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CALIFORNIA 503 Stanford and Ins wife, and was opened in 1891. It lias a total markets, and is not grown “commercially” anywhere except in endowment of over $26,000,000, which is said to be the largest in California. I here are now (nearly all in the seven southern the world. Its total enrolment is over 1500. Both universities counties) 4,120,4/0 orange and 1,432,829 lemon trees planted, or are co-educational, and the female attendance is approximately ^5 o40 acres. The shipments for 1900 were 18,400 carloads, or one-third of the total. There were in 1900, 5 State normal schools, 6,624,000 boxes, worth $18,000,000. The beauty of the groves, 120 high schools, 7119 kindergarten, primary, and grammar the fact that the crop is actually continuous (shipments being schools, with a total of 7706 teachers, 272,352 enrolled scholars, made every month in the year), and exceptional cases of fabulous and total value of school property $19,135,722. The total expen- profit (not infrequently up to $1000 per acre, which is at least diture for public schools in 1900 was $6,195,000. According to four times the average for competent growers), made the orange the U.S. census of 1900, the number of persons of school age (5 to almost as epidemic a fever as gold had been. By reason of the 20 years inclusive) was 420,081. co-operative effort demanded for the large problems of irrigation, Charitable and Reform Institutions.—California has two State packing, and marketing, the orange has done far more for the 2>risons, two industrial reform schools, five asylums for the insane permanent development of the State than gold or other mining& (with, in 1897, 4814 inmates, of whom 62 per cent, were of foreign ever did. birth), and a large number of public and private hospitals, Live stock numbered in 1900 :— asylums, orphanages, libraries, and associations and fraternities Horses . 321,729 of all sorts. It is one of the few States in the Union which have Mules 48,682 an incorporated and active association to conserve historic landMilch cows 308,872 marks. Other cattle 604,881 Religion.—In 1890 the number of church edifices was 1505, Sheep . . 2,001,501 with a seating capacity of 422,609 ; value of church property, Swine (1899) 374,141 nearly $12,000,000 ; number of communicants, 280,619. Of these, . Mineral , . Products. -California is the second State in the Union 156,846 were Roman Catholics, about 37,000 Methodists, about in production of gold, having been exceeded in recent years by 19,000 Presbyterians, and Baptists and Congregationalists between Colorado. It has, however, produced in gold since 1848 (to 1st 11,000 and 12,000 each. The totals, however, greatly changed January 1900) $1,409,849,068—or more than all the rest of North in the last decade of the 19th century. Agriculture.—For thirty years after the American occupation America since 1492. California s capital and enterprise also gold and silver mining was the only great industry. Agriculture developed the silver ‘ Bonanzas of Nevada, which produced came into prominence in wheat-raising on ranches of from 50,000 over $300,000,000 in twenty years. It produces about two-fifths to several hundred thousand acres in extent. A few of these, of the quicksilver of the world. Since 1895 it has become a great particularly in the Sacramento - San Joaquin valley, are still producer of crude petroleum, and in 1900 ranked as fourth in worked ; but the majority of the old Spanish land grants have America. Seventeen counties, in a line over 600 miles north and been subdivided into small farms, and the characteristic farming south, produce oil; in July 1900 there were 1590 producing wells of California is now diversified, intensive, and on holdings of 20 and 470 prospect wells, and these figures were increasing daily. acres and less. Horticulture is now the leading industry, and The production more than doubled in five years, and in 1899 along a line about 500 miles north and south. Deciduous fruits was 2,677,875 barrels. The high cost of coal makes this oil are raised on a large scale from Humboldt county south to the deposit of peculiar value. Crude oil is already generally used for Mexican line ; the culture of citrus fruits preponderates in the fuel in manufactures and even on railway locomotives. The total five most southerly counties. Southern California is much more mineral output of the State for 1899 was Gold .... arid than the northern counties. Thousands of wells, artesian $15,336,031 Copper and other, have been sunk, and scores of horizontal tunnels 3,990,534 Petroleum . driven. In 1899 alone, over 30,000 “Miners’ inches,” sufficient 2,660,793 Quicksilver to irrigate 300,000 acres, were “developed ” in the seven southern 1,405,045 Borax counties. Some of the largest storage dams and irrigating canals 1,139,882 Lime, limestone, cement in the world are in California. The principal agricultural pro523,760 Silver .... ducts in 1900 were :— 504,012 Asphalt and bituminous rock Carloads. 424,227 Oranges and lemons Coal .... 18,400 $18,000,000 420,109 Fresh tree fruit Mineral waters . 9,695 9,695,000 406,691 Walnuts Soda . 5581 250,000 1,098,000 Almonds Salt .... 232/ 149,588 Grapes Other mineral products 2,102,788 5,578 3,578,400 Raisins/ Wines, sweet and dry 5,858,000 Total 9,313,460 Brandies 2,214,428 Gold production since 1875 has averaged from fifteen to sixteen Prunes, dried. 5,'711 3,426,800 millions a year. The total mineral output is now about 35 per Other cured fruits . 3,425 6,850,000 cent, greater than it was in 1875. Canned fruits and vegetables 6,575,000 Lumber -Proems.—California is one of the leading States in Olive oil ... 1,170,871 lumber products. Its sequoia, redwood, pine, and fir forests are Fresh vegetables shipped east 3,405 1,375,000 the densest in “merchantable lumber” in the world. The redHops 1,091,500 woods cover about 2000 square miles. There is now a strong Beans 2,076 1,660,600 movement in favour of preserving the redwood forests and the Beet sugar 3,244,500 groves of Big Trees {Sequoia gigantea). A Bill to purchase Honey . 141 255,000 and protect one of the largest and noblest redwood forests, that Wheat . 21,000,000 oi the Big Basin, has become a State law. The average annual Barley . 8,460,000 lumber cut is as follows: redwood, 272,283,000 feet B.M. • Oats 1,020,000 ell 0 211, 15 000 d0, SUgar ine 50 73 Corn oi o flT^e’ido. ’ do. ; Pcedar, > 4,882,000 » 6,000 do. 1,080,000 21,963,000

ifir, ’20,508,000

do. ; : spruce,’ with a Alfalfa and other hay 24,444,891 total value of $14,537,000. Potatoes 1,105,815 Transportation.—The mileage of railroads was (1900) 5532 Dairy products 12,830,797 miles ; ten times as great as in 1876. This is practically all in Wool 2,266,560 the hands of the Southern Pacific railway (controlled by the ^ion Pacific) and the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa railway, Total (not including many minor products) $138,301,162 each having a transcontinental system of over 7000 miles. The or over $52,000,000 in excess of the greatest annual gold output. long, narrow State is traversed longitudinally by their trunk In 1875 these products, except grain, hay, and wool, were lines (three running from Los Angeles to San Francisco, about practically nil, and the State led only in gold and sheep. Wheat 500 miles), with numerous feeders, particularly in the southern production has increased little since 1880, barley has about counties. There are also many lines of steamships. The principal doubled, hay nearly trebled, sheep have declined over 50 per port is San Francisco, with its magnificent harbour. San Diego, cent., as lands have become more valuable under diversified San Pedro, Port Los Angeles, and Eureka have fair harbours and farming. The largest single influence of recent growth has been considerable commerce. The commerce of San Francisco amounts the citrus industry. In 1862 there were 25,000 orange-trees, all to between eighty and ninety million dollars annually, about seedlings. In 1873 two seedless orange-trees from Brazil were equally divided between exports and imports. sent to Riverside from the Department of Agriculture, and from Manufactures.—Manufactures have greatly increased since the these two trees the modern industry has sprung. Millions of census of 1890. In this year there were 7923 establishments, with trees from their buds are now bearing a seedless orange known as $146,797,102 capital; 83,642 employees, whose aggregate annual the “ Washington navel,” which has taken first rank in American wages were $51,538,780

total value of products, $213,403,996.