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BURNLEY—BURNSIDE

some time checked the painter’s activity, which, when resumed, was much occupied with decorative schemes. An exhibition of his work was held at the New Gallery in the winter of 1892-93. To this period belong several of his comparatively few portraits. In 1894 BurneJones was made a baronet. Ill-health again interrupted the progress of his works, chief among which was the vast “Arthur in Avalon.” In 1898 he had an attack of influenza, and had apparently recovered, when he was again taken suddenly ill, and died on 17 th June. In the following winter a second exhibition of his works was held at the New Gallery, and an exhibition of his drawings (including some of the charmingly humorous sketches made for children) at the Burlington Fine Arts Club.

Cartwright (Mrs. Ady). 1894. The Life of William Morris. By J. W. Mack ail. 1899. (l. b.) Burnley, a poor-laAV township, municipal, county (1888), and parliamentary borough, and market town of Lancashire, England, on the Brun, where it is joined by the Calder, 213 miles N.W. of London by rail. In 1889 the boundaries of the borough were extended, and the borough was then distributed into 12 wards, all which in 1894 were united into one civil parish. The corporation consists of a mayor, 12 aldermen, and 36 councillors. By Act of Parliament 1890, the future rector of Burnley will be suffragan bishop of the diocese of Manchester, with the title of Bishop of Burnley. The Mechanics’ Institution and School of Science (1852) was enlarged in 1888. Modern erections are 10 Established, 2 Roman Catholic, and numerous Nonconformist churches, a handsome town hall, a municipal technical school, a Victoria Hospital and infirmary (£28,000), a sanatorium for infectious diseases, a market hall, public abattoirs and cold stores, and baths. The Queen’s Park (1893) measures 28, and the Scott Park (1895) 18 acres. There are, besides, 11 recreation grounds. The neighbourhood abounds m coal, and coalmining constitutes one of the industries of Burnley. The principal industries are cotton-weaving, iron-founding, coal-mining, brick-burning, and the making of sanitary wares. The census of 1891 gives 12,240 males and 15,211 females engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods ; 2087 persons engaged in coal-mining. Area of municipal and county borough, 4015 acres; population (1881), 63,339 ^ (1891), 87,016; (1901), 97,044.

Burne-Jones’s influence has been exercised far less in painting than in the wide field of decorative design. Here it has been enormous. His first designs for stained glass, 1857-61, were made for Messrs Powell, but after 1861 he worked exclusively for Morris and Co. Windows executed from his cartoons are to be found all over England; others exist in churches abroad. For the American Church in Rome he designed a number of mosaics. Reliefs in metal, tiles, gesso-work, decorations for pianos and organs, and cartoons for tapestry represent his manifold activity. In all works, however, which were only designed and not carried out by him, a decided loss of delicacy is to be noted. The colouring of the tapestries (of which the “Adoration of the Magi” at Exeter College is the best known) is more brilliant than successful. The range and fertility of Burne-Jones as_ a decorative inventor can be perhaps most conveniently studied in the sketch-book, 1885-95, which he bequeathed to the British Museum. The artist’s influence on book-illustration must also be recorded. In early years he made a few drawings on wood for Dalziel’s Bible and for Good Words; but his later work for the Kelmscott Press, founded by Morris in 1891, is that by which he is best remembered. Besides several illustrations to other Kelmscott books, he made eightyseven designs for the Chaucer of 1897. Burne-Jones’s aim in art is best given in some of his own words, written to a friend: “I mean by a picture a beautiful, romantic dream of something that never was, never will be—in a light better than any light that ever shone—in a land no one can define or remember, only desire—and the forms divinely beautiful—and then I wake up, with the waking of Brynhild.” No artist was ever more true to his aim. Ideals resolutely pursued are apt to provoke the resentment of the world, and Burne-Jones encountered, endured, and conquered an extraordinary amount of angry criticism. In so far as this was directed against the lack of realismin his pictures, it was beside the point. The earth, the sky, the rocks, the trees, the men and women of Burne-Jones are not those of this v orld; but they are themselves a world, consistent with itself, and having therefore its own reality. Charged with the beauty and with the strangeness of dreams, it has nothing of a dream’s incoherence. Yet it is a dreamer always whose nature penetrates these works, a nature out of sympathy with struggle and strenuous action. Burne-Jones’s men and women are dreamers too. It was this which, more than anythin" else, estranged him from the age into which he was born. But he had an inbred “revolt from fact” which would have estranged him from the actualities of any age. That criticism seems to be more justified which has found in him a lack of such victorious energy and mastery over his materials as would have enabled him to carry out his conceptions in their original intensity. Representing the same kind of tendency as distinguished his French contemporary, Puvis de Chavannes, he was far less in the main current of art and his position suffers accordingly. Often compared with Botticelli, he had nothing of the fire and vehemence of the Florentine. Yet, if aloof from strenuous action, Burne-Jones was singularly strenuous in production. His industry was inexhaustible, and needed to be, if it was to keep pace with the constant pressure of his ideas. Invention, a very rare excellence, was his pre-eminent gift. Whatever faults his paintings may have they have always the fundamental virtue of design; they are always pictures. His fame might rest on his purely decorative work. But his designs were informed with a mind of romantic temper apt in the discovery of beautiful subjects, and impassioned with a’ delight in pure and variegated colour. These splendid gifts were directed in a critical and fortunate moment by the lenius of Rossetti. Hence a career which shows little waste or misdirection of power, and, granted the aim proposed, a rare level of real success. Authorities.—Catalogue to Burlington Club Exhibition of Drawings by Burne-Jones, with Introduction by Cosmo Monkhouse. jggg. ]$, Burne-Jones: a Record and a Review. By Malcolm Bell. 1898.—Sir E. Burne-Jones, his Life and Work. By Julia

Burnside, Ambrose Everett (1824-1881), American soldier, was born at Liberty, Indiana, on 23rd May 1824, of Scottish pedigree, his American ancestors settling first in South Carolina, and next in the northwest wilderness, where his parents, who were very poor, lived in a rude log cabin. He was appointed to the United States military academy through casual favour, and graduated in 1847, when war with Mexico was nearly over. In 1852 he resigned his commission, and took up in Rhode Island the manufacture of a breechloading rifle of his own invention. Afterwards he was engaged in railway duties. AVhen the Civil War broke out he took command of a Rhode Island regiment of three months militia, on the summons of Governor Sprague, hastened to the relief of the national capital, and commanded a brigade in the battle of Bull Run. On 6th August 1861 he was commissioned a brigadier-general of volunteers, and placed in charge of the expeditionary force which sailed on 12th January 1862 under sealed orders for the North Carolina coast. The victories of Hatteras Inlet, Roanoke Island, Newbern, and the neighbouring forts (FebruaryMarch) furnished one of the earliest substantial achievements of the Union arms during the war. Promoted major-general on 18th May 1862, he was transferred with his corps to the army of the Potomac, and fought at South Mountain and Antietam in September. His patriotic spirit, with modest and amiable manners, made him highly popular, and upon McClellan s final displacement from the army of the Potomac, President Lincoln chose him as successor. Burnside reluctantly accepted the trust, and, after being disastrously defeated in the assault of Fredericksburg on 13th December 1862, was led to resign the command in January 1863. Transferred to Cincinnati in April 1863, he caused the arrest and courtmartial of Mr Vallandigham, lately an Opposition member of Congress, for an alleged disloyal speech; then starting southwards in August with a column for the relie o loyalists in East Tennessee, he entered Knoxville, to which the Confederate general Longstreet unsuccessfully laid