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CAOERES—CADIZ 491 Madrid to Portugal runs through it. The climate is continuation of the railway through this hilly and untemperate except in summer, when the hot east winds neaithy tract was a work of great difficulty. prevail. In the north, the centre, and south there are some mountainous districts, the remainder being unCadenabbia, a village of the province of Como, dulating ground, with sparse vegetation, few forests, and Lombardy, Italy, on the west shore of Lake Como, nearly in many parts lacking water. The Tagus is the principal opposite Bellagio, a favourite spring and autumn resort, river. Caceres has but few industries, outside the fast- the place being situated in the loveliest part of the lake decaying silk industry at Plasenim, and the regular manu- and sheitered against the prevailing winds. Here is the factures of leather, cork, brandy, and coarse woollen stuffs. Villa Carlotta (1747), which contains the “Triumph of I he principal manufacture is phosphorite, most of which Alexander, one of the greatest creations of Thorgoes abroad. The province contains only 8 mines that are waldsen. actually worked 1 antimony, 3 iron, 1 argentiferous lead, and 3 phosphorite. There has been an increasing demand •Cap1ltal of Wexford county, Michigan, from abroad for wolgram and phosphate; 4500 tons of H.S.A., situated m the north-western part of the Lower phosphorite was extracted in 1898, the proportion pro- Peninsula, in a heavily forested region, on the Ann Arbor duced amounting to an average of 48 per cent., and in anti- ap, Sfo Grand Rapids and Indiana railways, at an altitude monium 55 per cent. As regards live stock, Caceres ranks Populatl0n (188 °)’ 2213 ^ (1890)> 4461; second only to Badajoz, containing in all 1,038,435 head : (1900) 5997 in 1897 there were 13,162 horses, 17,278 mules, 34,572 CG-dlZ, a maritime province in the extreme south asses, 74,333 cattle, 617,458 sheep, 191,264 goats, 90,368 ot bpam The highest mountains are the Cerro de San pigs. It is famed for its sheep and pigs, and exports wool, Cristobal and Sierra del Pinar. The mountainous districts hams, and the red sausage called “ embutidos.” To the are very picturesque, well wooded, and abound in lame culture of wheat 227,280 acres were devoted, 112,255 to game There are numerous rivers —the Guadalquivir, that of barley, 64,310 to rye, 89,025 to oats, 362 to maize, the Guadalete, the Majaceite, the Guadiaro, the Guad22,660 to chick-peas, 28,150 to vines, 72,480 to olives. arranque Gibraltar, the Salado, the Palmorus, and the Barbate. The climate is generally mild and temperate, C3.C©l"©Sj the capital of the above province, had a population of 14,816 in 1877, but only 13,665 in 1897. some parts of the coast only being unhealthy owing to The ancient part of the city is on a hill and surrounded a marshy soil. The main line of railway from Cadiz to with walls, and contrasts with the modern suburbs outside, Madrid runs through the centre of the province, with which have broad streets and new buildings. The old many branches, and new lines are being pushed forward. town has some fine churches and residences of noble I he province is divided into 13 administrative disfamilies, in good state of preservation. In the new part tricts and 42 communes, more than one-third of which populous towns. The population was are the town hall, courts of justice, episcopal palace, 430 15S in 1877 and 434,250 in 1897, on an area of schools, civil and foundling hospitals, and theatre. -.8^8 square miles. The industries are insignificant ^ Cachar, a district of British India, in the Surma compared with the importance of the natural products of Valley division of Assam. It occupies the upper basin of the soil, especially wines and olives. But the fisheries the Surma or Barak river, being bounded on three sides by furnish more than 5,500,000 lb of fish per annum, onehigh hills. The headquarters are at Silchar. The Cachar fifth part of which is salted and the rest consumed in hills rank for some purposes as a separate district, under i6 are 40 establishments for salting the fish the name of North Cachar. The area (excluding the hills) a!ld 4000 hands are thus employed. Naval yards exist is 2472 square miles; population (1881), 293,738; (1891), at Cadiz, Puerto Real, and San Fernando, the last being 367,542, showing an increase of 25 per cent.; average a State arsenal and dockyard. A considerable amount density, 149 persons per square mile. Classified according of salt is obtained by evaporation of sea-water in pans to religion, Hindus numbered 239,944; Mahommedans, near Cadiz, San Fernando, Puerto Real, and Santa Maria 112,846; Christians, 809, of whom 273 were Europeans • In 189, the live stock included 20,865 horses, 8298 mules' lull tribes, 13,899; “ others,” 44. In 1901 the popu- 10 612 s es 71 855 ’ f0 0 > . > ^ttle, 86,972 sheep, 68,398 goats ation of the entire district was 456,151, showing an in132 P^8- Wlieat occupied 231,077 acres, barley crease of 18 per cent. The land revenue is R.s.3,80,062,9 M 58,060 acres, rye 4275, oats 6587, maize 6005, chick-peas the incidence of assessment being nearly R.1 per acre - 32,4/2, vines 51,285, and olives 42,867. the number of police is 526; the number of boys at school (1896-97) was 7436, being 24-33 per cent, of r Cadiz, a seaport and the capital of the above the male population of school-going age; the number of P °™e, with a population of 65,028 in 1877 and 67,987 girls at school was 819, being 3 per cent.; the registered m 1897. The final severing of the connexion between Spam and Cuba and Porto Rico, in 1898, coming as it death-rate (1897) was 61 per thousand. Cachar is did after several years of colonial wars that had greatlv he most flourishing centre of tea cultivation in India. In 1897 the number of gardens was 191, with 61,190 depressed trade, was a severe blow for Cadiz as a comacres under tea, employing 126,194 persons (more than mercial. emporium. Of late years local capital and one-third of the total population), of whom 5578 had been enterprise have taken the direction of industries and imported by contract, and yielding 22,000,000 lb, or 406 lb shipbuilding, and numerous factories with their tall per acre. There are two timber-mills, producing tea- chimneys have sprung up in the suburbs. A private shipchests, &c., valued at Rs.33,000. The Assam-Bengal building yard with a capital of £400,000 was started railway traverses the district, and is being extended and obtained some government contracts, though much hampered by an agreement to draw its materials from native hrough North Cachar. A branch from Badarpur to rms m Catalonia and Biscay, in preference to foreign. oiichar (18 miles) was opened in November 1898. The district of North Cachar lies between the Jaintia I he beetroot- sugar industry is progressing in the neighrtills and the state of Manipur. The headquarters are at -Aood, as in the rest of Spain, through the operation of high import duties on foreign sugars. Tunny fish is rea caught in great quantities near the port—83,000 in 1898 9fno°n°' ^ ’. ^28 square miles; population (1891), - ,120, mostly hill tribes ; average density, 10 persons per and salted, to be sent chiefly to Italy. The cork square mile, being far the lowest in the province. The i industries exported 58,000,000 corks in 1898—14,000,000