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AYRANCHES—AYALA 35 of the Portishead Hills. Both docks are connected with appear as the heroine of his comedy, “ La primera Dama,” Bristol by rail, and so with the Midland and Great Western and the innovation, if it scandalized some of his townsrailway systems. In February 1901 the Imperial Direct men, permitted him to develop his talent more freely. In West India Mail Service began running fortnightly vessels his twentieth year he matriculated at the university of between Bristol and Jamaica, carrying passengers, and Seville; but it is not certain whether he joined the faculty bringing West Indian fruit (chiefly bananas) to England. of law or that of philosophy, and his career as a student This led in March 1902 to the opening of a still was undistinguished. In Seville he made acquaintance larger dock (King Edward VII. Dock) at Avonmouth, with Garcia Gutierrez, who is reported to have encouraged designed to accommodate vessels of 20,000 tons, equipped his dramatic ambitions and to have given him the benefit with the newest American machinery for dealing with of his own experience as a playwright. Early in 1850 heavy freight, with colossal grain elevators on the trans- Ayala removed his name from the university books, and atlantic model, and with cold storage accommodation of the settled in Madrid with the purpose of becoming a profesmost scientific description, the estimated cost being two sional dramatist. Though he had no friends and no millions sterling. The Avon is noted, like the Severn, for its influence, he speedily found an opening. A four-act play high tides, the rise generally varying from 24 to nearly 40 in verse, “ Un Hombre de Estado,” was accepted by the feet even at Bristol. (2) The Upper Avon, nearly 100 miles managers of the Teatro Espaiiol, was given on 25th long, rising in the west of Northamptonshire near Naseby, January 1851, and proved a very remarkable success. flowing through Warwickshire and across the southern Henceforward Ayala’s position and popularity were secure. extremity of Worcestershire, and entering the Severn im- Within a twelvemonth he became more widely known by mediately below Tewkesbury. It is navigable for small his Castigo y Perdbn,” and by a more humorous effort, craft up to a point about 5 miles above Evesham. (3) The Los dos Guzmanes ”; and shortly afterwards he was East Avon, rising in the middle of Wiltshire, flowing south appointed by the Moderado Government to a post in the through Amesbury and Salisbury and along the western Home Office, which he lost in 1854 on the accession to power border of the New Forest, and eventually entering the of the Liberal party. In 1854 he produced “ Rioja,” perhaps English Channel below Christchurch in Dorsetshire. Its the most admired and the most admirable of all his works, length is about 50 miles, and it is not navigable. and from 1854 to 1856 he took an active part in the Avranches, chief town of arrondissement, depart- political campaign carried on in the journal El Padre ment of Manche, France, 34 miles S.W. of St Lo by Cohos. A zarzuela, entitled “ Guerra 4 muerte,” for which rail. There are a communal college, botanic gardens, and Emilio Arrieta composed the music, belongs to 1855, and to a library, the last containing valuable manuscripts. The the same collaboration is due “ El Agente de Matrimonies. ” principal church, that of Notre Dame des Champs, has At about this date Ayala passed over from the Moderate been rebuilt. Trade is now carried on in cider, cattle, to the Progressive party, and this political manoeuvre had butter, flowers, and fruit, and there are salmon and other its effect upon the fate of his plays. The performances of “Los Comuneros” were attended by members of both fisheries. Population (1881), 7677; (1901), 7384. political parties; the utterances of the different characters Awaji, an island belonging to Japan, situated at the were taken to represent the author’s personal opinions, and •eastern entrance of the Inland Sea, having a circumference every speech which could be wrenched into connexion with of 94 miles, an area of 218 square miles, and a population cm rent politics was applauded by one half of the house of 188,908. It is celebrated for its exquisite scenery, and and derided by the other half. A zarzuela, named “ El also for the fact that it is traditionally reputed to have Conde de Castralla,” was given amid much uproar on been the first of the Japanese islands created by the deities 20th February 1856, and, as the piece seemed likely to Izanagi and Izanami. The loftiest peak is Yuruuba-yama cause serious disorder in the theatre, it was suppressed by (1998 feet), the most picturesque Sen-zan (1519 feet). the Government after the third performance. Ayala’s rupture with the Moderates was now complete, and in Awellimiden. See Sahara. 1857, through the interest of O’Donnell, he was elected as Axim. See Gold Coast. Liberal deputy for Badajoz. His political changes are Axminster, a market-town and railway station in difficult to follow, or to explain, and they have been the Honiton parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, unsparingly censured. So far as can be judged, Ayala had 24 miles E. by N. of Exeter. There are tooth- and nail- no strong political views, and drifted with the current of brush works and an iron foundry. A cottage hospital has the moment. He took part in the revolution of 1868, been opened. Area of parish, 6833 acres. Population wrote the “Manifesto of Cadiz,” took office as colonial P (1881), 2872; (1901), 2906. minister, favoured the candidature of the due de MontAxum. See Abyssinia. pensier, resigned in 1871, returned to his early Conservative principles, and was a member of Alfonso XII.’s first Ayacucho, an interior department of central Peru. It has an area of 18,185 square miles, and its population Cabinet. Meanwhile, however divided in opinion as was officially estimated at 302,469 in 1896. It contains to his political conduct, his countrymen were practically six provinces — Huanta, La Mar, Ayacucho, Cangallo, unanimous in admiring his dramatic work; and his Lucanas, and Parina-cochas. The capital, Ayacucho, has reputation, if it gained little by “El nuevo Don Juan,” was greatly increased by “El Tanto por Ciento” and a population of 20,000. “El Tejado de Yidrio.” His last play, “Consuelo,” was given on 30th March 1878. Ayala was nominated to the ¥ Herrera, Adelarcfo Lrfpez ae (18L8-1879), Spanish writer and politician, was born at Guadalcanal on 1st May 1828, and at a very early dignified post of president of Congress shortly before his age began writing for the theatre of his native town. The death, which occurred unexpectedly on 30th January 1879. titles of these juvenile performances, which were played by The best, of his lyrical work, excellent for finish and intense sincerity, is his “ Epistola ” to Emilio Arrieta, amateurs, were “Saiga por donde saliere,” “Me voy d and, had he chosen to dedicate himself to lyric poetry, he Sevilla,” and “La Corona y el Puiial.” As travelling might possibly have ranked with the best of Spain’s modern companies never visited Guadalcanal, and as ladies took singers; as it is, he is a very considerable poet who affects no part in the representations, these three plays were wntten for men only. Ayala persuaded his sister to the dramatic form. In his later writings he deals with modern society, its vices, ideals, and perils; yet in many