Governments had for some years from Madras, and it will be noticed that no mounted troops were in the first instance necessary. It was, nevertheless, foreseen that been considerably strained, but it was not till the accession mounted would be valuable as soon as the river work was of Thibaw to the throne in 1878 that matters became really completed,infantry and General Prendergast applied for permission to form serious. This potentate opened his reign by a series of a company to go with the expedition. The total effective of the more than usually cold-blooded massacres of his nearest force was 9034 fighting men, 2810 native followers, and 67 guns ; and, for river service, 24 machine guns. The river fleet which male relatives, and it soon became evident that the posi- conveyed the troops and stores was composed of a total of no less tion of a British envoy at the Court of Ava was no longer than 55 steamers, barges, launches, &c. either a desirable or dignified one. In 1879, therefore, Thayetmyo was the British post on the river nearest to the frontier.