CAMBUSLANG — CAMERA OBSCURA The next table shows the number of live stock at the periods the master minds of the period between the 13th and 1 /th named :— centuries, in which the foundations of modern science were laid. Among them were the following: Total Other and Year. Cows Heifers. Cattle. Cattle. Horses. Sheep. Roger Bacon, about 1260 j John Beckham V-Optical problems. 47,507 26,959 321,993 43,687 1875 Vitellio J „ , 1880 14,105 32,385 46,490 29,387 309,250 39,459 Leon Baptista Alberti, the architect, 1437. Show-box. 1885 15,276 35,299 50,575 27,476 274,493 44,858 Leonardo da Vinci, end of 15th, or early in 16th century. 1890 16,568 35,975 52,543 28,759 259,426 55,511 Don Papnutius, or Panuce, before 1521. 1895 15,519 32,618 48,137 31,055 213,482 56,191 Franciscus Maurolycus, 1522. Optics. 1899 17,928 38,195 56,123 31,505 214,422 48,472 Erasmus Reinhold, 1540 1 for observing eclipses. Authorities.—S.' H. Miller and S. B. J. Skertchly. The Gemma Fnsius, 1544 J Fenland. Wisbech, 1878.—F. E. C. Bead. Handbook to the Jerome Cardan, 1550. Camera obscura with speculum. Geology of Cambridgeshire. Cambridge, 1897.—A. Kingston. Last Giov. Batt. Porta, 1558. Camera without lens and with speculum. Anglia and the Great Civil War. London, 189/.—C. C. Babing- Daniele Barbaro, 1568. Camera with lens as an aid for drawing. ton. Ancient Cambridgeshire. Cambridge, 1883.—R. Bowes. Egnatio Danti, 1573. Reflecting mirror for erecting images. Catalogue of Books printed at or relating to Cambridge. Cam- Ferderic Risner, before 1580. For copying maps. Giov. Batt. Benedetti, 1585. Camera obscura with lens. bridge, 1891, et scqq. (j. T. Be.) Giov. Batt. Porta, 1589. Camera obscura with lens. Cambusiang, a town of IST.W. Lanarkshire, Scot- Johann Kepler, 1600. Optical theory and solar observations. land, near the Clyde, about 5 miles S.E. of Glasgow by Johann Fabricius, 1611. Observations of sun-spots. rail, inhabited for the most part by Glasgow business men. Christopher Scheiner, 1611-30. Helioscope for solar observations. Gaspar Schott, 1657. Optical theory. There are 13 coal-mines in the vicinity, a turkey-red dyeing Johann Zahn, 1685. Box forms of camera and optics. establishment, and the largest steel works in the kingdom. That Roger Bacon was acquainted with the principle of Recent structures are United Free churches, an institute and library, a public hall, a new bridge over the Clyde, the camera obscura is shown by his solutions of the optical and an Established church hall. Electric light is supplied. problems relating to the passage of light through small Population (1881), 5538; (1891), 8323; (1901), 20,212. round or multiangular apertures given in his Perspectiva, which are better and clearer than Beckham’s or Vitellio’s, Camden, a city and port of entry of New Jersey, but there is nothing to be found in his published writings U.S.A., and capital of Camden county, situated in 39° 57' to show clearly that he had constructed any instrument N. lat. and 75° 07' W. long., on the Delaware, opposite for viewing outside objects on that principle, though it Philadelphia, of which it is a suburb. It is entered by seems possible from a passage of the Perspectiva, upon three railways—the Pennsylvania, the Atlantic City, and which Friend, in his History of Physick, gives him the the West Jersey and Seashore. It has extensive manu- credit of the invention. The arrangement of concave and factures, in which there was invested, in 1890, a capital plane mirrors, by which the realistic images of objects of $15,244,500, employing 10,362 persons, with an out- inside the house or in the street could be rendered visible, put valued at $21,145,637. The principal manufactures though intangible, there alluded to, may apply to a camera were iron and steel, shipbuilding, woollen and worsted on Cardan’s principle, or to a method of aerial projection goods, oil - cloth, and boots and shoes. In 1900 the by means of concave mirrors with which Bacon was quite assessed valuation of property, real and personal, was familiar, and indeed was known long before his time. $27 607,810. The net debt was $2,453,475, and the There is no clear evidence that Alberti invented or rate’ of taxation $21.40 per $1000. Population (1880), described the camera obscura, but it appears from an 41,659 ; (1890), 58,313 ; (1900), 75,935, of whom 10,097 extract from an anonymous biography of him, quoted by were foreign-born, and 5576 were negroes. The death- Yasari, that he constructed little boxes in which painted rate in 1900 was 16-3. pictures were viewed through a small hole with great Camera Obscura.—The invention of this verisimilitude. He had two kinds, one for use at night, instrument has generally been ascribed, as in the ninth showing the moon and bright stars, and the other for day edition of this work, to the famous Neapolitan savant of scenes. The account is vague, and seems to refer more to the 16th century, Giovanni Battista della Porta, but, as a a magic lantern or show-box than to the camera obscura matter of fact, the principle of the simple camera obscura though some forms of the latter can be used as showwas well known and it was in practical use long before his boxes (Harris’s Optics). Kircher mentions some arrangetime. He was anticipated in the discoveries he claimed ment of this kind made by an Albertus, whom he disto have made regarding it, and all he seems really to have tinguishes from Albertus Magnus. Libri, in the history done was to popularize it. The increasing importance of of the invention of the camera obscura in Italy, given in the camera obscura as a photographic instrument makes it his Histoire des sciences mathematiques en Italie, iv. 303, desirable to bring together what is. known of its early makes no mention of Alberti, but he draws attention to history, which is far more extensive than is usually an unpublished MS. of Leonardo da V inci, which was realized. In southern climes, where during the summer first brought to light by Venturi, in his Essai sur les^ heat it is usual to close the rooms from the glare of the ouvrages physico-mathematiques de Leonardo da Vinci sunshine outside, we may often see depicted on the walls (Paris, 1797), in which the appearance of the reversed vivid inverted images of outside objects formed by the images of outside objects on a piece of paper held in front light reflected from them passing through chinks, or small of a small hole in a darkened room is quite clearly described openings, in the shutters. We do not, however, find many and explained, with a diagram, as well as its application allusions to this appearance in the ancient writers, but the to illustrate the phenomena of vision. This is probably the correlated problem of the image of the sun passing earliest distinct account of the camera obscura, though through a quadrilateral aperture always appearing round Leonardo does not mention it as an invention of his own. is explained by Aristotle (Probl. sect. xv. cap. 5), and The first published account, however, appears, as Libri has he further describes the appearance of the eclipsed sun or shown, in a translation, with commentary, of the^ircUmoon in the same manner through the interstices of foliage tecture of Vitruvius, published at Como, in 1521, by or lattice-work. These problems regarding the passage of C. Csesariano, in which he mentions an experiment made light through small apertures and their practical application by a Benedictine monk and architect, Don Panuce, of the in the camera obscura, occupied the attention of many of same kind as Leonardo’s, but without the demonstration.