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parison with an electro-dynamometer, the reading of which varies as the square of the current. But in either case it is necessary, in order to obtain the readings in amperes, to standardize the instrument for some particular value of the current by comparison with a voltameter, or in some equivalent manner. Whenever possible, ammeters and voltmeters are calibrated by comparison of their readings with those of a potentiometer, the calibration of which can be reduced to the comparison and adjustment of resistances, which is the most accurate of electrical measurements. The commoner kinds of mercury thermometers are generally calibrated and graduated by comparison with a standard. In many cases this is the most convenient, or even the only possible method. A mercury thermometer of limited scale reading between 250° and 400° C., with gas under high pressure to prevent the separation of the mercury column, cannot be calibrated on itself, or by comparison with a mercury standard possessing a fundamental interval, on account of difficulties of stem exposure and scale. The only practical method is to compare its readings every few degrees with those of a platinum thermometer under the conditions for which it is to be used. This method has the advantage of combining all the corrections for fundamental interval, <fcc., with the calibration correction in a single curve, except the correction for variation of zero which must be tested occasionally at some point of the scale. Authorities.—Mercurial Thermometers: Guillaume, Thcrmorndrie de Precision, Paris, 1889, gives several examples and references to original memoirs. The best examples of comparison and testing of standards are generally to be found in publications of Standards Offices, such as those of the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures at Paris. Dial Resistance-Box: Griffiths, Phil Trans. A, 1893. Platinum Thermometry Box: Barker and Chaffins, Phil. Trans. A, 1900. Thomson-Varley Potentiometer and Binary Scale Box: Callendar and Barnes, Phil. Trans. A, 1901. For general electrical methods, see text-books and articles Electric Current, &c. (h. L. C.) Calicut, & city of British India, in the Malabar district of Madras; on the coast, 6 miles N. of Beypur. In 1881 the population was 57,805; in 1891 it was 66,078; and in 1901 it was 75,510, showing an increase of 14 per cent. The municipal income in 1897-98 was Ks.74,320. As the administrative headquarters of the district and the western terminus of the Madras railway, Calicut maintains its historical importance. It is now the chief seaport on the Malabar coast, with a lighthouse. In 1897-98 the number of vessels that entered and cleared for foreign trade was 30, with an aggregate of 23,016 tons. The principal exports are coffee, timber, and cocoa-nut products. There are factories for coffee-cleaning, employing several hundred hands; for coir-pressing and timber-cutting ; and also tile-works. The town has a cotton-mill, with 18,424 spindles, employing 500 hands; an unaided native college, with 57 students in 1896-97 ; one missionary and two native high schools; six printingpresses, issuing two English and three vernacular newspapers; two reading-rooms and a club. A detachment of European troops is generally stationed here to overawe the fanatical Moplas. California, the first and principal Pacific coast State of the American Union, second of all the States in size, with a gross area of 158,360 square miles (of which 155,980 square miles are land surface), and in 1900 twenty-first in population. It is bounded on the K by Oregon, on the E. by Nevada and Arizona, on the S. by Mexico’ and on the W. by the Pacific. Pop'iilcit'ioTi,—The following thble shows the population and rate of increase at each census since California was admitted to the Union :—

Census Years.


Increase. Per cent. Number.

1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900

92,597 379,994 560,247 864,694 1,208,130 1,485,053

287,397 180,253 304,447 343,436 276,923

310-3 47-4 54-3 40-3 22-4

In 1900, 1,117,813, or 75’3 per cent., were native-born, 367,240 foreign-born, as against 841,821 native-born and 366,309 foreign-born in 1890. The foreign-born include 45,753 Chinese (a falling-off of 25,313 in the decade), and 1 o’,151 Japanese. There were 15,377 Indians, 11,045 persons of Negro descent. Of the total populaticm, 820,531 were males, 664,522 females, a gain of 35,979 more females than males in the decade. Density of population (1900), 9-5 per square mile. The death-rate in 1900, on the basis of the deaths reported to the U.S. census enumerators in that year, was about 15T. Of the total population 43-7 per cent, was urban (7.e., resident in cities of more than 8000 inhabitants), which much exceeds the average of the United States. The chief cities and their population in 1900 were :— Increase since 1S90. Population. City. 43,785 342,782 San Francisco . 52,084 102,479 Los Angeles 18,278 66,960 Oakland (suburb of S.F.) 2,896 29,282 Sacramento (State capital) 3,440 21,500 San Jose .... 1,541 17,700 San Diego 3,082 17,506 Stockton .... 5,299 16,464 Alameda . . ... 8,113 13,214 Berkeley (seat State Univ.) 1,652 12,470 Fresno .... There were (1900) 116 incorporated cities and towns, and 19 of them had populations of over 5000. Immense social and economic changes have taken place in California since 1876. Nearly all parts of the State have developed greatly, and particularly the seven counties south of the Tehachepi range, collectively and specifically known as “Southern California.” The determining factor in the inequality of immigration was the first railway competition in California. The completion of a new transcontinental line to Southern California in 1885, and a startling railway “ rate-war ” soon afterwards, precipitated an immigration which in numbers, in distance travelled, and in average wealth, was probably unparalleled in history. In 1886 began an extraordinary “Land Boom” in Southern California, a wild speculation which was initiated almost entirely by the newcomers. The bubble burst in 1888, fortunately with little disaster, and substantial development has since been continuous. The special attractiveness of orange-growing also had much to do with the disproportionate growth of the southern end of the State; but development has extended over nearly the whole 900 miles of California north and south. Education.—In 1890 the illiteracy of California was 7‘7 per cent, as against 13‘3 per cent, for the whole Union. The recent migration has probably reduced this illiteracy considerably, as it is almost wholly of educated people. In 1900, 6 2 per cent, o the total males of voting age, and 2'4 per cent, of the native-born males of voting age, were unable to write. California has one college student to every 419 of total population. the btate University (at Berkeley) had in 1900 resources of over 8/,250,000, 1895 undergraduates (exceeded only by Harvard University), instructors, and a total enrolment of 3226. Plans for a harmonious scheme of new buildings to cost $10,000,000 were von in a competition open to the world by M. Benard of Pans. . university is liberally endowed by private benefactions, ana is supported by a State tax of two cents on each $100 of valuation. The Leland Stanford Jr. University was founded by Governor