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CABLE — CACERES

authorities exiled him, and he absconded to Morelia to join the forces of the pretender Don Carlos. In a very short time he rose by sheer daring, fanaticism, and ferocity to the front rank among the Carlist chiefs who led the bands of Don Carlos in Catalonia, Aragon, and Valencia. As a raider he was often successful, and he was many times wounded in the brilliant fights in which he again and again defeated the generals of Queen Isabella. He sullied Cable, George Washington (1844his victories by acts of cruelty, shooting prisoners of war American author, was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, whose lives he had promised to spare, and not respecting on 12th October 1844. At the age of fourteen he entered the lives and property of non-combatants. The queen’s a mercantile establishment as a clerk; joined the Con- generals seized his mother as a hostage, whereupon Cabrera federate army (4th Mississippi Cavalry) at the age of shot several mayors and officers. General Nogueras unnineteen ; at the close of the war engaged in civil engineer- fortunately caused the mother of Cabrera to be shot, and ing, and in newspaper work in New Orleans; and first the Carlist leader then started upon a policy of reprisals became known in literature by sketches and stories of old so merciless that the people nicknamed him The Tiger French - American life in that city. These were first of the Maeztrazgo.” It will suffice to say that he shot published in Scribner’s Monthly, and were collected in 1110 prisoners of war, 100 officers, and many civilians, book form in 1879, under the title of Old Creole Days. including the wives of four leading Isabellinos, to avenge The characteristics of the series—of which the novelette his mother. When Marshal Espartero induced the Carlists Madame Delphine (1881) is virtually a part—are neatness of the north-western provinces, with Maroto at their head, of touch, sympathetic accuracy of description of people to submit in accordance with the Convention of Vergara, and places, and a constant combination of gentle pathos which secured the recognition of the rank and titles of with quiet humour. These shorter tales were followed by 1000 Carlist officers, Cabrera held out in central Spain for the novels The Grandissimes (1880), Dr Sevier (1883), nearly a year. Marshals Espartero and O’Donnell, with and Bonaventure (1888), of which the first dealt with the bulk of the Isabellino armies, had to conduct a long and Creole life in Louisiana a hundred years ago, while the bloody campaign against Cabrera before they succeeded in second was related to the period of the CivilWar of 1861-65. driving him into French territory in July 1840. The Dr Sevier, on the whole, is to be accounted Cable’s master- Government of Louis Philippe kept him in a fortress for piece, its character of Narcisse combining nearly all the some months and then allowed him to go to England, qualities which have given him his place in American where he quarrelled with the pretender, disapproving of literature as an artist and a social chronicler. In this, as his abdication in favour of the count of Montemolin. _ In in nearly all of his stories, he makes much use of the soft 1848 Cabrera reappeared in the mountains of Catalonia at French-English dialect of Louisiana. He does not confine the head of Carlist bands. These were soon dispersed, himself to New Orleans, laying many of his scenes, as in and he again fled to France. After this last effort he did the short story Belles Demoiselles Plantation, in. the not take a very active part in the propaganda and submarshy lowlands towards the mouth of the Mississippi. sequent risings of the Carlists, who, however, continued to Cable was the leader in the noteworthy literary movement consult him. He took offence when new men, not a few which has influenced nearly all Southern writers since the of them quondam regular officers, became the advisers and war of 1861—a movement of which the chief importance lieutenants of Don Carlos in the war which lasted more lay in the determination to portray local scenes, characters, or less from 1870 to 1876. Indeed, his long residence and historical episodes with accuracy instead of merely in England, his marriage with Miss Richards, and his imaginative romanticism, and to interest readers by fidelity prolonged absence from Spain had much shaken his and sympathy of portrayal of things well known to the devotion to his old cause and belief in its success. In authors. Other writings by Cable have dealt with various March 1875 Cabrera sprang upon Don Carlos a manifesto problems of race and politics in the Southern States during in which he called upon the adherents of the pretender and after the “ reconstruction period ” following the Civil to follow his own example and submit to the restored War • while in The Creoles of Louisiana (1884) he pre- monarchy of Alphonso XII., the son of Queen Isabella, sented a history of that folk from the time of its appear- who recognized the rank of captain-general and the ance as a social and military factor. His dispassionate title of count of Morelia conferred on Cabrera by the treatment of his theme in this volume and its predecessors first pretender. Only a very few insignificant _ Carlists ijave increasing offence to sensitive Creoles and their sym- followed Cabrera’s example, and. Don Carlos, issued a pathizers, and in 1886 Cable removed to Northampton, proclamation declaring him a traitor, and depriving him Massachusetts, thenceforward engaging in magazine writ- of all his honours and titles. Cabrera, who was ever ing and in public readings from his works. At one time afterwards regarded with contempt and execration by the he°also edited a magazine in Northampton, and afterwards Carlists, died in London on 24th May 1877. He did conducted the monthly Current Literature, published m not receive much attention from the majority of his New York. fellow-countrymen, who commonly said that his disloyalty Cabrera, Ramon (1806-1877), Cariist^ general, to his old cause had proved more harmful to him than beneficial to the new state of things. A pension which was born at Tortosa, province of Tarragona, Spam, on had been granted to his widow was renounced by her m 27th December 1806. As his family had in their gift 1899 in aid of the Spanish treasury, after the loss of the two chaplaincies, young Cabrera was sent to the semin- colonies. (A- K ary of Tortosa, where he made himself conspicuous as an unruly pupil, ever mixed up in disturbances Caceres, a frontier province in the west of Spam. and careless in his studies. After he had taken minor It is the second largest province in Spain, with an area o orders, the bishop refused to ordain him as a priest, 8014 square miles, divided into 13 administrative dhstnc telling him that the Church was not his vocation and and 222 communes. The population increased from that everything in him showed that he ought to be a 306,594 inhabitants m 1877 to 354,-.45 m 1897. soldier. Cabrera followed this advice and took part in province is badly off as regards roads, but the railway from Carlist conspiracies on the death of Ferdinand A II. The

the Philippine Islands, in about 11 N. and 123 E., about 10 miles from Iloilo. It has a healthful climate, and is well situated on the banks of the Tigum river, in the midst of a very fertile region, which produces large quantities of rice, as well as Indian corn, tobacco, sugar, coffee, and a great variety of fruits. The language is Yisayan. Population, 18,000.