AYLESBURY — AYRSHIRE birth-rate and marriage-rate were above and the death-rate essentials he is a manifest disciple of Calderon. He has wasThe below those of Scotland. The following table gives the birththe familiar Calderonian limitations: the substitution of rate, death-rate, and marriage-rate per thousand of the population types for characters, of eloquence for vital dialogue. Nor for a series of years :— can he equal the sublime lyrism of his model; but he is 1880. 1SS1-90. 1890. 1891-98. 1899. little inferior in poetic conception, in dignified idealization, and in picturesque imagery. And it may be fairly claimed 35-90 34-12 32-32 33-31 33-63 Birth-rate . 20-41 18-70 18-78 18-05 18-94 Death-rate . for him that in “ El Tejado de Vidrio ” and “ El Tanto por 6-73 6-82 7-39 7-18 7-91 Marriage-rate Ciento ” he displays a very exceptional combination of satiric intention with romantic inspiration. By these plays, and 1891 there were 1827 Gaelic-speaking persons in the county, by “Rioja” and “Consuelo,” he is entitled to be judged. of In whom 14 spoke Gaelic only, and 154 foreigners. Valuation in They will at least ensure for him an honourable place in the 1889-90, £1,059,056 ; 1899-1900, £1,229,844. history of the modern Spanish theatre. (j. f.-k.) Constitution and Government.—The county returns two members to parliament, who represent North and South Ayrshire respecAylesbury, a market town in the Aylesbury par- tively. Ayr, the county town (28,624 inhabitants in 1901), and^ liamentary division (since 1885) of Buckinghamshire, Irvine (9603) are royal burghs and belong to the Ayr group of England, 48 miles N.W. of London by rail. Modern parliamentary burghs, and Kilmarnock (34,161) is a parliamentary of the Kilmarnock group. Police burghs are : Ardrossan erections are a church, a clergy house, two Methodist burgh (5933), Cumnock (3087), Darvel (3070), Galston (4876), Girvan chapels, a literary institute, a club for forking men, and (4019), Kilwinning (4439), Largs (3243), Maybole (5892), Newpublic swimming baths. An improved drainage system milns (4466), Saltcoats (8121), Stewarton (2858), Troon (4696). has cost £25,000. There are printing works and works for Other towns are: Beith (7523), Catrine (2340), Dairy (5314), (5246), Kilbirnie (7207), Muirkirk (5670), Stevenston condensing milk, but the manufacture of pillow-lace is Hurlford (6797). Under the county council 32 special water districts have almost extinct. Area of parish (an urban district), 3302 been formed, 26 drainage districts, and 19 lighting and scavenging acres. Population (1881), 7795; (1901), 9244. districts. There are 44 civil parishes, which are divided among the three combinations of Kyle (in the centre), Cunningham (in Ayr, a royal and parliamentary burgh (Ayr group) the N.), and Garrick (in the S.), with poorhouses at Ayr, Irvine, and the county town of Ayrshire, a seaport and manu- and Maybole; the number of paupers and dependants in September' facturing town, situated at the influx of the Ayr river 1899 was 5408. The county forms a sheriffdom, and there are sheriffs-substitute at Ayr and Kilmarnock, who sit also into the bay of the same name, 404 miles S.W. by S. of resident at Irvine, Beith, Cumnock, and Girvan. Glasgow by rail. The New Bridge was injured by floods Education.—Fifty-one school boards manage 149 schools, which in 1877, and rebuilt in 1879. Another bridge was erected had in 1898-99 an average attendance of 37,956, and there are in 1898, and a footbridge in 1900. A town hall and 28 voluntary schools in the county, of which 17 are Roman and one Episcopal, with an average attendance of 39,000. corporation offices, built in 1883, were destroyed by fire Catholic There are secondary schools at Ayr, Irvine, Kilmarnock, and^ in 1897. Recent structures are two Established, Trinity Beith, and Kilmarnock Dairy School is now a constituent part ot Episcopal (rebuilt), and United Free churches, new rail- the West of Scotland Agricultural College established in 1899. way station, free library, cattle market, post office, and Six other board schools earned grants in 1898 for giving higher For the year ending March 1899 the county council academy (rebuilt). A statue of Burns was erected in 1891. education. expended £5176 on secondary and technical education, including The harbour has been improved at a cost of £153,500. £2317 contributed by the county council and some of the burgh An esplanade leading from the harbour has been made, councils from the “residue” grant; contributions were made to and another was laid out on the north side in 1898. the Glasgow and West of Scotland Technical College and the Dairy School, and the technical classes subsidized at Vessels on the port register numbered 22 of 3689 tons at Kilmarnock various local centres embraced instruction in agriculture, mining, the end of 1898, and the traffic, mostly coasting, was: engineering, plumbing, gardening, and various science and art 1898, entered 2467 vessels of 399,233 tons, cleared 2451 subjects. Agriculture.—The fertility of the soil has been enormously vessels of 386,634 tons. Exports were valued at £13,397 developed by high farming. Potato-growing is an important in 1888, and £14,536 in 1898 ; imports at £79,668 in 1888, industry ; the coast lands supply the early markets of Scotland and £207,495 in 1898. The academy is under the School and the north of England, and the potato acreage actually Board. Population (1881), 20,812; (1901), 28,624. exceeded that under turnips in 1898. There is a very, large production of milk, butter, and cheese. A fair quantity ot Ayrshire, a maritime county of S.W. Scotland, wheat is grown—about 2000 acres on an average—and the barley bounded on the N. by Renfrewshire, on the N.E. by Ren- acreage is rather less. Oats form the bulk ot the corn crop. The frew and Lanark shires, on the E. by Lanark and Dumfries following table gives the principal acreages at intervals of five shires, on the S.E. by Kircudbrightshire, on the S. by years from 1880 :— Wigtownshire, and on the W. by the Irish Sea and the PermaArea Green Corn nent Fallow. Clover. Year. under Firth of Clyde. Crops. Crops. Pasture. Crops. Area and Population.—w 1891 the Renfrewshire portions of the parishes of Beith and Dunlop (543 and 1101 acres respectively) 99,055 138,510 1880 317,387 59,061 19,049 were transferred to the county of Ayr. According to the latest offi1885 317,484 57,645 16,439 123,712 119,532 cial estimate, the area ofthe county (foreshore excluded) is 730,947 1890 319,856 52,493 17,114 138,511 111,184 97,986 156,779 acres, or 1142 square miles. The population was in 1881, 217,519 ; 1895 321,902 49,343 17,472 in 1891, 226,283, or, on the above area, 226,386, of whom 111,037 1899 321,172 49,232 16,503 102,644 152,503 were males and 115,349 females ; in 1901, 254,436, an increase of 28,050. On the old area, taking land only (722,229 acres, or The following table gives particulars of the live stock during ll^S'S square miles), the number of persons to the square mile in 1891 was 201, and the number of acres to the person 3’2. In the same years :— the registration county the increase of population between 1881 Cows or Total Total and 1891 was 4 per cent. Between 1881 and 1891 the excess of Pigs. Sheep. Heifers in Year. Horses. Cattle. Milk or Calf. births over deaths was 34,250, and the increase of the resident population 8779. The following table gives particulars of births, 12,164 362,190 88,932 43,558 deaths, and marriages in 1880, 1890, and 1899 :— 8787 1880 14,566 335,050 46,126 95,095 8585 1885 Percentage of 16,285 356,385 49,718 100,943 8931 1890 Year. Deaths. Marriages. Births. Illegitimate 16,768 361,057 50,373 98,842 9974 Births. 1895 13,920 386,098 51,031 101,885 9329 1899 7-8 7766 1456 1880 4414 7-03 7299 1670 1890 4241 The percentage of cultivated area was 43'8 in 1898. The 5-6 1843 1899 4404 acreage under wood in 1895 was 25,725. Farms are, as a rule.